For an explanation of the methodology of this series, see the introduction.

"And if, during these, you will not listen to Me, I will add another seven punishments for your sins." (Levit. 26:28)

Peshat (basic meaning):

Rashi: "And if, during these"
and if, while these [curses/punishments are transpiring], you [still] will not listen to Me.

"I will add": more sufferings of a different [nature].

"another seven...for your sins"
Seven retributions for your seven sins that have been enumerated earlier [not sevenfold for your sins].
...G‑d is just and does not punish unfairly.

Siftei Chachamim: The verse does not mean that they will be punished seven times as much as they deserve, for G‑d is just and does not punish unfairly.

Remez (hinted meaning):

Baal HaTurim: "If during this "
The final letters [mem-dalet-hei] of these 3 words ["im ad elah"] spell the word Mida/measure, for G‑d promises "I will measure out your recompense, measure for measure."

Derash (interpretive meaning):

Ohr HaChayim: "if you do not listen to me":
Teshuvah is made conditional on "listening" to G‑d, i.e. studying Torah. True repentance is impossible without Torah study.

"sevenfold for your sins":
The Torah does not mean that G‑d will exact seven retributions for each sin but that G‑d will exact retribution for the sins of the Jewish people, which number 7:
1) failure to listen
2) failure to do
3) relating to the statutes with disdain
4)loathing of G‑d's social laws
5) preventing others from doing commandments
6)breaking G‑d's covenant
7) remaining unaffected by G‑d's penalties.

This explains what the Sages meant when they said: "Three books are open on Rosh Hashanah: one contains that names of totally wicked, one contains the names of totally righteous, and one contains the names of average people whose merits and demerits are in balance. The latter are given until Yom Kippur to see if they repent, if they fail to do, they will be inscribed in the book of confirmed sinners." (Rosh Hashanah 16)

Targum Yonatan: And if after these chastisements you are not willing to obey the doctrines of My law, I will add to punish you with seven plagues, for the seven transgressions with which you have sinned before Me.

Sod (esoteric, mystical meaning):

He will not give Judgments to the Prosecutors with which to destroy the world...

Zohar Bechukotai 115:
It says of this, "I will not curse the ground any more for man's sake." (Gen. 8:21) What is the meaning of, "I will not curse the ground any more"? It means that He will not give Judgments to the Prosecutors with which to destroy the world but no more than the world can bear. It is therefore written: "then I will punish you no more..." (Lev. 26:8) He will surely give more.

Why would He give more? To punish you "seven times for your sins." Seven times? Had G‑d collected His due, the world would not have been able to bear it for a single moment, as is written: "If You, G‑d, should mark iniquities, who could stand?" (Ps. 130:3) Yet you say, "seven times for your sins."

What the verse teaches us "seven times," is this. Behold, seven is before you. Who is she? She is the Sabbatical Year, which is seven. For She is called 'seven,' as it says, "At the end of every seven years you shall make a release." (Deut. 15:1) Therefore, "seven times for your sins." She is called 'seven' and 'daughter of seven'. What is the difference between them? In saying seven only, it means to have a release, to execute Judgments, and to set everyone free. She is called 'daughter of seven' when attached to another to illuminate and rule over her kingdom and make known the Kingship throughout the land and to everyone. She is then called 'the daughter of seven'. Hence, it is written: "the name of the city is Beer-Sheva (lit. 'well of seven') until this day." (Gen. 26:33) The well of seven is Isaac's well. Everything is one.

Rabbi Aba said: "and I will chastise you, even I, seven times for your sins." (Lev. 26:28) "And I will chastise you," through other attendants, as already explained. "Even I;" "I" who is roused to save you; "seven" is which is roused towards you.

Come and see: G‑d bears a sublime love for Israel. Like a king who had an only son who constantly sinned against him. One day, as he sinned against the king, the king said: 'I have beaten you previously, but you have not learned. From now on, see what I shall do to you. If I drive you out of the land, and deport you from the kingdom, wild bears, wild wolves, or murderers might attack you and kill you. What shall I do? We shall both leave the country.'

Similarly, the words "even I," mean that I and you shall leave the land. This is what G‑d said to Israel: 'I have warned you but you did not lend your ears. I have brought warriors and angels of destruction upon you to beat you, but you have not hearkened. If I drive you out of the land on your own, I fear that bears and wolves will attack and kill you. What then shall I do to you? You and I shall leave the land and go into exile.' This is the meaning of, "and I will chastise you"; we shall go into exile. 'You may say that I will leave you, but "even I," am with you.' " times for your sins," that is, seven will be deported with you. For what reason? "For your sins."
...though Israel are in exile, the Holy One, blessed be He, is with them...
This is the meaning of, "for your transgressions was your mother put away." (Is. 50:1) G‑d said: 'You brought it about that you and I shall not dwell in the land. Behold the Matron leaving the palace with you. Observe everything in ruin; My palace and yours, in ruins.' For the palace is not fit for a King, save when He enters it together with the Matron. The King then rejoices only when He enters the Matron's palace, since She is with Her children in the palace. All may then rejoice. 'Now that the son and the Matron are not here, My palace is in ruins. What shall I do? I shall go with you.' And now, though Israel are in exile, the Holy One, blessed be He, is with them, and does not leave them. When Israel are released from the exile, G‑d will return with them, as it is written: "the L-rd your G‑d will return your captivity." (Deut. 30:3) Indeed, " the L-rd your G‑d will [himself] return;" We have already explained this.

BeRahamim LeHayyim:
"It's not nice to fool Mother Nature", as said in the old Parkay Margarine ad. For our purposes, it's certainly not nice to fool with Mother Nature, HaTeva, which has the numerical value as G‑d’s name Elokim, reflecting strict judgment.

Modern Judaism tends to portray the manifestation of G‑d known as Shechinah as all sweetness, like a soft cuddly Mother Nature, who is nurturing at all times. True, She is all that plus more than we could ever fathom, but just as a she-bear can be gentle to her cubs, woe is the one who messes with her turf! And as we recall from the Pesach Haggadah, where Shechinah is mentioned; right after we mention a sword of strict judgment:

"And with a great terror," this refers to the revelation of the Shechinah, as it is said: "Has any G‑d ever tried to take for himself a nation from the midst of another nation, with trials, signs and wonders, with war and with a strong hand and an outstretched arm, and with great manifestations, like all that G-D your G‑d, did for you in Egypt before your eyes.
We know that "all 7’s are cherished," and 7 represents the natural world and Shabbat. Perhaps the Zohar above is trying to give over is that if we mess with the 7, namely the Sabbatical year mandates then we will be repaid back by the 7. The Seventh sefira (malchut), who is Rachel crying for her children — also stands for the Shechinah who goes into exile with us.

What can we do to get back to the garden is at first an individual question before a communal one. We need to make a place in our hearts for G‑d to dwell amongst us. That means first and foremost love. L-rd knows we have had enough judgment! Shechinah is there, if we let Her in. Meditate on what that means, and feel the difference.

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