Deuteronomy Chapter 31

10Then, Moses commanded them, saying, "At the end of [every] seven years, at an appointed time, in the Festival of Succoth, [after] the year of release,   יוַיְצַ֥ו משֶׁ֖ה אוֹתָ֣ם לֵאמֹ֑ר מִקֵּ֣ץ | שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֗ים בְּמֹעֵ֛ד שְׁנַ֥ת הַשְּׁמִטָּ֖ה בְּחַ֥ג הַסֻּכּֽוֹת:
At the end of [every] seven years: [When the verse says “end,” it refers to] the first year of the [recurring, seven-year] Shemittah [cycle, which is, effectively, the “end” of the previous cycle]. This is the eighth year [of the cycle] (Sotah 41a). [Now, only the seventh year of each cycle is actually called the Shemittah year, so] why is [this eighth year] referred to [here in the verse] as “ Shemittah ”? Because the [laws of the] seventh year still apply to it, in that the harvest [of the produce] at the end of the seventh year extends into the year following the seventh. Therefore, all the laws pertaining to the seventh year apply to this produce, even though the eighth year has already begun. — [R.H. 12b]   מקץ שבע שנים: בשנה ראשונה של שמטה, שהיא שנה בשמינית. ולמה קורא אותה שנת השמטה, שעדיין שביעית נוהגת בה בקציר של שביעית היוצא למוצאי שביעית:
11When all Israel comes to appear before the Lord, your God, in the place He will choose, you shall read this Torah before all Israel, in their ears.   יאבְּב֣וֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לֵֽרָאוֹת֙ אֶת־פְּנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחָ֑ר תִּקְרָ֞א אֶת־הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֛את נֶ֥גֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶֽם:
you shall read this Torah: The king [of Israel] would read from the beginning of “These are the words…” (Deut. 1:1), as we find in tractate Sotah (41a). [Thus, in contrast to verse 9, the expression, “this Torah” refers to just the book of Deuteronomy. See Rashi on verse 9. When reading the book of Deuteronomy to the people at that appointed time, the king would sit] upon a wooden platform that was erected in the courtyard [of the Temple].   תקרא את התורה הזאת: המלך היה קורא מתחלת אלה הדברים, כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (מא א) על בימה של עץ שהיו עושין בעזרה:
12Assemble the people: the men, the women, and the children, and your stranger in your cities, in order that they hear, and in order that they learn and fear the Lord, your God, and they will observe to do all the words of this Torah.   יבהַקְהֵ֣ל אֶת־הָעָ֗ם הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֤ים וְהַנָּשִׁים֙ וְהַטַּ֔ף וְגֵֽרְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֑יךָ לְמַ֨עַן יִשְׁמְע֜וּ וּלְמַ֣עַן יִלְמְד֗וּ וְיָֽרְאוּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וְשָֽׁמְר֣וּ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת:
The men: [were to be there, in order] to learn [the words of the Torah being read];   האנשים: ללמוד:
the women: [were to be present, in order] to listen [to those words];   והנשים: לשמוע:
the children: Why did they come? So that a reward would be given to those who bring them along. — [Chag. 3a]   והטף: למה בא, לתת שכר למביאיהם:
13And their children, who did not know, will hear and learn to fear the Lord, your God, all the days that you live on the land, to which you are crossing the Jordan, to possess.   יגוּבְנֵיהֶ֞ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־יָֽדְע֗וּ יִשְׁמְעוּ֙ וְלָ֣מְד֔וּ לְיִרְאָ֖ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֤ם חַיִּים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֜ם עֹֽבְרִ֧ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֛ן שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ: