1

When a person vows to bring a large animal, but instead brings a small one, he does not fulfill his obligation.1 [If he vows to bring] a small one and brings a large one, he fulfills his obligation.2

What is implied? He said: "I promise [to bring] a lamb3 as a burnt-offering" or "...as a peace-offering," and he brings a ram,4 or he vowed a calf5 and brought an ox,6 or a kid7 and brought a goat,8 he fulfills his obligation.

א

הַנּוֹדֵר גָּדוֹל וְהֵבִיא קָטָן לֹא יָצָא. קָטָן וְהֵבִיא גָּדוֹל יָצָא. כֵּיצַד. אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים כֶּבֶשׂ וְהֵבִיא אַיִל. אוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר עֵגֶל וְהֵבִיא שׁוֹר. גְּדִי וְהֵבִיא שָׂעִיר יָצָא:

2

If he vows to bring a burnt-offering9 either from lambs or from rams and brings a pilgas,10 there is an unresolved doubt whether or not he fulfilled his obligation.11 Similarly, if one vowed to bring a burnt-offering12of fowl from either turtle-doves or ordinary doves13 and brought a fowl that began to sprout yellow feathers14 of both species, there is an unresolved doubt [whether or not he fulfilled his obligation].15

If one vowed to bring a black[-colored animal] and brought one that was white, [vowed to bring] a white one and brought a black one, [vowed] a male and brought a female or vowed a female and brought a male, he did not fulfill his obligation.16

ב

נָדַר עוֹלָה מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים אוֹ מִן הָאֵילִים וְהֵבִיא פִּלְגָּס הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם יָצָא יְדֵי נִדְרוֹ אוֹ לֹא יָצָא. וְכֵן הַנּוֹדֵר עוֹלַת עוֹף מִן הַתּוֹרִים אוֹ מִן בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא תְּחִלַּת הַצִּהוּב שֶׁבָּזֶה וְשֶׁבָּזֶה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק. נָדַר שָׁחֹר וְהֵבִיא לָבָן לָבָן וְהֵבִיא שָׁחֹר זָכָר וְהֵבִיא נְקֵבָה נְקֵבָה וְהֵבִיא זָכָר לֹא יָצָא:

3

When one takes a vow without specifying [the type of animal he is bringing], he should bring from the developed animals in the species he vowed to bring. If in his place [of residence], people commonly identify one of [the type of sacrifices] with a specific species [of animals], he should bring [the type of animal brought by] the people of that locale.17

What is implied? If a person vowed to bring a burnt-offering from cattle," he should bring an ox.18 Should he say: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering," if the practice of the people of that locale is to use the term "burnt-offering" without any description to refer even to a fowl offered as a burnt-offering, he may bring even one fowl, a turtle dove or an ordinary dove. If their practice is to use that term only when referring to a burnt-offering of cattle, he should bring an ox. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ג

הַנּוֹדֵר סְתָם מֵבִיא מִן הַגְּדוֹלִים שֶׁבַּמִּין שֶׁנָּדַר. וְאִם אוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם רְגִילִין לִקְרוֹת בִּסְתָם לְאֶחָד מִן הַמִּינִין מֵבִיא כְּאַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם. כֵּיצַד. נָדַר עוֹלָה מִן הַבָּקָר יָבִיא שׁוֹר. אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה אִם דֶּרֶךְ אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם לִקְרוֹת עוֹלָה סְתָם אֲפִלּוּ לְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף מֵבִיא פְּרֵדָה אַחַת תּוֹר אוֹ בֶּן יוֹנָה. וְאִם דַּרְכָּן שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין עוֹלָה סְתָם אֶלָּא לְעוֹלַת בָּקָר יָבִיא שׁוֹר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

4

A person who vowed to bring an ox, a ram, a lamb, a calf, or the like should not bring the frailest specimen of that species, because their value is minimal.19 Nor is he obligated to bring the nicest, stockiest specimen of which there is no better.20Instead, he should bring an average animal.21 If he brought a frail animal, he fulfilled his vow.22

ד

מִי שֶׁנָּדַר שׁוֹר אוֹ אַיִל אוֹ כֶּבֶשׂ אוֹ עֵגֶל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם לֹא יָבִיא כָּחוּשׁ בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדָּמָיו מוּעָטִין. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְהָבִיא הַיָּפֶה הַשָּׁמֵן בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁאֵין שָׁם לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא יָבִיא הַבֵּינוֹנִי. וְאִם הֵבִיא הַכָּחוּשׁ יָצָא יְדֵי נִדְרוֹ:

5

When a person says: "I promise to bring an ox worth a maneh,"23he should bring an ox worth a maneh in that place aside from its accompanying offerings.24 If he brought two [oxen] for a maneh, he did not fulfill his obligation.

ה

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי שׁוֹר שְׁוֵה מָנֶה יָבִיא שׁוֹר שֶׁשָּׁוֶה מָנֶה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. הֵבִיא שְׁנַיִם בְּמָנֶה לֹא יָצָא:

6

[The following rules apply when] a person says: "This ox is a burnt-offering" and it becomes blemished. If he desires to bring two for the price he receives for it.25If he brings even one ram26 for the price it receives, he fulfills his vow.

If he says: "These two oxen are burnt-offerings," and they become blemished, should he desire, he may bring one with the money he receives for their sale.27 "This ram is a burnt-offering" and it becomes blemished, if he desires he may bring a lamb with the money he receives for its sale. Similarly, if he vows a lamb and it becomes disqualified, he may bring a ram with the money he receives for its sale.

ו

הָאוֹמֵר שׁוֹר זֶה עוֹלָה וְנָפַל בּוֹ מוּם אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בְּדָמָיו שְׁנַיִם וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵבִיא בְּדָמָיו אַיִל אֶחָד יָצָא. אָמַר שְׁנֵי שְׁוָרִים אֵלּוּ עוֹלָה וְנָפַל בָּהֶם מוּם אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בִּדְמֵיהֶם אֶחָד. אַיִל זֶה עוֹלָה וְנָפַל בּוֹ מוּם אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בְּדָמָיו כֶּבֶשׂ. וְכֵן אִם נָדַר כֶּבֶשׂ וְנִפְסַל אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בְּדָמָיו אַיִל:

7

If he says: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering" and he set aside an ox and it was stolen, he may fulfill his obligation with a sheep.28 If he says: "I promise to bring this ox or its value as a burnt-offering," [his commitment] is established as binding.29 If [the ox] is disqualified, he may bring only an ox with the money he receives for its sale.

ז

אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה וְהִפְרִישׁ שׁוֹר וְנִגְנַב פּוֹטֵר עַצְמוֹ בְּשֶׂה. אָמַר שׁוֹר זֶה וְדָמָיו עָלַי עוֹלָה הֻקְבַּע וְאִם נִפְסַל לֹא יָבִיא בְּדָמָיו אֶלָּא שׁוֹר:

8

If he says: "One of my sheep is consecrated and one of my oxen is consecrated," but he had two, the larger one is consecrated.30 If he has three, the larger one is consecrated, but concern should also be shown for the middle one.31

What should be done? He should wait until the middle one becomes blemished so that the holiness will fall on the larger one alone.32 If he says: "An ox from my oxen is consecrated," the larger one is consecrated and concern need not be shown for the middle one.33

ח

הָאוֹמֵר אֶחָד מִכְּבָשַׂי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאֶחָד מִשְּׁוָרַי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנַיִם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. הָיוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְחוֹשְׁשִׁין לַבֵּינוֹנִי. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. יַמְתִּין לַבֵּינוֹנִי עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְתָחוּל הַקְּדֻשָּׁה עַל הַגָּדוֹל לְבַדּוֹ. וְאִם אָמַר שׁוֹר שֶׁבִּשְׁוָרַי הֶקְדֵּשׁ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶם הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לַבֵּינוֹנִי:

9

If he designated one of [three animals as a sacrifice] and forgot [which one he designated] or his father told him "One of these animals was consecrated,"34 he should designate the largest one as consecrated35 and, afterwards, he fulfills his obligation [with its sacrifice]. Similarly, if one vowed to bring a burnt-offering from cattle and designated [an animal as a sacrifice to fulfill] his vow and [later] forgot whether he had designated an ox or a calf, he should bring an ox.36 Similarly, if he designated a sheep and forgot what he designated,37 he should bring a ram. If he designated a goat and forgot what he designated,38 he should bring a grown goat. If he forgot the species from which he designated the burnt-offering, he should bring an ox, a ram, and a grown goat.39 If he was in doubt that perhaps he designated the burnt-offering from fowl, he should also add a turtle-dove and an ordinary dove.40

ט

פֵּרַשׁ אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְשָׁכַח אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו אֶחָד מֵהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה מַקְדִּישׁ גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. וְכֵן הַנּוֹדֵר עוֹלָה מִן הַבָּקָר וְקָבַע נִדְרוֹ וְשָׁכַח מַה קָּבַע אִם שׁוֹר אִם עֵגֶל הֲרֵי זֶה יָבִיא שׁוֹר. וְכֵן אִם קָבַע בַּכְּבָשִׂים וְשָׁכַח מַה קָּבַע יָבִיא אַיִל. קָבַע בָּעִזִּים וְשָׁכַח יָבִיא שָׂעִיר. שָׁכַח בְּאֵיזֶה מִין מִן הַבְּהֵמָה קָבַע עוֹלָתוֹ יָבִיא שׁוֹר וְאַיִל וְשָׂעִיר. וְאִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ שֶׁמָּא קָבַע עוֹלָתוֹ בָּעוֹף יוֹסִיף תּוֹר וּבֶן יוֹנָה:

10

When a person vowed to bring a thanksgiving-offering or a peace offering, specifying that it would be brought from cattle, but forgot what he designated to bring, he should bring an ox and a cow.41 Similarly, if he is unsure with regard to sheep, he should bring a ram and a ewe. If he is unsure with regard to goats, he must bring a he-goat and a she-goat.

If he forgot the species from which he designated the sacrifice, he should bring an ox, a cow, a ram, a ewe, a he-goat, and a she-goat.42 If he said: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering of fowl," he should bring a turtle-dove or an ordinary dove.43 If he designated one particular species in his vow and forgot which one, he should bring both a turtle-dove and an ordinary dove.

י

נָדַר תּוֹדָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים וְקָבַע נִדְרוֹ בַּבָּקָר וְשָׁכַח בְּמִי קְבָעוֹ יָבִיא פַּר וּפָרָה. וְכֵן אִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ בַּכְּבָשִׂים יָבִיא אַיִל וְרָחֵל. נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ בָּעִזִּים יָבִיא שָׂעִיר וּשְׂעִירָה. שָׁכַח בְּאֵי זֶה מִין קָבַע נִדְרוֹ מֵבִיא פַּר וּפָרָה אַיִל וְרָחֵל שָׂעִיר וּשְׂעִירָה. הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלַת עוֹף מֵבִיא תּוֹר אוֹ בֶּן יוֹנָה. פֵּרֵשׁ וְשָׁכַח בְּאֵי זֶה מִין קָבַע נִדְרוֹ מֵבִיא תּוֹר וּבֶן יוֹנָה:

11

When one says: "I promise to bring [an offering] for the altar," he should bring a handful of frankincense,44 for there is nothing that is offered entirely on the altar in its immediate state except for frankincense.45

If he specified his vow, but forgot what he specified to bring, he should bring every type of entity that is offered on the altar in its entirety.46 Therefore he should bring a burnt-offering of an animal, a burnt-offering of fowl, a meal-offering of flour, frankincense, and wine alone.47

יא

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ יָבִיא קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁקָּרֵב כֻּלּוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא אֶלָּא לְבוֹנָה. פֵּרֵשׁ נִדְרוֹ וְשָׁכַח מַה פֵּרֵשׁ יָבִיא מִכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁקָּרֵב כֻּלּוֹ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. לְפִיכָךְ מֵבִיא עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה וְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף וּמִנְחַת נְסָכִים וּלְבוֹנָה וְיַיִן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:

12

When a person says: "I promise to bring [an offering] worth a sela48to the altar," he should bring a sheep,49 for there is nothing offered on the altar worth [exactly] a sela except a sheep. If he specified [a particular entity], but forgot what he specified, he should bring a sela's worth of everything that is offered on the altar.50

יב

אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי בְּסֶלַע לַמִּזְבֵּחַ יָבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ. שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁקָּרֵב בְּסֶלַע לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶלָּא כֶּבֶשׂ. פֵּרֵשׁ וְשָׁכַח מַה שֶּׁפֵּרֵשׁ יָבִיא בְּסֶלַע מִכָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר שֶׁקָּרֵב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ:

13

When a person says: "I promise to bring frankincense," he should not bring less than a handful.51 If one says: "I promise to bring wood," he should not bring less than two52 logs as thick as a leveling rod that are a cubit long.53 "I promise to bring a piece of wood," he should bring one log a cubit long. If he desires to bring the worth of the logs, he may.54

יג

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְבוֹנָה לֹא יִפְחֹת מִקֹּמֶץ. הֲרֵי עָלַי עֵצִים לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁנֵי גְּזָרִים עָבִין כִּמְחוּקוֹת וְאָרְכָּן אַמָּה. הֲרֵי עָלַי עֵץ מֵבִיא גֶּזֶר אֶחָד אָרְכּוֹ אַמָּה. וְאִם רָצָה לְהָבִיא דְּמֵי הָעֵצִים יָבִיא:

14

What should a person who vowed or pledged to bring oil do? He should take a handful of it,55 put salt on it,56 and toss it on the fire. The remainder is eaten by the priests like the remainder of the meal offerings.57

What is done with wine that is brought independently? It is salted58 and then poured entirely59 down the shittin60 like the other libations.61 Frankincense which is brought independently should be salted and then offered on the pyre in its entirety.

יד

מִי שֶׁנָּדַר אוֹ הִתְנַדֵּב שֶׁמֶן כֵּיצַד עוֹשִׂין בּוֹ. קוֹמֵץ מִמֶּנּוּ קֹמֶץ וְנוֹתֵן עָלָיו מֶלַח וְזוֹרְקוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאִשִּׁים וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים כִּשְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשִׂין בְּיַיִן הַבָּא בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. נוֹתֵן עָלָיו מֶלַח וּמְנַסְּכוֹ כֻּלּוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַשִּׁיתִין כְּכָל הַנְּסָכִים. וְהַלְּבוֹנָה הַבָּאָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ נוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ מֶלַח וְכֻלָּהּ לָאִשִּׁים:

15

When a person vowed [to bring a sacrifice], he should not bring it from money [for which] the second tithe [was redeemed].62 [The rationale is that] he became obligated63 to bring this sacrifice and anyone who is obligated to bring a sacrifice may bring it only from ordinary property.64

טו

מִי שֶׁנָּדַר נֵדֶר לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְחַיֵּב בְּקָרְבָּן זֶה וְכָל הַמְחֻיָּב בְּקָרְבָּן לֹא יָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין:

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If a person states: "I promise to bring a thanksgiving-offering from ordinary funds and its bread from the [second] tithe," he should bring its bread only from ordinary funds. [The rationale is that] he vowed to bring a thanksgiving-offering and that offering comes only when accompanied by bread which is from ordinary property.65

טז

אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי תּוֹדָה מִן הַחֻלִּין וְלַחְמָהּ מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לֹא יָבִיא לַחְמָהּ אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין. שֶׁהֲרֵי נָדַר בְּקָרְבַּן תּוֹדָה וְהַתּוֹדָה אֵינָהּ בָּאָה אֶלָּא עִם הַלֶּחֶם מִן הַחֻלִּין:

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If he explicitly said: "I promise to bring a thanksgiving offering from money from the second tithes and its bread from ordinary property," he may bring [the sacrifice] as he vowed.66 If he brought it all from ordinary property, he fulfilled his obligation.67 Similarly, if he explicitly said: "I promise to bring a thanksgiving-offering and its bread from the second tithe," he may bring it [as vowed].68 He should not bring the bread from wheat that is the second tithe, but from [flour purchased with] money [for which] the second tithe was redeemed like the animal which was [purchased with] such money.

Even though he explicitly stated that he would bring the bread from [the money of] the second] tithe, he should not bring its libations from the money of the second tithe, for at all times, libations must be brought solely from ordinary funds, as explained.69 [The rationale is] that concerning [the libations],70 [Numbers 15:4] states: "The one who offers them shall offer his sacrifice." Implied is that the sacrifice must be his without having any dimension that belongs to the Most High.

יז

פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְהָבִיא תּוֹדָה מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְלַחְמָהּ מִן הַחֻלִּין יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהָבִיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר. וְאִם הֵבִיא הַכּל מִן הַחֻלִּין יָצָא. וְכֵן אִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי תּוֹדָה הִיא וְלַחְמָהּ מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר יָבִיא. וְלֹא יָבִיא לַחְמָהּ מֵחִטֵּי מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אֶלָּא מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי כְּמוֹ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִיא מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ שֶׁיָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לֹא יָבִיא נְסָכֶיהָ מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵין הַנְּסָכִים בָּאִין לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶן (במדבר טו ד) "וְהִקְרִיב הַמַּקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ" עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בָּהֶן צַד לְגָבוֹהַּ כְּלָל: