Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 21

22If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death, and he is put to death, you shall [then] hang him on a pole.   כבוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה בְאִ֗ישׁ חֵ֛טְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֖וֶת וְהוּמָ֑ת וְתָלִ֥יתָ אֹת֖וֹ עַל־עֵֽץ:
If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death: The juxtaposition of these passages [i.e., this one and that of the wayward and rebellious son] teaches [us] that if his father and mother spare him, he will eventually lead an evil life style and commit [grave] sins for which he will be sentenced to death by the court. — [Tanchuma 1]   וְכִי־יִֽהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת: סְמִיכוּת הַפָּרָשִׁיּוֹת מַגִּיד שֶׁאִם חָסִים עָלָיו אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, סוֹף שֶׁיֵּצֵא לְתַרְבּוּת רָעָה וְיַעֲבֹר עֲבֵרוֹת וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה בְּבֵית דִּין (עי' תנחומא):
you shall [then] hang him on a pole: Our Rabbis said: All who are stoned [by the court] must [afterwards] be hanged, for the verse (23) says, “a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God.” [Thus, we find that the sin of blasphemy is connected with hanging,] and a blasphemer is punished by stoning. [Consequently, our Rabbis taught that all those stoned must be hanged.]- [San. 45b]   וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵֽץ: רַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ, כָּל הַנִּסְקָלִין נִתְלִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כִּי קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי", וְהַמְבָרֵךְ ה' בִּסְקִילָה (סנהדרין מ"ה):
23But you shall not leave his body on the pole overnight. Rather, you shall bury him on that [same] day, for a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God, and you shall not defile your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance.   כגלֹֽא־תָלִ֨ין נִבְלָת֜וֹ עַל־הָעֵ֗ץ כִּֽי־קָב֤וֹר תִּקְבְּרֶ֨נּוּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־קִלְלַ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים תָּל֑וּי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמֵּא֙ אֶת־אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָֽה:
For a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God: Heb. קִלְלַת אלֹהִים. This is a degradation of the [Divine] King in Whose image Man is created, and the Israelites are God’s children. This is comparable to two identical twin brothers. One [of them] became king, while the other was arrested for robbery and hanged. Whoever saw him [the second brother, suspended on the gallows], would say, “The king is hanging!” [Therefore, the king ordered, and they removed him (Reggio ed.).] - [Sanh. 46b] Wherever [the term] קְלָלָה appears in Scripture, it means treating lightly (הָקֵל) and degrading. For example, “[And behold, you have with you Shimei the son of Gera…] and he cursed me with a severe curse (וְהוּא קִלְלַנִי קְלָלָה נִמְרֶצֶת)” (I Kings 2:8). - [See II Sam. 16:5-13]   כִּֽי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי: זִלְזוּלוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הוּא, שֶׁאָדָם עָשׂוּי בִּדְמוּת דְּיוֹקָנוֹ, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם בָּנָיו; מָשָׁל לִשְׁנֵי אַחִים תְּאוֹמִים שֶׁהָיוּ דּוֹמִים זֶה לָזֶה, אֶחָד נַעֲשָׂה מֶלֶךְ וְאֶחָד נִתְפַּס לְלִסְטִיּוּת וְנִתְלָה, כָּל הָרוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ אוֹמֵר הַמֶּלֶךְ תָּלוּי. כָּל קְלָלָה שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא לְשׁוֹן הָקֵל וְזִלְזוּל, כְּמוֹ (מלכים א ב') "וְהוּא קִלְלַנִי קְלָלָה נִמְרֶצֶת":

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 22

1You shall not see your brother's ox or sheep straying, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall return them to your brother.   אלֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־שׁ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֵ֖ם לְאָחִֽיךָ:
and ignore them: [I.e.,] by covering one’s eyes, pretending not to see it.   וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ: כּוֹבֵשׁ עַיִן כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רוֹאֵהוּ:
You shall not see… and ignore them: Heb. לֹא-תִרְאֶה וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ [lit., “You shall not see them… but rather, you shall ignore them!” What it really means is:] You shall not see them and ignore them [i.e., ignore your brother’s animals straying]; that is the simple meaning of the verse. Our Rabbis, however, explain that [although the verse clearly means that one must not ignore them, nevertheless, the verse is alluding to] situations when one is, in fact, permitted to ignore them [for example, if he is a kohen , and the animals have wandered into a cemetery, where kohanim may not enter, or if he is an honored sage, and it it is beneath his dignity to lead animals or carry packages in public places-he may “ignore” them, and he is not obligated to return them to his brother]. — [Sifrei 22:45, B.M. 30a]   לֹֽא־תִרְאֶה … וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ: לֹא תִרְאֶה אוֹתוֹ שֶׁתִּתְעַלֵּם מִמֶּנּוּ, זֶהוּ פְּשׁוּטוֹ. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ פְּעָמִים שֶׁאַתָּה מִתְעַלֵּם וְכוּ' (ספרי; בבא מציעא ל'):
2But if your brother is not near you, or if you do not know him, you shall bring it into your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seeks it out, whereupon you shall return it to him.   בוְאִם־לֹ֨א קָר֥וֹב אָחִ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א יְדַעְתּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲסַפְתּוֹ֙ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְהָיָ֣ה עִמְּךָ֗ עַ֣ד דְּר֤שׁ אָחִ֨יךָ֙ אֹת֔וֹ וַֽהֲשֵֽׁבֹת֖וֹ לֽוֹ:
[And it shall be with you] until your brother seeks it out: Would you imagine that one should return it to him before he asks for it? Rather, [the meaning is that you must keep the animal] until you investigate him, [verifying] that he is not a swindler [by demanding that he produce identifying signs]. - [B. M. 27b, Sifrei 22:47]   עַד דְּרשׁ אָחִיךָ: וְכִי תַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתְּךָ שֶׁיִּתְּנֵהוּ לוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּדְרְשֵׁהוּ? אֶלָּא דָּרְשֵׁהוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא רַמַּאי (בבא מציעא כ"ז; עי' ספרי):
whereupon you shall return it to him: That there shall be something left in it to return, that it should not consume its [whole] value in your house, so you should claim it from him [from the owner]. From here, [the Rabbis] said: Any animal that works and eats, should work and eat [the proceeds of its work]; and [any animal] that does not work, yet still eats, should be sold [by the finder, and the money restored to the owner]. — [B.M. 28b]   וַֽהֲשֵֽׁבֹתוֹ לֽוֹ: שֶׁתְּהֵא בוֹ הֲשָׁבָה, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל בְּבֵיתְךָ כְּדֵי דָּמָיו וְתִתְבָּעֵם מִמֶּנּוּ. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ, כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל יַעֲשֶׂה וְיֹאכַל וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל יִמָּכֵר (בבא מציעא כ"ח):
3So shall you do with his donkey, and so shall you do with his garment, and so shall you do with any lost article of your brother which he has lost and you have found. You shall not ignore [it].   גוְכֵ֧ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לַֽחֲמֹר֗וֹ וְכֵ֣ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֘ לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ֒ וְכֵ֨ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֜ה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַ֥ת אָחִ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַ֥ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וּמְצָאתָ֑הּ לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לְהִתְעַלֵּֽם:
You shall not ignore [it]: You must not cover your eyes, pretending not to see it.   לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּֽם: לִכְבֹּשׁ עֵינְךָ כְּאִלּוּ אֵינְךָ רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ:
4You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen [under its load] on the road, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall pick up [the load] with him.   דלֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־חֲמ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ שׁוֹרוֹ֙ נֹֽפְלִ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָקֵ֥ם תָּקִ֖ים עִמּֽוֹ:
You shall pick up [the load]: This is [the obligation of] טְעִינָה, “loading,” [i.e.,] to load up a burden that has fallen off it [the animal, as opposed to פְּרִיקָה, “unloading” a burden too heavy for the animal, delineated in Exod. 23:5]. — [B.M. 32a]   הָקֵם תָּקִים: זוֹ טְעִינָה – לְהַטְעִין מַשּׂאוֹי שֶׁנָּפַל מֵעָלָיו:
[You shall pick up (the load)] with him: [I.e.,] with the owner. However, if the owner walks away, sits down, and says, “Since the commandment is incumbent upon you, if you want to load, [go ahead and] load!” you are exempt. — [B.M. 32a]   עִמּֽוֹ: עִם בְּעָלָיו, אֲבָל אִם הָלַךְ וְיָשַׁב לוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ הוֹאִיל וְעָלֶיךָ מִצְוָה אִם רָצִיתָ לִטְעֹן טְעֹן, פָּטוּר (שם ל"ב):
5A man's attire shall not be on a woman, nor may a man wear a woman's garment because whoever does these [things] is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   הלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה כְלִי־גֶ֨בֶר֙ עַל־אִשָּׁ֔ה וְלֹֽא־יִלְבַּ֥שׁ גֶּ֖בֶר שִׂמְלַ֣ת אִשָּׁ֑ה כִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶי֖ךָ כָּל־עֹ֥שֵׂה אֵֽלֶּה:
A man’s attire shall not be on a woman: making her appear like a man, thereby enabling her to go among men, for this can only be for the [purpose of] adultery. — [Nazir 59a]   לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה כְלִי־גֶבֶר עַל־אִשָּׁה: שֶׁתְּהֵא דּוֹמָה לְאִישׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁתֵּלֵךְ בֵּין הָאֲנָשִׁים, שֶׁאֵין זוֹ אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם נִאוּף (עי' ספרי):
nor may a man wear a woman’s garment: to go and abide among women. Another explanation: [In addition to not wearing a woman’s garment,] a man must also not remove his pubic hair or the hair of his armpits [for this is a practice exclusive to women]. — [Nazir 59a]   וְלֹֽא־יִלְבַּשׁ גֶבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה: לֵילֵךְ לֵישֵׁב בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים. דָּבָר אַחֵר — שֶׁלֹּא יַשִּׁיר שְׂעַר הָעֶרְוָה וְשֵׂעָר שֶׁל בֵּית הַשֶּׁחִי (נזיר נ"ט):
because… is an abomination: The Torah forbids only [the wearing of] clothes that would lead to abomination [i.e., immoral and illicit behavior]. — [Nazir 59a]   כִּי תֽוֹעֲבַת: לֹא אָסְרָה תוֹרָה אֶלָּא לְבוּשׁ הַמֵּבִיא לִידֵי תוֹעֵבָה (עי' ספרי):
6If a bird's nest chances before you on the road, on any tree, or on the ground, and [it contains] fledglings or eggs, if the mother is sitting upon the fledglings or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother upon the young.   וכִּ֣י יִקָּרֵ֣א קַן־צִפּ֣וֹר | לְפָנֶ֡יךָ בַּדֶּ֜רֶךְ בְּכָל־עֵ֣ץ | א֣וֹ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים֙ א֣וֹ בֵיצִ֔ים וְהָאֵ֤ם רֹבֶ֨צֶת֙ עַל־הָֽאֶפְרֹחִ֔ים א֖וֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִ֑ים לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח הָאֵ֖ם עַל־הַבָּנִֽים:
If a bird’s nest chances before you: This excludes [a bird nest that is] ready at hand. - [Chul. 139a, Sifrei 22:55]   כִּי יִקָּרֵא: פְּרָט לִמְזֻמָּן (חולין קל"ט):
you shall not take the mother: while she is on her young, [whereas if she is only hovering overhead, you may take her from upon her young]. - [Chul. 140b]   לֹֽא־תִקַּח הָאֵם: בְּעוֹדָהּ עַל בָּנֶיהָ:
7You shall send away the mother, and [then] you may take the young for yourself, in order that it should be good for you, and you should lengthen your days.   זשַׁלֵּ֤חַ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָאֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּקַּח־לָ֑ךְ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְהַֽאֲרַכְתָּ֖ יָמִֽים:
in order that it should be good for you, [and you should lengthen your days]: If in the case of a commandment easy [to fulfill, like this one] for which there is no monetary expense, Scripture says, “[Do this] in order that it should be good for you, and that you should lengthen your days,” then how much greater is the reward for [the fulfillment of] commandments that are more difficult to observe [or for which there is a monetary expense]. — [Sifrei 22:64, Chul. 142a]   לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וגו': אִם מִצְוָה קַלָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס אָמְרָה תוֹרָה "לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים", קַל וָחֹמֶר לְמַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל מִצְווֹת חֲמוּרוֹת (שם קמ"ב):