1

What are the laws pertaining to the offspring of consecrated animals? The offspring of an animal consecrated as a peace-offering and the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a peace-offering was transferred are like peace-offerings and they should be treated like peace-offerings in all respects. Similarly, the offspring of an animal consecrated as a thanksgiving-offering and the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a thanksgiving-offering was transferred should be sacrificed like a thanksgiving-offering, except that they do not require bread. For bread is brought only for a thanksgiving-offering itself. This is derived from Leviticus 7:12 which states: "He shall offer on the slaughtering of the thanksgiving-offering...." Implied is on its slaughtering, and not on the slaughtering of its offspring or on that of an animal to which its holiness was transferred, as we explained.

To what does the above apply? To the offspring themselves. But the offspring of the offspring should not be sacrificed. From his conduct, it is obvious that he is delaying their offering to raise herds from them. Hence, he is penalized and should not offer them.

א

כֵּיצַד דִּין וַלְדוֹת הַקָּדָשִׁים. וְלַד שְׁלָמִים וּוְלַד תְּמוּרַת שְׁלָמִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִּשְׁלָמִים וְהֵן עַצְמָן כִּשְׁלָמִים לְכָל דָּבָר. וְכֵן וְלַד הַתּוֹדָה וּוְלַד תְּמוּרָתָהּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִקָּרְבוּ כְּתוֹדָה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָן טְעוּנִין לֶחֶם שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין לֶחֶם אֶלָּא עִם הַתּוֹדָה עַצְמָהּ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יב) "עַל זֶבַח הַתּוֹדָה" עָלָיו וְלֹא עַל וְלָדָהּ וְלֹא עַל תְּמוּרָתָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בַּוְּלָדוֹת עַצְמָן אֲבָל וַלְדֵי וְלָדוֹת אֵינָן קְרֵבִין. שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ מַעֲשָׂיו נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא מַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָן לְגַדֵּל מֵהֶן עֲדָרִים עֲדָרִים וּלְפִיכָךְ קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ וְלֹא יַקְרִיבֵם:

2

The offspring of a sin-offering, and, needless to say, the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a sin offering was transferred, should be consigned to death.

ב

וְלַד הַחַטָּאת יָמוּת וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר וְלַד תְּמוּרָתָהּ:

3

If a person slaughters an animal offered as a sin-offering and discovers that it was carrying a four-month old fetus that was alive, it may be eaten like the meat of the sin-offering. For the offspring of consecrated animals while they are in their mother's womb are like the consecrated animals themselves.

ג

הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַחַטָּאת וּמָצָא בָּהּ בֶּן אַרְבָּעָה חַי הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶאֱכֶלֶת כִּבְשַׂר הַחַטָּאת. שֶׁוַּלְדֵי הַקָּדָשִׁים בִּמְעֵי אִמָּן הֵם קְדוֹשִׁים:

4

The offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a guilt-offering was transferred, the offspring of its offspring, and so too until the end of time should be allowed to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Then they should be sold and the proceeds used to purchase freewill offerings. If the animal to which the holiness of the guilt-offering was transferred gave birth to a male after the guilt-offering is sacrificed, the offspring itself should be sacrificed as a burnt-offering.If one set aside a female animal as a guilt-offering and it gave birth, it and its offspring should be allowed to pasture until they become blemished. Then they should be sold and the person's guilt-offering purchased with the proceeds of the sale. If he already sacrificed his guilt-offering, the proceeds of their sale should be used to purchase freewill offerings.

ד

וְלַד תְּמוּרַת הָאָשָׁם וּוְלַד וְלָדָהּ עַד סוֹף הָעוֹלָם יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶם מוּם וְיִמָּכְרוּ וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לִנְדָבָה. וְאִם יָלְדָה זָכָר אַחַר שֶׁהִקְרִיב אֲשָׁמוֹ הַוָּלָד עַצְמוֹ יִקָּרֵב עוֹלָה. הִפְרִישׁ נְקֵבָה לַאֲשָׁמוֹ וְיָלְדָה תִּרְעֶה הִיא וּבְנָהּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיִמָּכְרוּ וְיָבִיא בִּדְמֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲשָׁמוֹ. וְאִם כְּבָר הִקְרִיב אֲשָׁמוֹ יִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לִנְדָבָה:

5

The male offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a burnt-offering was transferred, the offspring of its offspring, and so too until the end of time are considered as burnt-offerings and should themselves be offered as burnt-offerings.

If one set aside a female as a burnt-offering and it gave birth, even though it gave birth to a male, the offspring should be allowed to pasture until it contracts a disqualifying blemish and then the proceeds of the sale should be used to bring a burnt-offering.

We already explained in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot that whenever we use the expression "the proceeds of the sale should be used to purchase freewill offerings" the intent is that the money should be placed in the chests that existed in the Temple whose number we explained in Hilchot Shekalim. The court sacrifices freewill burnt-offerings with that money. The accompanying offeringsare brought from communal funds and they do not require semichah. Whenever, by contrast, we use the expression "it itself should be offered as a burnt-offering" or "he should bring a burnt-offering with the proceeds," the sacrifice requires semichah and the owner must bring the accompanying offerings.

ה

וְלַד תְּמוּרַת הָעוֹלָה וּוְלַד וְלָדָהּ עַד סוֹף הָעוֹלָם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּעוֹלָה וְהֵן עַצְמָן יִקָּרְבוּ עוֹלָה. הִפְרִישׁ נְקֵבָה לְעוֹלָתוֹ וְיָלְדָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּלְדָה זָכָר יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיָבִיא בְּדָמָיו עוֹלָה. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִין יִפְּלוּ לִנְדָבָה הוּא שֶׁיִּתֵּן הַמָּעוֹת בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּשְׁקָלִים כַּמָּה הֵם. וּבֵית דִּין מַקְרִיבִין בְּאוֹתָן הַמָּעוֹת עוֹלוֹת נְדָבָה וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר וְאֵינָן טְעוּנוֹת סְמִיכָה. אֲבָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הוּא עַצְמוֹ יִקְרַב עוֹלָה אוֹ יָבִיא בְּדָמָיו עוֹלָה. הֲרֵי זוֹ טְעוּנָה סְמִיכָה וּנְסָכֶיהָ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ:

6

The offspring born to an animal selected as a tithe offering, the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a tithe offering was transferred, and the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a firstborn animal was transferred, and the offspring of their offspring until the end of time should not be offered. Instead, they should be allowed to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish and then they should be eaten according to the laws applying to a blemished firstborn animal and tithe offering.

The offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a firstborn animal was transferred belongs to the priest. The offspring of an animal selected as a tithe offering and the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a animal designated as a tithe offering was transferred belong to the owner.

ו

וְלַד הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. [וּוְלַד] תְּמוּרַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. וְלַד תְּמוּרַת הַבְּכוֹר וּוַלְדֵי וַלְדוֹתֵיהֶן עַד סוֹף הָעוֹלָם. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יִקָּרְבוּ אֶלָּא יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיֵאָכְלוּ כִּבְכוֹר וּכְמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהֶן מוּם. וַלְדוֹת תְּמוּרַת הַבְּכוֹר לְכֹהֵן. וַלְדוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר וּתְמוּרָתוֹ לִבְעָלָיו:

7

The laws that apply to the offspring of an animal to which the holiness of a Paschal sacrifice was transferred are the same as those applying to an animal to which the holiness of a Paschal sacrifice was transferred itself. If its mother should be sacrificed as a peace-offering, its offspring should be offered as a peace-offering. If the law was that the mother should be allowed to pasture until it contracts a blemish and then be sold and the proceeds used to purchase a peace-offering, this same law applies to its offspring.

If one designated a female for one's Paschal sacrifice and it gave birth or he designated it for that sacrifice while pregnant, it and its offspring should be allowed to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish and a Paschal sacrifice should be brought with the proceeds of their sale. If this female remained unblemished until after Pesach or it gave birth after Pesach, it and its offspring should be allowed to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish and a peace-offering should be brought with the proceeds of their sale.

ז

וְלַד תְּמוּרַת הַפֶּסַח כִּתְמוּרַת הַפֶּסַח. אִם הָיְתָה אִמּוֹ קְרֵבָה שְׁלָמִים וְלָדָהּ יִקָּרֵב שְׁלָמִים וְאִם הָיָה דִּינָהּ שֶׁתִּמָּכֵר וְיָבִיא בְּדָמֶיהָ שְׁלָמִים אַף וְלָדָהּ נִמְכָּר וְיָבִיא בְּדָמָיו שְׁלָמִים. הִפְרִישׁ נְקֵבָה לְפִסְחוֹ וְיָלְדָה. אוֹ שֶׁהִפְרִישָׁהּ מְעֻבֶּרֶת. הִיא וּוְלָדָהּ יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיָבִיא בִּדְמֵיהֶן פֶּסַח. וְאִם נִשְׁאֲרָה נְקֵבָה זוֹ עַד אַחַר הַפֶּסַח אוֹ שֶׁיָּלְדָה אַחַר הַפֶּסַח. תִּרְעֶה הִיא וּוְלָדָהּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיָבִיא בִּדְמֵיהֶן שְׁלָמִים:

8

When the offspring of sacrificial animals were born through Caesarian section, as a tumtum, an androgynus, a hybrid, or a tereifah, they should be redeemed and a sacrificial animal that is fit to be brought with the money from the sale of these offspring should be brought.

ח

וַלְדוֹת הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ דֶּרֶךְ דֹּפֶן. אוֹ שֶׁיָּלְדוּ טֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס וְכִלְאַיִם וּטְרֵפָה. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִפָּדוּ וְיָבִיא בִּדְמֵיהֶן קָרְבָּן הָרָאוּי לְהָבִיא בִּדְמֵי וָלָד שֶׁל זוֹ:

9

The offspring of a blemished consecrated animal is like the offspring of an unblemished consecrated animal in all respects and it should be offered in the appropriate manner.

ט

וְלַד בַּעֲלַת מוּם הֲרֵי הוּא כִּוְלַד הַתְּמִימָה לְכָל דָּבָר וְיִקָּרֵב כָּרָאוּי לוֹ:

10

When a consecrated animal discharges a stillborn animal or a placenta, it should be buried and it is forbidden to benefit from it.

י

קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהִפִּילוּ נֵפֶל אוֹ שִׁלְיָא יִקָּבְרוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵם אֲסוּרִים בַּהֲנָאָה:

11

A person who changes the purpose for which an article was consecrated from one holy purpose to another violates a prohibition. This is derived from Leviticus 27:26 which states with regard to a firstborn animal: "A person may not consecrate it," i.e., he may not designate it as a burnt-offering or a peace-offering. The same applies to other consecrated animals. They may not be changed to a purpose other than that for which they were originally consecrated. This applies both to animals consecrated for the altar and animals consecrated for the improvement of the Temple.

What is implied? If an article was consecrated for the improvement of the Temple Sanctuary, it should not be changed and the money used for the improvement of the altar. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations. One is not liable for lashes for the violation of this prohibition.

יא

הַמְשַׁנֶּה אֶת הַקָּדָשִׁים מִקְּדֻשָּׁה לִקְדֻשָּׁה עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בִּבְכוֹר (ויקרא כז כו) "לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ" שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵין מְשַׁנִּין אוֹתָן מִקְּדֻשָּׁה לִקְדֻשָּׁה אֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ וְאֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת. כֵּיצַד. אִם הִקְדִּישׁ לְבֶדֶק הַהֵיכָל לֹא יְשַׁנֶּה לְבֶדֶק הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאֵין לוֹקִין עַל לָאו זֶה:

12

What clever technique can be used with regard to a firstborn to consecrate it to the altar for another sacrifice? One may consecrate it in its mother's womb, before it is born. This is derived from Leviticus 27:26: "which will become a firstborn for God among the livestock - a man shall not consecrate it." Implied is that when it is born, one may not consecrate it, but one may consecrate it in its mother's womb.

Therefore one may say: "If the fetus in the womb of this cow that has not given birth previously is male, it is consecrated as a burnt-offering." He may not, however, designate it as a peace-offering, for he cannot remove it from the holiness of the firstborn in order to benefit from it. If one said: "It should be a burnt-offering when the majority of its head emerges," it is a firstborn and not a burnt-offering.

יב

כֵּיצַד מַעֲרִימִין עַל הַבְּכוֹר לְהַקְדִּישׁוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֶקְדֵּשׁ אַחֵר. מַקְדִּישׁוֹ בַּבֶּטֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּוָּלֵד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז כו) "אֲשֶׁר יְבֻכַּר לַה'" (ויקרא כז כו) "לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אוֹתוֹ". מִשֶּׁיְּבֻכַּר אִי אַתָּה מַקְדִּישׁוֹ אֲבָל אַתָּה מַקְדִּישׁוֹ בַּבֶּטֶן. לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לוֹ לוֹמַר מַה שֶּׁבְּמֵעֶיהָ שֶׁל מַבְכֶּרֶת זוֹ אִם הוּא זָכָר הֲרֵי זוֹ עוֹלָה. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַפְקִיעַ אוֹתוֹ מִקְּדֻשָּׁתוֹ כְּדֵי לֵהָנוֹת בּוֹ. וְאִם אָמַר עִם יְצִיאַת רֹב רֹאשׁוֹ יִהְיֶה עוֹלָה הֲרֵי זֶה בְּכוֹר וְאֵינוֹ עוֹלָה:

13

One may not use a clever technique to change the fetus of a consecrated animal to another purpose. Instead, it is consecrated with the holiness of its mother. The rationale is that the offspring of a consecrated animal become consecrated in the womb, as we explained. Thus every fetus is consecrated with the holiness of its mother and its holiness cannot be changed in the womb as one may with regard to a firstborn animal. The rationale is that a firstborn animal becomes consecrated only when it emerges from the womb.

Although all of the statutes of the Torah are decrees, as we explained in the conclusion of Hilchot Me'ilah, it is fit to meditate upon them and wherever it is possible to provide a reason, one should provide a reason. The Sages of the early generations said that King Solomon understood most of the rationales for all the statutes of the Torah.

It appears to me that the verse Leviticus 27:10: "It and the animal to which its holiness will be transferred shall be consecrated" shares a similar motivating rationale as the verse ibid.:15: "If the one who consecrates it shall redeem his house, he shall add a fifth of the money of the redemption valuation to it." The principle behind these laws is that the Torah descended to the bottom of a person's thoughts and the scope of his evil inclination. For human nature tends to increase his property and attach importance to his money. Even though he made a vow or consecrated something, it is possible that he will reconsider, change his mind, and redeem it for less than its worth. Hence the Torah states: "If he redeems it for himself, he must add a fifth." Similarly, if he consecrated an animal in a manner that its physical person becomes consecrated, he might reconsider. In this instance, since he cannot redeem it, he will exchange it for a lesser one. If he was given permission to exchange a superior animal for an inferior one, he will exchange an inferior one for a superior one and claim that it was superior. Therefore, the Torah removed that option, forbidding all exchanges and penalized him that if he made an exchange, "It and the animal to which its holiness will be transferred shall be consecrated."

All of these ordinances are to subjugate one's evil inclination and improve one's character. Similarly, most of the Torah's laws are nothing other than "counsels given from distance" from "He Who is of great counsel" to improve one's character and make one's conduct upright. And so it is written Proverbs 22:20-21: "Behold, I have written for you in the Torah prominent matters, to inform you of the veracity of the words of truth, so that you will respond truthfully to those who send to you."

יג

וְאֵין מַעֲרִימִין עַל בֶּהֱמַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ לְהַקְדִּישׁ עֵבָּרָהּ קְדֻשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כִּקְדֻשַּׁת אִמּוֹ. שֶׁוַּלְדוֹת הַקָּדָשִׁים מִמְּעֵי אִמָּם הֵם קְדוֹשִׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וַהֲרֵי כָּל עֵבָּר מֵהֶן כִּקְדֻשַּׁת אִמּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשַׁנּוֹתוֹ בַּבֶּטֶן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה בִּבְכוֹר שֶׁרַבְּכוֹר בִּיצִיאָתוֹ הוּא שֶׁמִּתְקַדֵּשׁ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל חֻקֵּי הַתּוֹרָה גְּזֵרוֹת הֵם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּסוֹף מְעִילָה. רָאוּי לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בָּהֶן וְכָל מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה יָכוֹל לִתֵּן לוֹ טַעַם תֵּן לוֹ טַעַם. הֲרֵי אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה הֵבִין רֹב הַטְּעָמִים שֶׁל כָּל חֻקֵּי הַתּוֹרָה. יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (ויקרא כז י) (ויקרא כז ל) "וְהָיָה הוּא וּתְמוּרָתוֹ יִהְיֶה קֹדֶשׁ". כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁאָמַר (ויקרא כז טו) "וְאִם הַמַּקְדִּישׁ יִגְאַל אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וְיָסַף חֲמִישִׁית כֶּסֶף עֶרְכְּךָ עָלָיו". יָרְדָה תּוֹרָה לְסוֹף מַחֲשֶׁבֶת הָאָדָם וּקְצָת יִצְרוֹ הָרַע. שֶׁטֶּבַע שֶׁל אָדָם נוֹטֶה לְהַרְבּוֹת קִנְיָנוֹ וְלָחוּס עַל מָמוֹנוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּדַר וְהִקְדִּישׁ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁחָזַר בּוֹ וְנִחַם וְיִפְדֶּה בְּפָחוֹת מִשָּׁוְיוֹ אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה אִם פָּדָה לְעַצְמוֹ יוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. וְכֵן אִם הִקְדִּישׁ בְּהֵמָה קְדֻשַּׁת הַגּוּף שֶׁמָּא יַחְזֹר בּוֹ וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְדּוֹתָהּ יַחְלִיפֶנָּה בִּפְחוּתָה מִמֶּנָּה. וְאִם תִּתֵּן לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהַחְלִיף הָרַע בְּיָפֶה יַחְלִיף הַיָּפֶה בְּרַע וְיֹאמַר טוֹב הוּא. לְפִיכָךְ סָתַם הַכָּתוּב בְּפָנָיו שֶׁלֹּא יַחְלִיף. וּקְנָסוֹ אִם הֶחְלִיף וְאָמַר וְהָיָה הוּא וּתְמוּרָתוֹ יִהְיֶה קֹדֶשׁ. וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים כְּדֵי לָכֹף אֶת יִצְרוֹ וּלְתַקֵּן דֵּעוֹתָיו. וְרֹב דִּינֵי הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָן אֶלָּא עֵצוֹת מֵרָחוֹק מִגְּדוֹל הָעֵצָה לְתַקֵּן הַדֵּעוֹת וּלְיַשֵּׁר כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (משלי כב כ) "הֲלֹא כָתַבְתִּי לְךָ שָׁלִישִׁים בְּמֹעֵצוֹת וָדָעַת". לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ קֹשְׁטְ אִמְרֵי אֱמֶת לְהָשִׁיב אֲמָרִים אֱמֶת לְשלְחֶיךָ:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות תמורה בס"ד:

With the help of the Almighty, this concludes the eighth book which is the Book of Sacrifices.

נגמר ספר תשיעי והוא ספר הקרבנות: