1

A person may vow or pledge1 to bring a burnt-offering, a peace-offering, or any of the five types of meal-offerings2 that may be brought as vows or as pledges.3 And he may vow or pledge [to bring] a meal offering from one of the three types of meal-offerings that serve as the accompanying offerings, as we explained.4 One may pledge or vow wine as an independent offering,5 frankincense as an independent offering,6 oil as an independent offering,7 or wood for the arrangement [of wood on the altar], for that is like a sacrifice,8 as [Nechemiah 13:31] states: "for the sacrifice of wood."

א

מִתְנַדֵּב אָדָם וְנוֹדֵר עוֹלָה וּשְׁלָמִים וְכָל מִין שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מֵחֲמִשָּׁה מִינֵי מְנָחוֹת הַבָּאִין בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה. וּמִתְנַדֵּב אוֹ נוֹדֵר מִנְחָה מִמִּנְחַת נְסָכִים לְבַדָּהּ מֵאֵי זֶה מִין מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה מִינֵי מְנָחוֹת נְסָכִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמִתְנַדֵּב אוֹ נוֹדֵר יַיִן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ לְבוֹנָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ אוֹ שֶׁמֶן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ עֵצִים לַמַּעֲרָכָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּקָרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה יג לא) "וּלְקֻרְבַּן הָעֵצִים":

2

Two people may pledge or vow one sacrifice, a burnt-offering or a peace-offering, even one turtle-dove and large ordinary dove in partnership. A meal-offering, by contrast, may not be brought in partnership. These matters were conveyed by the Oral Tradition.

ב

שְׁנַיִם מִתְנַדְּבִין אוֹ נוֹדְרִין קָרְבָּן אֶחָד עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים אֲפִלּוּ פְּרֵדָה אַחַת שֶׁל תּוֹרִים אוֹ בְּנֵי יוֹנָה מְבִיאִין אוֹתָהּ בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת. אֲבָל הַמִּנְחָה אֵינָהּ בָּאָה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ הֵן דִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה:

3

When a person set aside a meal-offering for [the merit of] his two sons and died,9 they may both bring it.10

ג

הֵנִיחַ מִנְחָה לִשְׁנֵי בָּנָיו וּמֵת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְבִיאִין אוֹתָהּ:

4

What is meant by a vow and what is meant by a pledge? When one says: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering," "I promise to bring a peace-offering," "I promise to bring a meal-offering," or "I promise to bring the value of this animal11 as a burnt-offering" or "...as a peace-offering," this is considered a vow.12 If, however, he said: "This animal..." or "The value of this animal is [designated as] a burnt-offering,"13 or "...a peace-offering," or "This isaron [of flour] as a meal-offering," this is a pledge.14

ד

אֵי זֶה הוּא נֵדֶר וְאֵי זוֹ הִיא נְדָבָה. הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה אוֹ הֲרֵי עָלַי שְׁלָמִים אוֹ הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחָה אוֹ הֲרֵי דְּמֵי בְּהֵמָה זוֹ עָלַי עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים זֶהוּ הַנֵּדֶר. אֲבָל הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי בְּהֵמָה זוֹ אוֹ דְּמֵי בְּהֵמָה זוֹ עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים אוֹ הֲרֵי הָעִשָּׂרוֹן הַזֶּה מִנְחָה הֲרֵי זוֹ נְדָבָה:

5

What is the difference between vows and pledges? If a person took a vow and separated a sacrifice and then it was lost or stolen, he is obligated to replace it15 until he offers the sacrifice he vowed.16 If a person made a pledge and said: "This [animal] is a sacrifice," he is not obligated to replace it if it died or was stolen.17

ה

מַה בֵּין נְדָרִים לִנְדָבוֹת. שֶׁהַנּוֹדֵר אִם הִפְרִישׁ קָרְבָּנוֹ וְאָבַד אוֹ נִגְנַב חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּקְרִיב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר. וְהַמִּתְנַדֵּב וְאוֹמֵר זוֹ אִם מֵת אוֹ נִגְנַב אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ:

6

When one says: "I promise to bring the value of this ox as a burnt-offering" or "I promise to bring the value of this house as a sacrifice," if the ox dies and the house falls, he is obligated to pay.18 If one says: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering on the condition that I am not obligated to replace it," he is not obligated to replace it.19

ו

הָאוֹמֵר דְּמֵי שׁוֹר זֶה עָלַי עוֹלָה וּדְמֵי בַּיִת זֶה עָלַי קָרְבָּן וּמֵת הַשּׁוֹר וְנָפַל הַבַּיִת חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה עַל מְנָת שֶׁלֹּא אֶתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָהּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָהּ:

7

We already explained20 that one who constructs a temple to offer sacrifices within outside the Temple is not considered as [having built] a temple to a false divinity. If one says: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering to sacrifice in the Temple [in Jerusalem]," and he brings it in [such] a temple, does not fulfill his vow.21 If he vowed to offer it in such a temple and he offers it in the Temple [in Jerusalem], he fulfills his vow.22 If he offers in such a temple, he fulfills his vow. He is like someone who vowed to bring a burnt-offering on the condition that he is not obligated to replace it.23 He is liable for karet for offering [the sacrifice] outside [the Temple Courtyard].

Similarly, if one takes a vow saying that he is a nazirite on the condition that he shave24 in such a temple, he fulfills his obligation if he shaves there. He is considered as one who vowed to abstain from wine and he did so abstain. This is not considered as a nazirite vow.

ז

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהָעוֹשֶׂה בַּיִת חוּץ לַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב בּוֹ קָרְבָּנוֹת אֵינוֹ כְּבֵית עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה שֶׁאַקְרִיבֶנָּה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וְהִקְרִיבָהּ בְּבַיִת זֶה לֹא יָצָא. שֶׁאַקְרִיבֶנָּה בְּבַיִת זֶה וְהִקְרִיבָהּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ יָצָא. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָהּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַבַּיִת יָצָא. הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁנָּדַר עוֹלָה עַל מְנָת שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָהּ וְעָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת עַל הַעֲלָיָתָהּ בַּחוּץ. וְכֵן אִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר עַל מְנָת שֶׁאֲגַלֵּחַ בְּבַיִת זֶה. אִם גִּלֵּחַ שָׁם יָצָא. הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁנָּדַר לְצַעֵר עַצְמוֹ וַהֲרֵי צִעֵר עַצְמוֹ וְאֵינָהּ נְזִירוּת:

8

A sin-offering and a guilt-offering may be brought only for a sin.25 They may not be brought because of a pledge or a vow. [Hence,] if one26 says: "I promise to bring a sin-offering" or "...a guilt-offering," his statements are of no consequence. [Similarly,] if he said: "This animal is [designated as] a sin-offering" or "...a guilt-offering," his statements are of no consequence.

If he was obligated to bring a sin-offering or a guilt-offering and he said: "This [animal] is for my sin-offering" or "...for my guilt-offering" or "This money is for my sin-offering" or "...my guilt-offering," his statements are binding.

ח

חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם אֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא עַל חֵטְא. וְאֵינָן בָּאִין בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה. הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי חַטָּאת אוֹ אָשָׁם אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ חַטָּאת אוֹ אָשָׁם לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. הָיָה מְחֻיָּב חַטָּאת אוֹ אָשָׁם וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ לְחַטָּאתִי אוֹ לַאֲשָׁמִי אוֹ הֲרֵי הַמָּעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ לְחַטָּאתִי אוֹ לַאֲשָׁמִי דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִים:

9

When a person says: "I promise to bring the sacrifices of this person afflicted by tzara'at" or "...this women who gave birth," if the afflicted person or the women are poor, the one who took the vow should bring the sacrifices of a poor person.27 If they were wealthy, the person who took the vow must bring the sacrifice of a wealthy person even though he is poor.

ט

הָאוֹמֵר קָרְבַּן מְצֹרָע זֶה אוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת זוֹ עָלַי. אִם הָיָה אוֹתוֹ מְצֹרָע אוֹ הַיּוֹלֶדֶת עֲנִיִּים מֵבִיא הַנּוֹדֵר קָרְבַּן עָנִי. וְאִם הָיוּ עֲשִׁירִים מֵבִיא הַנּוֹדֵר קָרְבַּן עָשִׁיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנּוֹדֵר עָנִי:

10

[The following laws apply when] one says: "I promise to bring the sin-offering, burnt-offering, guilt-offering, and peace-offering of so-and-so." If that person agrees, he may allow him to bring those sacrifices for him and he receives atonement thereby. If he agreed at the time [the sacrificial animals] were set aside, but reneged and did not agree at the time they were offered,28 with regard to a burnt-offering and a peace-offering, they should be sacrificed and he receives atonement through them even if he does not consent at this time, because he agreed at the time [the sacrificial animals] were set aside. With regard to a sin-offering and a guilt-offering,29 by contrast, he does not receive atonement unless he consented from the beginning until the end.

י

הָאוֹמֵר חַטָּאתוֹ וְעוֹלָתוֹ וַאֲשָׁמוֹ וּשְׁלָמָיו שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי עָלַי. אִם רָצָה אוֹתוֹ פְּלוֹנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מְנִיחוֹ לְהַקְרִיבָן עַל יָדוֹ וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ. רָצָה בִּשְׁעַת הַפְרָשָׁה וְלֹא רָצָה בִּשְׁעַת הַקְרָבָה אֶלָּא חָזַר בּוֹ. בְּעוֹלָה וּבִשְׁלָמִים מַקְרִיבִין וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה עַתָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי רָצָה בִּשְׁעַת הַפְרָשָׁה. אֲבָל בְּחַטָּאת וּבְאָשָׁם לֹא נִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף:

11

One who says: "I promise to bring vows like the vows of the wicked who take upon themselves nazirite vows, sacrifices, and oaths," he is obligated in all [of his statements].30 If he says: "...as the vows of the upright," he is not obligated in anything.31 If he says: "as the pledges of the upright," his vow is binding32with regard to nazirite vows and sacrifices.33 All terms used to refer to sacrifices are considered as sacrifices.34

יא

הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי כְּנִדְרֵי רְשָׁעִים שֶׁמִּנִּדְרֵיהֶן נָזִיר וְקָרְבָּן וּשְׁבוּעָה חַיָּב בְּכֻלָּן. כְּנִדְרֵי כְּשֵׁרִין לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב כְּלוּם. הֲרֵי עָלַי כִּנְדָבוֹת כְּשֵׁרִין הֲרֵי זֶה נָדַר בְּנָזִיר וּבְקָרְבָּן. וְכָל כִּנּוּיֵי קָרְבָּן כְּקָרְבָּן:

12

Neither one who takes a vow or one who makes a pledge is liable unless his statements match his intent.35

What is implied? If one had the intent of saying: "I promise to bring a burnt-offering," but he said "...a peace-offering" or he had the intent of saying: "I promise to bring a peace-offering," but he said "...a burnt-offering," his words are of no substance. If, [however,] he intended to take a vow to bring a burnt-offering and said: "a sacrifice," or he intended to say devotion offerings36 and he said: "consecrated property," his statements are binding, for a burnt-offering is a sacrifice, and something designated as devotion offerings is consecrated. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

With regard to vows and pledges, it is not necessary for him to make any verbal statements. He is obligated even if he made a firm resolve in his heart without saying anything. What is implied? If one made a resolve in his heart that an animal should be designated as a burnt-offering or that he should bring a burnt-offering, he is obligated. [This is derived from Exodus 35:5]: "All those generous of heart shall bring it." Generosity in the heart [alone is sufficient to] establish an obligation to bring. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations involving vows and pledges for the consecration [of sacrifices].

יב

אֵין הַנּוֹדֵר וְלֹא הַמִּתְנַדֵּב חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא פִּיו וְלִבּוֹ שָׁוִין. כֵּיצַד. הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה וְאָמַר שְׁלָמִים. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ עוֹלָה וְאָמַר שְׁלָמִים לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. נִתְכַּוֵּן לִנְדֹּר בְּעוֹלָה וְאָמַר קָרְבָּן. לִנְדֹּר בְּחֵרֶם וְאָמַר הֶקְדֵּשׁ דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִים. שֶׁהָעוֹלָה קָרְבָּן וְהַחֵרֶם הֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. בִּנְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו כְּלוּם אֶלָּא אִם גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ וְלֹא הוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו כְּלוּם חַיָּב. כֵּיצַד. גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁזּוֹ עוֹלָה אוֹ שֶׁיָּבִיא עוֹלָה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב לְהָבִיא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לה ה) "כּל נְדִיב לֵב יְבִיאָהּ" בִּנְדִיבוּת לֵב יִתְחַיֵּב לְהָבִיא. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִנִּדְרֵי קָדָשִׁים וְנִדְבוּתָן:

13

With regard to vows and pledges and other commitments that a person makes that obligated him, endowment obligations, pledges for worth,37 tithes.38 and the presents to the poor,39 it is a positive commandment of Scriptural origin to bring everything on the festival of immediate proximity,40 as [Deuteronomy 12:5-6] states: "And you shall come there and you shall bring your burnt-offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes,... your vows, your pledges..."], as if to say: When you come [to Jerusalem] to celebrate a festival bring there everything that you are obligated and satisfy every obligation upon you.

If the festival arrived and he did not bring [the gifts in which he is obligated], he has negated the observance of a positive commandment. If three festivals pass without him bringing the sacrifices he vowed or pledged to bring or without giving the endowment obligations, devotion offerings, and pledges for worth, he violates a negative commandment,41 as [ibid. 23:22] states: "Do not delay in paying it." He does not violate the negative commandment until all of the three pilgrimage festivals of the year pass. Lashes are not given for the violation of this negative commandment, because it does not involve a deed.42

יג

אֶחָד נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת עִם שְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁאָדָם חַיָּב בָּהֶן מֵעֲרָכִין וְדָמִים וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת וּמַתְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁיָּבִיא הַכּל בָּרֶגֶל שֶׁפָּגַע בּוֹ תְּחִלָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב ה) "וּבָאתָ שָּׁמָּה" (דברים יב ו) "וַהֲבֵאתֶם שָׁמָּה" וְגוֹ' כְּלוֹמַר בְּעֵת שֶׁתָּבוֹא לָחֹג תָּבִיא כָּל מַה שֶׁאַתָּה חַיָּב בּוֹ וְתִתֵּן כָּל חוֹב שֶׁעָלֶיךָ לְשָׁם. הִגִּיעַ הָרֶגֶל וְלֹא הֵבִיא הֲרֵי זֶה בִּטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. עָבְרוּ עָלָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים וְלֹא הֵבִיא קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו שֶׁנָּדַר אוֹ הִתְנַדֵּב אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן הָעֲרָכִים וְהַחֲרָמִים וְהַדָּמִים הֲרֵי זֶה עָבַר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג כב) "לֹא תְאַחֵר לְשַׁלְּמוֹ" אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עָלָיו רַגְלֵי הַשָּׁנָה כֻּלָּהּ. וְאֵין לוֹקִין עַל לָאו זֶה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה:

14

If one consecrated an animal [to be offered] on the altar and [after] two festivals passed [without it being offered], it became blemished and it was redeemed for another animal, the person does not violate the negative commandment until three festivals pass without the second [animal being sacrificed].43

Both a man and a woman44 are liable for transgression [the prohibition against] delaying [the offering of a sacrifice]. An heir, however, does not violate this prohibition.45

יד

הִקְדִּישׁ בְּהֵמָה לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעָבְרוּ עָלָיו שְׁנֵי רְגָלִים וְנָפַל בָּהּ מוּם וּפְדָאָהּ עַל גַּב בְּהֵמָה אַחֶרֶת אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עַל הָאַחֶרֶת שְׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים. וְאֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁה עוֹבֵר בְּבַל תְּאַחֵר. אֲבָל הַיּוֹרֵשׁ אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּבַל תְּאַחֵר:

15

Despite the fact that three festivals passed, no [animal consecrated as] a sacrifice is disqualified. Instead, [such animals should be] sacrificed and they are acceptable. Each and every day that passes after the three pilgrimage festivals involves a violation of [the above] prohibition. The [Jewish] court is commanded to apply physical coercion to the person46 immediately until he offers his sacrifices on the first festival that presents itself.47

טו

כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁעָבְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים לֹא נִפְסְלוּ. אֶלָּא מַקְרִיבָן וּכְשֵׁרִים. וּבְכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם אַחַר הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים הוּא עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תְּאַחֵר. וּבֵית דִּין מְצַוִּין לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ מִיָּד עַד שֶׁיַּקְרִיב קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו בָּרֶגֶל שֶׁפָּגַע בּוֹ תְּחִלָּה:

16

Even though [Leviticus 1:3] states that [a burnt-offering must be sacrificed] "willfully," he may be compelled until he says: "I desire."48 Whether he vowed [to bring a sacrifice] and did not set it aside or set aside, but did not offer it, he may be compelled until he sacrifices it.

טז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא א ג) "לִרְצוֹנוֹ" כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר רוֹצֶה אֲנִי. בֵּין שֶׁנָּדַר וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ בֵּין שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ וְלֹא הִקְרִיב כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּקְרִיב:

17

[The court] seizes collateral from all of those obligated to bring burnt-offerings or peace-offerings [to compel them to offer them]. Even though [the sacrifice] will not bring him atonement unless he desires to offer it, as [implied by] the term "willfully," he is compelled until he says: "I desire."49 Collateral is not seized from those obligated to bring sin-offerings and guilt-offerings, by contrast. [The rationale is that] since [the failure to bring these sacrifices] prevents [the people] from receiving atonement,50 we are not concerned that they will be sinful and delay [bringing] their sacrifices. [The only] exception is the sin-offering brought by a nazirite. Since [the failure to bring] it does not prevent him from drinking wine,51 he is compelled [to bring the offering], lest he delay it.

יז

כָּל חַיָּבֵי עוֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים מְמַשְׁכְּנִין אוֹתָם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּרְצֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא א ג) "לִרְצֹנוֹ" כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר רוֹצֶה אֲנִי. אֲבָל חַיָּבֵי חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת אֵין מְמַשְׁכְּנִין אוֹתָן הוֹאִיל וְהֵם מְעֻכְּבֵי כַּפָּרָה אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהֶם שֶׁמָּא יִפְשְׁעוּ וְיַשְׁהוּ קָרְבְּנוֹתֵיהֶן. חוּץ מֵחַטַּאת נָזִיר הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָהּ מְעַכַּבְתּוֹ מִלִּשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן שֶׁמָּא יְאַחֵר אוֹתָהּ לְפִיכָךְ מְמַשְׁכְּנִין אוֹתוֹ עָלֶיהָ: