1

Anyone1 who eats an olive-sized portion2 of the meat of a burnt-offering, whether before its blood is sprinkled [on the altar] or afterwards,3 is liable for lashes,4 as [implied by Deuteronomy 12:17]: "You may not eat in your gates the tithe of your grain...5 and [the sacrifices brought because of] the vows that you take." According to the Oral Tradition,6 it was taught that this is a warning against partaking of the meat of a burnt-offering.7

א

כָּל הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הָעוֹלָה בֵּין לִפְנִי זְרִיקַת דָּמָהּ בֵּין לְאַחַר זְרִיקַת דָּמָהּ לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב יז) "וְכָל נְדָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּדֹּר". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ אַזְהָרָה לְאוֹכֵל בְּשַׂר הָעוֹלָה:

2

Its fat, its meat, and the flour, oil, and wine of its accompanying offering - all five [of these components] can be combined to comprise this olive-sized portion.8

ב

וְחֶלְבָּהּ וּבְשָׂרָהּ וְסָלְתָּהּ וְשַׁמְנָהּ וְיַיִן שֶׁל נְסָכֶיהָ חֲמִשְּׁתָן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת:

3

Similarly, one who partakes of an olive-sized portion9 of any of the portions of the sacrifices to be offered on the altar's pyre, whether before the blood [of the sacrifice] is sprinkled [on the altar] or afterwards, whether he is a priest or an Israelite, is liable for lashes.10 For the portions to be offered on the altar's pyre must be totally consumed like the totality of the burnt offering. Now [Leviticus 6:16] states with regard to a meal-offering of a priest: "It shall be totally consumed; it should not be eaten." [From this, we derive that] there is a negative commandment [prohibiting] partaking of anything that should be consumed by [the fire of] the altar.11 One is liable for lashes for eating an olive-sized portion [of such substances].

Similarly, anyone who eats an olive-sized portion of any of the sin-offerings that must be burnt12 is liable for lashes,13 as [ibid.:23] states: "Any sin-offering whose blood is brought into the Tent of Meeting... should not be eaten. It should be burnt with fire."

ג

וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִכָּל הָאֵימוּרִין בֵּין לִפְנֵי זְרִיקָה בֵּין לְאַחַר זְרִיקָה בֵּין כֹּהֵן בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹקֶה. שֶׁהָאֵימוּרִין כָּלִיל לַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּכָל הָעוֹלָה וַהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בְּמִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים (ויקרא ו טז) "כָּלִיל תִּהְיֶה לֹא תֵאָכֵל" כָּל שֶׁהוּא כָּלִיל לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲכִילָתוֹ בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלוֹקִין עָלָיו בִּכְזַיִת. וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאוֹת הַנִּשְׂרָפוֹת לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו כג) "וְכָל חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר יוּבָא מִדָּמָהּ אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד" (ויקרא ו כג) "לֹא תֵאָכֵל בָּאֵשׁ תִּשָּׂרֵף":

4

Anyone who partakes of an olive-sized portion of the meat of any of the sacrifices - even sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity - before their blood is sprinkled [on the altar]14 is liable for lashes,15 as it is written: "You may not eat in your gates the tithe of your grain, your wine, and your oil... and [the sacrifices brought because of] your pledges." Implied is that you may not eat [the sacrifices brought because of] your pledges in your gates before their blood is sprinkled [on the altar] in God's gates.

According to the Oral Tradition,16 it was taught that this is a warning against partaking of [the meat of] a thanksgiving-offering or a peace-offering before the sprinkling of its blood. This also applies to [the meat of] other sacrifices, whether sacrifices of the highest order of sanctity or those of a lesser degree.17 The six components of the thanksgiving offering, the fat, the meat, the flour, the oil, the wine,18 and the bread, may all be combined to comprise the olive-sized portion [for which one is liable].

ד

כָּל הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הַקָּדָשִׁים אֲפִלּוּ קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים קֹדֶם זְרִיקַת דָּמָם לוֹקֶה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ" (דברים יב יז) "וְנִדְבֹתֶיךָ". כְּלוֹמַר לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל נִדְבוֹתֶיךָ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ קֹדֶם שֶׁזּוֹרְקִין דָּמָן בְּשַׁעֲרֵי הַמָּקוֹם. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ אַזְהָרָה לְאוֹכֵל תּוֹדָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים קדֶם זְרִיקַת דָּמִים. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר קָדָשִׁים בֵּין קַלִּים בֵּין חֲמוּרִים. וְשִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּתוֹדָה שֶׁהֵם הַחֵלֶב וְהַבָּשָׂר וְהַסּלֶת וְהַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַיַּיִן וְהַלֶּחֶם כֻּלָּן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת:

5

Anyone who partakes of an olive-sized portion of the meat of any of the [sacrifices of] the most sacred order that was taken outside of the walls of the Temple Courtyard and meat from [sacrifices of] a lesser degree of sanctity that was taken outside Jerusalem is liable for lashes,19 as [implied by] the verse: "You may not eat in your gates the tithe of your grain, your wine, your oil, and the firstborn of your cattle and your sheep...." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that this is a warning against partaking of [the meat of] a sin-offering or a guilt-offering outside the Temple Courtyard. Similarly, one who partakes of [the meat of] the sacrifices of lesser sanctity outside Jerusalem is liable for lashes. For with regard to sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity, the walls of Jerusalem are comparable to the walls of the Temple Courtyard with regard to sacrifices of the most sacred order. [Included equally are] the meat of the sin-offerings and the guilt-offerings and what remains of the meal-offerings.20

ה

כָּל הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקָרְךָ וְצֹאנֶךָ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ אַזְהָרָה לְאוֹכֵל מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְאוֹכֵל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֶה. שֶׁחוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לְקָדָשִׁים קַלִּים כְּחוֹמַת הָעֲזָרָה לְקָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים. וְאֶחָד בְּשַׂר חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם אוֹ שְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת:

6

Meat from [sacrifices of] the most sacred order that was taken outside of the walls of the Temple Courtyard and meat from [sacrifices of] a lesser degree of sanctity that was taken outside Jerusalem is disqualified and is forbidden forever. Even if it is taken back to its place, it is forbidden to partake of it. One who eats an olive-sized portion of it21 is liable for lashes, as [implied by Exodus 22:30]: "Meat in a field [from an animal that is] treifah, you shall not eat." Once meat has left its designated place, it is considered as treifah, as we explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.22

ו

בְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לְחוֹמַת הָעֲזָרָה וּבְשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לְחוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם נִפְסַל וְנֶאֱסַר לְעוֹלָם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר לִמְקוֹמוֹ אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ וְהָאוֹכֵל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת לוֹקֶה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב ל) "וּבָשָׂר בַּשָּׂדֶה טְרֵפָה לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ". כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא בָּשָׂר חוּץ לִמְחִיצָתוֹ נַעֲשָׂה כִּטְרֵפָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת:

7

If meat from [sacrifices of] a lesser degree of sanctity was taken into the Temple Building, it is acceptable.23

ז

נִכְנַס בְּשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים לַהֵיכָל הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר:

8

A non-priest who ate an olive-sized portion of meat from sacrifices of the most sacred order24 in the Temple Courtyard after their blood was sprinkled [on the altar] is liable for lashes,25 as [Exodus 29:33] states: "And they shall partake of [the sacrifices] which bring them atonement... and a non-priest shall not partake of them." [The association teaches26 that when sacrificial meat] was eaten by a non-priest in a place where a priest partakes of it and at a time when it is fit to be eaten, he is liable for lashes. If, however, a non-priest ate an olive-sized portion of meat from sacrifices of the most sacred order outside [the Temple Courtyard], he is liable for lashes for partaking of the sacrificial meat outside [the Temple Courtyard]27 and not because [of the prohibition against] a non-priest partaking of sacrificial foods,28 for they are not fit to be eaten by priests there. Similarly, if [a non-priest] partook of [such meat] in the Temple Courtyard before [the blood] was sprinkled [on the altar], he is liable for lashes only for partaking [of the meat] before the sprinkling of the blood, not because of [partaking of it] as a non-priest.

ח

זָר שֶׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים בָּעֲזָרָה אַחַר זְרִיקַת דָּמִים לוֹקֶה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כט לג) "וְאָכְלוּ אֹתָם אֲשֶׁר כֻּפַּר בָּהֶם" וְגוֹ' (שמות כט לג) "וְזָר לֹא יֹאכַל" וְגוֹ'. בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַכֹּהֵן אוֹכֵל וּבְעֵת שֶׁרָאוּי לֶאֱכל אִם אֲכָלוֹ שָׁם הַזָּר לוֹקֶה. אֲבָל אִם אָכַל הַזָּר בְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ לוֹקֶה מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל בַּחוּץ לֹא מִשּׁוּם זָר שֶׁאָכַל קֹדֶשׁ. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָם רְאוּיִין שָׁם לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְכֵן אִם אֲכָלָן בָּעֲזָרָה קֹדֶם זְרִיקָה לוֹקֶה מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל קֹדֶם זְרִיקָה בִּלְבַד לֹא מִשּׁוּם זָרוּת:

9

A non-priest who ate an olive-sized portion of meat from a sin-offering from fowl is liable for two sets of lashes: one because he is non-priest partaking of sacred meat29 and one because he is partaking of a neveilah.30 For every [fowl killed by] melikah31 is a neveilah.32 When license was granted to partake of it, it was granted to priests, but not to non-priests. These two prohibitions are considered as two prohibitions that take effect at the same time,33 as we explained.34

ט

זָר שֶׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת מֵחַטַּאת הָעוֹף לוֹקֶה שְׁתַּיִם. אַחַת מִשּׁוּם זָר שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ. וְאַחַת מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל נְבֵלָה. שֶׁכָּל מְלִיקָה נְבֵלָה הִיא וּכְשֶׁהֻתְּרָה לַכֹּהֲנִים הֻתְּרָה לֹא לְזָרִים. וַהֲרֵי הֵן שְׁנֵי אִסּוּרִין הַבָּאִין כְּאֶחָד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ: