A person who offers a sacrifice outside [the Temple Courtyard] is not liable unless he brings [the sacrificial animal] to the top of the altar that he constructed outside [the Temple]. If, however, he offered it on a stone or a rock, he is exempt, for the term sacrifice applies only when [an animal is offered] on an altar, even if it is outside [the Temple], as [indicated by Genesis 8:20]: "And Noah built an altar." He is not liable unless he offers the sacrifice to God, as [Leviticus 17:9] states: "...to offer it to God," i.e., unless his intent is for God.1


אֵין הַמַּעֲלֶה בַּחוּץ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה לְרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בַּחוּץ. אֲבָל אִם הֶעֱלָה עַל הַסֶּלַע אוֹ עַל הָאֶבֶן פָּטוּר. שֶׁאֵין קָרוּי קָרְבָּן אֶלָּא עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בַּחוּץ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ח כ) "וַיִּבֶן נֹחַ מִזְבֵּחַ". וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה לַשֵּׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ט) "לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ לַה'" עַד שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן לַשֵּׁם:


One is liable only for offering an entity that is fit for the fire2 and for the altar,3 for example, a burnt offering, as [ibid.:8] states: "who will offer a burnt-offering or a sacrifice." [One may infer:] Just as a burnt-offering is fit to be offered on the fires, so too, everything that is fit to be offered on the fire is what one is liable for offering outside [the Temple Courtyard].


אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל הַעֲלָאַת דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לָאִשִּׁים וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּגוֹן הָעוֹלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ח) "אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה עלָה אוֹ זָבַח" מָה עוֹלָה שֶׁרְאוּיָה לָאִשִּׁים אַף כָּל שֶׁרָאוּי לָאִשִּׁים הוּא שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל הַעֲלָאָתוֹ בַּחוּץ:


On this basis, [our Sages] said that individuals [who perform the following services] outside [the Temple Courtyard] are liable: One who throws the blood, offers on the pyre the limbs of a burnt-offering, the parts of an animal offered on the altar,4 a handful [of meal], or frankincense,5 or incense,6 the meal-offering of a priest,7 or the meal-offering within the accompanying offerings8 or one who pours a libation of three lugim9 of wine or of water.10 [This is derived from ibid.:9:] "He did not bring it [to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting] to offer it." [Implied is that] any [sacrifice] that would be accepted within [the Temple Courtyard] causes one to be liable for [offering] it outside.


מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ הַזּוֹרֵק אֶת הַדָּם אוֹ הַמַּקְטִיר אֵיבְרֵי עוֹלָה אוֹ אֵימוּרִין אוֹ קֹמֶץ אוֹ לְבוֹנָה אוֹ קְטֹרֶת אוֹ מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים אוֹ מִנְחַת נְסָכִים אוֹ הַמְנַסֵּךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין יַיִן אוֹ מַיִם בַּחוּץ חַיָּב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ט) "לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ" כָּל הַמִּתְקַבֵּל בִּפְנִים חַיָּבִין עָלָיו בַּחוּץ:


If, however, one throws the remainder of the blood [of a sacrificial animal] - even the remainder of the blood [from a sin-offering whose blood was offered] inside [the Sanctuary],11 he is exempt. [The rationale is that] throwing the blood on the altar is the remaining aspect of the mitzvah and is not an absolute necessity.12

Similarly, one who pours a libation of less than three lugim of wine or water outside [the Temple Courtyard] is exempt, whether during Sukkot13 or throughout the year. Since the required measure is lacking,14 they are not fit to be accepted within [the Temple]. Similarly, one who offers from the meat of a sin-offering, that of a guilt-offering, or that of a peace-offering whether of an individual or of the community or from the remainder of the meal-offerings, the two breads [offered on Shavuot], or the showbread outside [the Temple Courtyard] is exempt. [The rationale is that] all of these are fit to be eaten, not for the fires [of the altar].


אֲבָל הַזּוֹרֵק שְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם בַּחוּץ אֲפִלּוּ שְׁיָרֵי דָּמִים הַפְּנִימִים פָּטוּר. שֶׁזְּרִיקַת שְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם שְׁיָרֵי מִצְוָה הֵם וְאֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין. וְכֵן הַמְנַסֵּךְ יַיִן אוֹ מַיִם פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר בֵּין בֶּחָג בֵּין בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. הוֹאִיל וְחָסֵר הַשִּׁעוּר הֲרֵי אֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְהִתְקַבֵּל בִּפְנִים. וְכֵן הַמַּעֲלֶה מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאת מִבְּשַׂר אָשָׁם מִבְּשַׂר שְׁלָמִים בֵּין שֶׁל יָחִיד בֵּין שֶׁל צִבּוּר מִשְּׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת מִשְּׁתֵי הַלֶּחֶם מִלֶּחֶם הַפָּנִים בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה לֹא לָאִשִּׁים:


One who offers an entire animal outside [the Temple Courtyard] is liable, because of the portions offered on the altar. Even though they have not been separated, the meat of the sacrifice is not considered as an intervening substance15 and it is as if he offered those portions on the pyre alone. In contrast, if one offers a meal-offering from which a handful [of meal] has not been separated, he is exempt. [Even though he would have been liable for the handful], the handful is not a distinct and discrete entity. If he separated [the handful] and then it was mixed back into it and he then offered the entire [measure] outside the Temple Courtyard, he is liable.


הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה כֻּלָּהּ בַּחוּץ חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי הָאֵימוּרִין. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִפְרִישָׁן אֵין בְּשַׂר הַזֶּבַח חוֹצֵץ. וּכְאִלּוּ הִקְטִיר הָאֵימוּרִים בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן. אֲבָל הַמַּעֲלֶה מִנְחָה שֶׁלֹּא נִקְמְצָה פָּטוּר. שֶׁאֵין הַקֹּמֶץ בָּרוּר וּמֻבְדָּל. קְמָצָהּ וְחָזַר קֻמְצָהּ לְתוֹכָהּ וְהִקְרִיב כֻּלָּהּ בַּחוּץ חַיָּב:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


One who pours oil [over a meal-offering], mixes the meal and oil, breaks up the wafers, salts them, waves them, approaches an altar with them, arranges a table for showbread, cleans the lamps of a candelabra, separates a handful [of meal], or receives the blood [of a sacrificial animal] outside [the Temple Courtyard] is exempt. [The rationale is that] all of these are not activities that complete the offering [of the sacrifice] and [the prooftext] says: "Who will offer a burnt-offering or a sacrifice." [One may infer:] Just as offering [these sacrifices] is the final stage of the service [involved with them], so too, one is liable only for activities that are the final stage of sacrificial service.


הַיּוֹצֵק וְהַבּוֹלֵל וְהַפּוֹתֵת וְהַמּוֹלֵחַ וְהַמֵּנִיף וְהַמַּגִּישׁ וְהַמְסַדֵּר אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְהַמֵּטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת וְהַקּוֹמֵץ וְהַמְקַבֵּל דָּמִים בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר. לְפִי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ אֵינוֹ גְּמַר עֲבוֹדָה וְנֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ח) "אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה עלָה אוֹ זָבַח". מַה הַעֲלָאָה שֶׁהִיא גְּמַר עֲבוֹדָה אַף כָּל שֶׁהוּא גְּמַר עֲבוֹדָה חַיָּבִין עָלָיו:


When one burns a red heifer outside the place where it is required to be burnt16 or if one offers, outside [the Temple Courtyard], the goat that is sent [to Azazel]17 after the confession was recited over it,18 he is exempt. [The rationale is that the prooftext] says: "He did not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting." [One may infer:] One is not liable for any sacrifice which is not fit to be brought to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.19

In contrast, one is liable for offering [outside the Temple Courtyard] sacrificial animals that were disqualified, if they were disqualified in the Temple. What is implied? [Sacrificial meat or blood] that remained overnight [without being offered], they were taken out [of the Temple Courtyard], they became impure, or they were disqualified because of the intent of the person sacrificing them, all are required to be burnt20 as will be explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukkdashim.21 If a person transgressed and offered [such entities] as sacrifices outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is liable. [This is derived from the prooftext]: "...to offer it to God." One is liable for any [entity] that is are fit to be offered to God and these are fit to be offered to God.22


פָּרָה אֲדֻמָּה שֶׁשְּׂרָפָהּ חוּץ מִמְּקוֹם שְׂרֵפָתָהּ. וְכֵן שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ שֶׁהִקְרִיבוֹ בַּחוּץ אַחַר שֶׁהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו פָּטוּר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ט) "וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ" כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָבוֹא אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו. אֲבָל קָדָשִׁים פְּסוּלִין שֶׁהָיָה פִּסּוּלָן בַּקֹּדֶשׁ אִם הֶעֱלָה מֵהֶן בַּחוּץ חַיָּב. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן הַלָּן וְהַיּוֹצֵא וְהַטָּמֵא וְשֶׁנִּפְסַל בְּמַחְשֶׁבֶת הָעוֹבֵד שֶׁכֻּלָּן נִשְׂרָפִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. אִם עָבַר וְהֶעֱלָה מֵהֶם בַּחוּץ חַיָּב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ט) "לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ לַה'" כָּל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה לַה' חַיָּבִין עָלָיו וְאֵלּוּ נַעֲשׂוּ לַשֵּׁם:


Whenever there is a substance for which one is liable for offering it outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is liable for offering an olive-sized portion of it outside.23 [This applies] whether he offered [a portion of the entity] inside [the Temple Courtyard] first, left over an olive-sized portion and then offered it outside or left the entire entity inside and took an olive-sized portion and offered it outside. If, however, [the size of] the sacrificial entity was decreased in the slightest way24 inside the Temple Courtyard and then the remainder was offered outside, he is exempt.


כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל הַעֲלָאָתוֹ בַּחוּץ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶעֱלָה מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת בַּחוּץ חַיָּב. בֵּין שֶׁהֶעֱלָה בִּפְנִים תְּחִלָּה וְשִׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת וְהֶעֱלָהוּ בַּחוּץ. בֵּין שֶׁהִנִּיחַ הַכּל בִּפְנִים וְלָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת וְהֶעֱלָהוּ בַּחוּץ. אֲבָל אִם חִסֵּר אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר הַקָּרֵב כָּל שֶׁהוּא בִּפְנִים וְהֶעֱלָה שְׁאֵרִיתוֹ בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר:


What is implied? If a portion of the handful [of meal offered on the altar], the frankincense, the portions of a sacrifice offered on the altar, a burnt-offering, a meal offering that is burnt,25 and the wine libations was decreased within [the Temple Courtyard] and the remainder was offered outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is exempt. [This is derived from the prooftext which states:] "to offer it." [Implied is that] he is liable for a complete entity, but he is not liable if it is lacking.26 If one removed [the sacrificial entity] from the Temple Courtyard while it was complete, its [size] was decreased outside [the Temple Courtyard] and then he offered it [there], there is an unresolved question [whether he is liable]. Therefore [a transgressor] is not given lashes.


כֵּיצַד. הַקֹּמֶץ אוֹ הַלְּבוֹנָה וְהָאֵימוּרִין וְהָעוֹלָה וּמִנְחָה הַנִּשְׂרֶפֶת וְהַנְּסָכִין שֶׁחָסְרוּ מִקְצָתָם בִּפְנִים וְהִקְרִיב שְׁאֵרִיתָן בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ט) "לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתוֹ" עַל הַשָּׁלֵם הוּא חַיָּב וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל הֶחָסֵר. הוֹצִיאוֹ שָׁלֵם וְחָסַר בַּחוּץ וְהֶעֱלָהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:


If, [outside the Temple Courtyard,] one offered a limb that did not have an olive-sized portion of meat on it, but the bone itself caused it to reach the olive-sized measure, he is liable, because the meat is connected to the bone. If salt caused [the sacrificial entity] to reach the olive-sized measure, there is an unresolved question [whether he is liable].27 Therefore [a transgressor] is not given lashes. A burnt-offering and the portions of the innards of a burnt-offering28 that are offered on the altar, can be combined to complete an olive-sized portion [to cause one to be liable].29


הֶעֱלָה אֵיבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר וְהָיָה הָעֶצֶם מַשְׁלִימוֹ לִכְזַיִת חַיָּב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר. הָיָה מֶלַח מַשְׁלִימוֹ לִכְזַיִת הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. וְעוֹלָה וְאֵימוּרֶיהָ מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת:


If one offered [a portion of a sacrifice outside the Temple Courtyard] and then offered another portion of it, he is liable for every individual limb.30 If he sprinkled its blood [outside the Temple Courtyard] and then offered its limbs, he is liable twice. For the Torah made a distinction between [offering blood and offering limbs as indicated by the two prooftexts] "Who will offer a burnt-offering" and "to offer it."31

If one offered a limb that was lacking [in substance], he is exempt,32 as [one can infer from the prooftext] "to offer it." [This indicates] that one is liable [only] for a complete [limb].


הֶעֱלָה וְחָזַר וְהֶעֱלָה חַיָּב עַל כָּל אֵיבָר וְאֵיבָר. זָרַק הַדָּם וְהֶעֱלָה הָאֵיבָרִים חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. שֶׁהֲרֵי חָלַק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין מַעֲלֶה לְעוֹשֶׂה. שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ח) "אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה עלָה" וְנֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ט) "לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתוֹ". הֶעֱלָה אֵיבָר חָסֵר פָּטוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ עַל הַשָּׁלֵם הוּא חַיָּב:


When two people slaughter [a sacrificial animal outside the Temple Courtyard], they are exempt.33 If two people hold a limb [from a sacrificial animal] and offer it outside the Temple Courtyard], they are liable. [The rationale is that the prooftext states] "Every man34 who will offer a burnt-offering." Implied is that even two people who offer [a sacrifice] are liable.


שְׁנַיִם שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ פְּטוּרִים. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָחֲזוּ בְּאֵיבָר וְהֶעֱלוּהוּ בַּחוּץ חַיָּבִין. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז ח) "אִישׁ אִישׁ" (ויקרא יז ח) "אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה עלָה" אֲפִלּוּ אִישׁ וְאִישׁ שֶׁהֶעֱלוּ חַיָּבִין:


If a person makes several of the required sprinklings [of blood] outside [their appropriate place], he is liable.35 A person who receives the blood of a sin-offering36 in one cup and applies it to an altar outside [the Temple Courtyard] and then applies it to the altar inside [the Temple Courtyard],37 he is liable for the portion applied outside [the Temple Courtyard]. [The rationale is that] the entire amount was fit to be offered inside.38

If he applied it to [the altar] inside and then applied it outside, he is exempt, for [the blood he used] was merely remnants.39 If, however, he received the blood in two cups, he is liable whether he applied both of them outside [the Temple Courtyard], [the first] outside and the other inside, or [the first] inside and the other outside.40


הַזּוֹרֵק מִקְצָת מַתָּנוֹת בַּחוּץ חַיָּב. הַמְקַבֵּל דַּם חַטָּאת בְּכוֹס אֶחָד נָתַן מִמֶּנּוּ בַּחוּץ וְחָזַר וְנָתַן בִּפְנִים חַיָּב עַל הַנִיתָּן בַּחוּץ. שֶׁהֲרֵי כֻּלּוֹ רָאוּי לִקָּרֵב בִּפְנִים. וְאִם נָתַן מִמֶּנּוּ בִּפְנִים וְחָזַר וְנָתַן בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן שְׁיָרִים. אֲבָל אִם קִבֵּל בִּשְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת. בֵּין שֶׁנָּתַן שְׁנֵיהֶן בַּחוּץ. אוֹ אֶחָד בַּחוּץ וְאֶחָד בִּפְנִים. אוֹ אֶחָד בִּפְנִים וְאֶחָד בַּחוּץ. הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב:


When one offered a handful [of meal] or the frankincense from the meal offering41 outside [the Temple Courtyard], or offered one inside and the other outside, he is liable. Similarly, with regard to the two bowls of frankincense from the showbread,42 if one offered [the first] outside the [Temple Courtyard]43 or [the first] inside and the second outside, he is liable.


הַקֹּמֶץ וְהַלְּבוֹנָה שֶׁל מִנְחָה שֶׁהִקְרִיב אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּחוּץ אוֹ הִקְרִיב הָאֶחָד בִּפְנִים וְהַשֵּׁנִי בַּחוּץ חַיָּב. וְכֵן שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה שֶׁל לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים שֶׁהִקְרִיב אֶחָד מֵהֶן בַּחוּץ אוֹ אֶחָד בִּפְנִים וְהַשֵּׁנִי בַּחוּץ חַיָּב:


If a person slaughtered consecrated animals in the present era and offered them outside the Temple Courtyard, he is liable, because [the sacrifices] are fit to be offered inside. For it is permitted to offer sacrifices even though the Temple is not built, because [when the Temple was] consecrated originally, it was consecrated for the immediate time and for all future time.44


מִי שֶׁשָּׁחַט קָדָשִׁים בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה וְהֶעֱלָם חוּץ לַעֲזָרָה חַיָּב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לִקָּרֵב בִּפְנִים. שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לְהַקְרִיב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בַּיִת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּדֻשָּׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה קָדְשָׁה לִשְׁעָתָהּ וְקָדְשָׁה לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא:


[A Jew] who slaughters sacrificial animals belonging to a gentile outside [the Temple Courtyard] is liable.45 Similarly, one who offers them outside [the Temple Courtyard is liable].

Gentiles are permitted to offer burnt offerings to God in all places,46 provided they sacrifice them on a raised structure that they build.47 It is forbidden to help them [offer these sacrifices] or act as agents for them, for we are forbidden to sacrifice outside [the Temple Courtyard]. It is permitted to instruct them and teach them how to sacrifice to the Almighty, blessed be He.


הַשּׁוֹחֵט קָדְשֵׁי נָכְרִים בַּחוּץ חַיָּב. וְכֵן הַמַּעֲלֶה אוֹתָן בַּחוּץ. וְהַנָּכְרִים מֻתָּרִין לְהַקְרִיב עוֹלוֹת לַשֵּׁם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּקְרִיבוּ בְּבָמָה שֶׁיִּבְנוּ. וְאָסוּר לְסַיְּעָן וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָן שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱסַר עָלֵינוּ לְהַקְרִיב בַּחוּץ. וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹרוֹת לָהֶם וּלְלַמְּדָם הֵיאַךְ יַקְרִיבוּ לְשֵׁם הָאֵל בָּרוּךְ הוּא:

Blessed be God who grants assistance.

בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא דְּסַיְּעָן