1

It is a positive commandment to prepare all of the meal-offerings1 according to the commandments prescribed by the Torah.

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לַעֲשׂוֹת כּל מִנְחָה כְּמִצְוָתָהּ הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה:

2

How was the chavitin offering of the High Priest prepared? He would bring an entire isaron and sanctify it2 and then divide it in half3 with the half isaron measure in the Temple. [This was necessary,] because even though it was offered in half [portions],4 it was not sanctified in half portions. Three lugim of oil are brought with it, as [Leviticus 6:13] states: "You shall prepare it with oil," i.e., [an amount of] oil equivalent to the accompanying offering for a lamb5 should be added to it.6 The flour should be mixed with the oil and then scalded7 with boiling [liquid].

Each half isaron should be kneaded into six loaves. Thus there are a total of twelve loaves.8

ב

וְכֵיצַד עֲשִׂיַּת חֲבִיתֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. מֵבִיא עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם וּמַקְדִּישׁוֹ וְחוֹצֵהוּ בַּחֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא קְרֵבָה חֶצְיָן אֵינָהּ מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת לְחֶצְיָן. וּמֵבִיא עִמָּהּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין שֶׁמֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו יד) "בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה" לְהוֹסִיף לָהּ שֶׁמֶן כְּנִסְכֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׂ. וּבוֹלֵל הַסּלֶת בְּשֶׁמֶן וְחוֹלְטָהּ בְּרוֹתְחִין. וְלָשׁ מִכָּל חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן שֵׁשׁ חַלּוֹת. נִמְצְאוּ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה חַלּוֹת:

3

[These loaves] were prepared one by one.

How were they prepared? The three lugim of oil would be divided [into twelve] using the measure of a revi'it [of a log] that existed in the Temple,9a revi'it for each loaf. The loaf would be baked some and then fried on the flat frying-pan with the remainder of its oil.10 It should not be cooked very much,11 for [Leviticus 6:14] uses the term tufinei which implies something between cooked and lightly cooked.12

ג

וְאַחַת אַחַת הָיוּ נַעֲשׂוֹת. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. מְחַלֵּק הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין בִּרְבִיעִית שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. רְבִיעִית לְכָל חַלָּה. וְאוֹפָהּ הַחַלָּה מְעַט וְאַחַר כָּךְ קוֹלֶה אוֹתָהּ עַל הַמַּחֲבַת בִּשְׁאָר רְבִיעִית הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁלָּהּ. וְאֵינוֹ מְבַשְּׁלָהּ הַרְבֵּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו יד) "תֻּפִינֵי" בֵּין בָּשֵׁל וְנָא:

4

Afterwards, each loaf should be divided into two13 by approximation,14so that half can be offered in the morning and half in the evening.15 He should take the halves and fold each one of them in half and then divide [the loaves at] the folds so that each flat cake will be folded in half. He then offers the halves with half of a handful of frankincense in the morning and the remaining half with half a handful of frankincense in the evening.16

If it is an initiation offering,17 it is not divided in half. Instead, it is offered entirely as a single entity together with the handful of frankincense. Both of them are consumed entirely by the altar's pyre.18

ד

וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹלֵק כָּל חַלָּה וְחַלָּה לִשְׁנַיִם בְּאֹמֶד. כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּקְרִיב הַחֵצִי בַּבֹּקֶר וְהַחֵצִי בָּעֶרֶב וְלוֹקֵחַ הַחֲצָיִים וְכוֹפֵל כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לִשְׁנַיִם וּפוֹתֵת עַד שֶׁתִּמָּצֵא כָּל פְּתִיתָה כְּפוּלָה לִשְׁנַיִם. וּמַקְרִיב הַחֲצָיִין עִם חֲצִי קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה בַּבֹּקֶר וְהַחֵצִי הַנִּשְׁאָר עִם חֲצִי קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה בָּעֶרֶב. וְאִם הָיְתָה מִנְחַת חִנּוּךְ אֵינוֹ חוֹצֶה אֶלָּא מַקְרִיבָהּ כֻּלָּהּ כְּאַחַת עִם קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן כָּלִיל לָאִשִּׁים:

5

How is a meal-offering of fine flour prepared? One brings an isaron19 - or several isaronot or [many,] according to his vow20 - of fine flour and the oil appropriate for it.21 The flour should be measured in the isaron measure22 of the Temple. Oil should be placed in23 a container24 and the flour poured upon it and then other oil should be poured over the flour and the flour mixed in it. Afterwards, it is placed in a sacred vessel and oil is poured into it. The total of the oil placed first, that mixed with the flour, and that poured upon it is a log for a isaron. Frankincense is placed upon it.25

ה

מִנְחַת הַסּלֶת כֵּיצַד הָיְתָה נַעֲשֵׂית. מֵבִיא עִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת אוֹ כַּמָּה עֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת אוֹ כְּפִי נִדְרוֹ וְשֶׁמֶן הָרָאוּי לָהּ וּמוֹדֵד בְּעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל מִקְדָּשׁ. וְנוֹתֵן שֶׁמֶן בִּכְלִי. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן עָלָיו אֶת הַסּלֶת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן שֶׁמֶן אַחֵר עַל הַסּלֶת וּבוֹלֵל הַסּלֶת בּוֹ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתְנָהּ בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת וְצָק לְתוֹכָהּ שֶׁמֶן. וְשֶׁמֶן שֶׁנָּתַן תְּחִלָּה עִם הַשֶּׁמֶן הַבָּלוּל עִם שֶׁמֶן שֶׁיָּצַק הַכּל לוֹג לְעִשָּׂרוֹן וְנוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ לְבוֹנָתָהּ:

6

How are a meal-offering [cooked in] a flat frying-pan and one [cooked in] a deep frying pan prepared? Oil should be placed in a container and the flour poured upon it and then other oil should be poured over the flour and the flour mixed in it. Afterwards, it should be kneaded with warm water26 and baked in a flat frying-pan or a deep frying-pan as he vowed. It is broken into pieces27 and placed in a sacred vessel and the remainder of the oil is poured upon it. [Then] its frankincense is placed [upon it].

ו

מִנְחַת הַמַּחֲבַת וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת כֵּיצַד. נוֹתֵן הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּכְלִי וְנוֹתֵן עָלָיו הַסּלֶת. וְנוֹתֵן עַל הַסּלֶת שֶׁמֶן אַחֵר וּבוֹלֵל הַסּלֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ לָשָׁהּ בְּפוֹשְׁרִין וְאוֹפֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּמַחֲבַת אוֹ בַּמַּרְחֶשֶׁת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּדַר. וּפוֹתֵת אוֹתָהּ פִּתִּים וְנוֹתְנָהּ בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת וְיוֹצֵק עָלֶיהָ שְׁאָר הַשֶּׁמֶן וְנוֹתֵן לְבוֹנָתָהּ:

7

What is the difference between a flat frying-pan and a deep frying pan? A deep frying-pan has an edge28 and the dough cooked in it is soft,29 because since it has an edge, [the dough] does not drip off. The flat frying-pan does not have an edge. The dough cooked in it is firm so that it will not drip off to either side.

ז

מַה בֵּין מַחֲבַת לְמַרְחֶשֶׁת. מַרְחֶשֶׁת יֵשׁ לָהּ שָׂפָה וְהַבָּצֵק שֶׁאוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עָלֶיהָ רַךְ שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהּ שָׂפָה וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא. וּמַחֲבַת אֵין לָהּ שָׂפָה וְהַבָּצֵק שֶׁאוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ בָּהּ קָשֶׁה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן:

8

How is a meal-offering baked in an oven prepared? If it is of loaves, one should mix the flour with oil,30 knead it with warm water, and bake it. [Afterwards,] it is broken into pieces, placed in a sacred utensil, and its frankincense is placed upon it. Oil is not poured over it, as [indicated by Leviticus 2:4]: "loaves of matzah mixed with oil."31

If it is of wafers, one should need the flour with warm water and smear the wafers with oil, as [ibid.] states "wafers of matzah smeared with oil." It appears to me that they should be smeared after they are baked.32

ח

מִנְחַת מַאֲפֵה תַּנּוּר כֵּיצַד. אִם חַלּוֹת הִיא בּוֹלֵל הַסּלֶת בְּשֶׁמֶן וְלָשׁ בְּפוֹשְׁרִין וְאוֹפֶה וּפוֹתֵת וְנוֹתֵן בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת וְנוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ לְבוֹנָתָהּ וְאֵין בָּהּ יְצִיקַת שֶׁמֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב ד) "חַלּוֹת מַצֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן". וְאִם רְקִיקִין הִיא לָשׁ אֶת הַסּלֶת בְּפוֹשְׁרִין וּמוֹשֵׁחַ אֶת הָרְקִיקִין בְּשֶׁמֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב ד) "וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן". וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאַחַר אֲפִיָּה מוֹשֵׁחַ אוֹתָם:

9

How are they smeared? One brings a log of oil for every isaron and smears them and then smears them again until all of the oil in the log is finished.

ט

וְכֵיצַד מוֹשְׁחָן. מֵבִיא לוֹג שֶׁמֶן לְכָל עִשָּׂרוֹן וּמוֹשְׁחָן וְחוֹזֵר וּמוֹשְׁחָן עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה כָּל הַשֶּׁמֶן שָׁבַּלֹּג:

10

All of these four types of baked33 meal-offerings, when they are baked, they are baked when dividing [each] isaron into ten loaves.34 If, however, one added or subtracted loaves, it is acceptable.35

How are they36 broken into pieces? Each loaf should be folded into two and then the double fold into four37 and then [the folds] should be separated. If the meal-offering was brought by males of the priestly family,38 they should not be separated and broken off. All of the pieces should be the size of an olive.39 If, however, one made them larger or smaller, [the offering] is acceptable.

י

כָּל אַרְבַּע מְנָחוֹת אֵלּוּ הָאֲפוּיוֹת. כְּשֶׁאוֹפִין אוֹתָן אוֹפִין כָּל עִשָּׂרוֹן עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת. וְאִם רִבָּה בְּחַלּוֹת אוֹ חִסֵּר כְּשֵׁרָה. וְכֵיצַד פּוֹתְתִין אוֹתָן. כּוֹפֵל הַחַלָּה לִשְׁנַיִם וְהַשְּׁנַיִם לְאַרְבָּעָה וּמַבְדִּיל. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁל זִכְרֵי כְּהֻנָּה אֵינוֹ מַבְדִּיל וּפוֹתֵת. וְכֻלָּן פְּתִיתִין כְּזֵיתִים. וְאִם הִגְדִּיל הַפְּתִיתִין אוֹ הִקְטִין אוֹתָן כְּשֵׁרִים:

11

If one did not mix [the oil into the meal],40 fold [the loaves], bring [the meal-offering to the corner of the altar],41 or smear the wafers [with oil],42 [the offerings] are acceptable.43 All of these matters were mentioned only as a mitzvah,44 for it is a mitzvah [to bring the meal-offerings] in this manner.

יא

לֹא בָּלַל לֹא פָּתַת לֹא הִגִּישׁ לֹא מָשַׁח אֶת הָרְקִיקִין כְּשֵׁרָה. לֹא נֶאֶמְרוּ כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה שֶׁכָּךְ הִיא מִצְוָתָהּ:

12

What is the order in which the meal-offering is brought? A person should bring flour from his home in a container of silver, gold, or another type of metal, a container that is fit [to be sanctified] as a sacred vessel.45

If it is a meal-offering of flour, he should place it in a sacred utensil and consecrate it46 in the sacred utensil.47 If it is one of the meal-offerings that are baked48 it should be baked there in the Temple and broken into pieces as we explained.49 The pieces should be placed into a sacred utensil and its oil and frankincense placed upon it. It should then be brought to a priest50 who brings it to the altar. He approaches the southwest corner of the altar with it. That is sufficient.51

He then moves all of its frankincense to one side52 and gathers a handful from the place where the majority of its oil has collected, as [Leviticus 2:2] states: "[He shall take a full handful] from its flour and from its oil." He places the handful in a sacred vessel and consecrates it in the sacred vessel.53 If a handful [from a meal-offering] was divided into two vessels, it is not consecrated. [Instead,] he should go back and consecrate it [in a single vessel].54

He should gather all of its frankincense and place it on the handful of flour in the vessel and take it up to the altar. He should salt it55 and place it on the pyre with a sacred utensil.56 If the meal-offering is brought by [male] priests, he does not take a handful. Instead, he salts the entire offering and tosses everything on the pyre.

יב

סֵדֶר הֲבָאַת הַמִּנְחָה כֵּיצַד. מֵבִיא אָדָם סלֶת מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ בִּקְלָתוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף אוֹ שֶׁל זָהָב אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לִכְלֵי שָׁרֵת. וְאִם הָיְתָה מִנְחַת הַסּלֶת נוֹתְנָהּ לִכְלִי שָׁרֵת וּמְקַדְּשָׁהּ בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת. וְאִם הָיְתָה מִן הַמְּנָחוֹת הַנֶּאֱפוֹת אוֹפֶה אוֹתָהּ שָׁם בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וּפוֹתֵת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְנוֹתֵן הַפְּתִיתִין לִכְלִי שָׁרֵת וְנוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ שַׁמְנָהּ וּלְבוֹנָתָהּ וּמוֹלִיכָהּ אֵצֶל כֹּהֵן. וְהַכֹּהֵן מוֹלִיכָהּ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַגִּישָׁהּ בְּקֶרֶן דְּרוֹמִית מַעֲרָבִית כְּנֶגֶד חֻדָּהּ שֶׁל קֶרֶן וְדַיּוֹ. וּמְסַלֵּק אֶת כָּל לְבוֹנָתָהּ לְצַד אֶחָד וְקוֹמֵץ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְרַבָּה שַׁמְנָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב ב) "מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ". וְנוֹתֵן הַקֹּמֶץ לִכְלִי שָׁרֵת וּמְקַדְּשׁוֹ בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת. וְקֹמֶץ שֶׁחִלְּקוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי כֵּלִים אֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ. וְחוֹזֵר וּמְקַדֵּשׁ וּמְלַקֵּט אֶת כָּל לְבוֹנָתָהּ וְנוֹתְנָהּ עַל הַקֹּמֶץ שֶׁבַּכְּלִי וּמַעֲלֵהוּ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמוֹלְחוֹ. וְנוֹתְנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאִשִּׁים מִכְּלִי שָׁרֵת. וְאִם מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים הִיא אֵינוֹ קוֹמֵץ אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן מֶלַח עַל כֻּלָּהּ וּמַשְׁלִיךְ הַכּל עַל גַּבֵּי הָאִשִּׁים:

13

How is a handful [of flour]57 taken from those meal-offerings from which it is taken? As any person would take a handful. He extends his fingers58 over the palm of his hand and closes them.59

If he gathered the flour only with his fingertips60 or from the side [of the container],61 he should not offer it on the altar's pyre. If he does so, nevertheless, it is accepted.62 If he added to the handful, i.e., he spread out his fingers and closed them,63 it is unacceptable.

יג

כֵּיצַד קוֹמְצִין מְנָחוֹת הַנִּקְמָצוֹת. כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹמֵץ כָּל הָאָדָם פּוֹשֵׁט אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו עַל פַּס יָדוֹ וְקוֹמֵץ. קָמַץ בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו אוֹ מִן הַצְּדָדִין לֹא יַקְטִיר וְאִם הִקְטִיר הֻרְצָה. וְאִם הוֹסִיף בַּקֹּמֶץ כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִרְחִיק אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְקָמַץ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל:

14

A handful should not be less than two olive-sized portions.64 [Bringing every] portion of the handful is an absolute requirement in [bringing] the entire handful.65 [Bringing both] the handful [of flour] and the frankincense are absolute requirements for [bringing] either of them.66 [Bringing both] the flour and the oil are absolute requirements for [bringing] either of them.67 [Bringing] even a portion of the oil is an absolute requirement in [bringing] the entire quantity.68 Less than a log [of oil] should not [be brought] for every isaron of flour, as we explained.69

יד

אֵין קֹמֶץ פָּחוֹת מִכִּשְׁנֵי זֵיתִים. וּמִקְצָת הַקֹּמֶץ מְעַכֵּב אֶת כֻּלּוֹ. וְהַקֹּמֶץ וְהַלְּבוֹנָה מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. הַסּלֶת וְהַשֶּׁמֶן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה וּמִקְצָת הַשֶּׁמֶן מְעַכֵּב אֶת כֻּלּוֹ. אֵין פָּחוֹת מִלּוֹג לְעִשָּׂרוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ: