Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 2

2And the Lord spoke to me, saying,   בוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
3You have circled this mountain long enough; turn northward.   גרַב־לָכֶ֕ם סֹ֖ב אֶת־הָהָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה פְּנ֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם צָפֹֽנָה:
turn northward: Turn along the eastern side [of Moab], from the south to the north, facing northward. Consequently, they were traveling in an easterly direction, and this is what is meant by “And they came from the sun rise [i.e., east side] to the land of Moab” (Jud. 11:18).   פְּנוּ לָכֶם צָפֹֽנָה: סֹבּוּ לָכֶם לְרוּחַ מִזְרָחִית, מִן הַדָּרוֹם לַצָּפוֹן, פְּנֵיכֶם לַצָּפוֹן, נִמְצְאוּ הוֹלְכִים אֶת רוּחַ הַמִּזְרָחִית וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים י"א) "וַיָבוֹאוּ (וַיָּבֹא) מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב":
4And command the people saying, You are about to pass through the boundary of your kinsmen, the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, and they will be afraid of you. Be very careful.   דוְאֶת־הָעָם֘ צַ֣ו לֵאמֹר֒ אַתֶּ֣ם עֹֽבְרִ֗ים בִּגְבוּל֙ אֲחֵיכֶ֣ם בְּנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֔ו הַיֹּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּשֵׂעִ֑יר וְיִֽירְא֣וּ מִכֶּ֔ם וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם מְאֹֽד:
Be very careful: And what is this “being careful”? “You shall not provoke them.”   וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹֽד: וּמַהוּ הַשְּׁמִירָה? אל תתגרו בם:
5You shall not provoke them, for I will not give you any of their land not so much as a foot step, because I have given Mount Seir to Esau for an inheritance.   האַל־תִּתְגָּ֣רוּ בָ֔ם כִּי לֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֤ן לָכֶם֙ מֵֽאַרְצָ֔ם עַ֖ד מִדְרַ֣ךְ כַּף־רָ֑גֶל כִּֽי־יְרֻשָּׁ֣ה לְעֵשָׂ֔ו נָתַ֖תִּי אֶת־הַ֥ר שֵׂעִֽיר:
not so much as a foot step: meaning, even only for the sole of the foot to tread a single step, I do not permit you to enter their land without permission. An Aggadic interpretation is: [I will not give you of their land] until the day arrives when the foot will tread upon the Mount of Olives [the Messianic era], as it said: “And His [God’s] feet will [figuratively] stand [on that day upon the Mount of Olives]” (Zech. 14:4).   עַד מִדְרַךְ כַּף־רָגֶל: אֲפִלּוּ מִדְרַךְ כַּף רֶגֶל, כְּלוֹמַר אֲפִלּוּ דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל אֵינִי מַרְשֶׁה לָכֶם לַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצָם שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא יוֹם דְּרִיסַת כַּף רֶגֶל עַל הַר הַזֵּיתִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה י"ד) "וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו וְגוֹ'":
[I have given Mount Seir] to Esau for an inheritance: from Abraham. I gave ten nations to Abraham, seven of them for you [the seven of Canaan], and the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (Gen. 16:18-21), who are Ammon, Moab, and Seir. One of them is for Esau, and the other two are for the children of Lot (Gen. Rabbah 44). As a reward [for Lot] for going with him [Abraham] to Egypt and for keeping silent when Abraham said, regarding his wife, “She is my sister,” He treated him [Lot] as his [Abraham’s] son [to inherit part of the land promised to Abraham] (Gen. Rabbah 44).   יְרֻשָּׁה לְעֵשָׂו: מֵאַבְרָהָם, עֲשָׂרָה עֲמָמִים נָתַתִּי לוֹ, שִׁבְעָה לָכֶם וְקֵינִי וּקְנִזִּי וְקַדְמוֹנִי הֵן עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב וְשֵׂעִיר, אֶחָד מֵהֶם לְעֵשָׂו וְהַשְּׁנַיִם לִבְנֵי לוֹט, בִּשְׂכַר שֶׁהָלַךְ אִתּוֹ לְמִצְרַיִם וְשָׁתַק עַל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲחוֹתִי הִיא, עֲשָׂאוֹ כִּבְנוֹ (בראשית רבה נ"א):
6You shall buy food from them with money, that you may eat, and also water you shall buy from them with money, that you may drink.   ואֹ֣כֶל תִּשְׁבְּר֧וּ מֵֽאִתָּ֛ם בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֑ם וְגַם־מַ֜יִם תִּכְר֧וּ מֵֽאִתָּ֛ם בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וּשְׁתִיתֶֽם:
you shall buy: Heb. תִּכְרוּ. This is an expression of purchase. Similar is (Gen. 50:5), “which I have purchased (כָּרִיתִי) for myself.” In the coastal cities, for “selling” (מְכִירָה), they use the word “כִּירָה” (Rosh Hashanah 26a).   תִּכְרוּ: לְשׁוֹן מֶקַח, וְכֵן "אֲשֶׁר כָּרִיתִי לִי" (בראשית נ'), שֶׁכֵּן בִּכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם קוֹרִין לִמְכִירָה כִּירָה (ראש השנה כ"ו):
7For the Lord, your God, has blessed you in all the work of your hand; He knows of your walking through this great desert; these forty years that the Lord your God has been with you, you have lacked nothing.   זכִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ בֵּֽרַכְךָ֗ בְּכֹל֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֔ךָ יָדַ֣ע לֶכְתְּךָ֔ אֶת־הַמִּדְבָּ֥ר הַגָּדֹ֖ל הַזֶּ֑ה זֶ֣ה | אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֗ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א חָסַ֖רְתָּ דָּבָֽר:
For the Lord, your God, has blessed you: Therefore you should not be ungrateful for His goodness [to you] by acting as though you were poor. Rather, show yourselves as rich people.   כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּֽרַכְךָ: לְפִיכָךְ לֹא תִכְפּוּ אֶת טוֹבָתוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת כְּאִלּוּ אַתֶּם עֲנִיִּים, אֶלָּא הַרְאוּ עַצְמְכֶם עֲשִׁירִים:
8And we departed from our kinsmen, the children of Esau, who dwelt in Seir, by way of the plain from Elath and from Etzion Geber, and we turned and passed through the way of the desert of Moab.   חוַנַּֽעֲבֹ֞ר מֵאֵ֧ת אַחֵ֣ינוּ בְנֵֽי־עֵשָׂ֗ו הַיּֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּשֵׂעִ֔יר מִדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ הָֽעֲרָבָ֔ה מֵֽאֵילַ֖ת וּמֵֽעֶצְיֹ֣ן גָּ֑בֶר וַנֵּ֨פֶן֙ וַנַּֽעֲבֹ֔ר דֶּ֖רֶךְ מִדְבַּ֥ר מוֹאָֽב:
and we turned and passed: towards the north; we turned to proceed on the eastern side.   וַנֵּפֶן וַנַּֽעֲבֹר: לְצַד צָפוֹן הָפַכְנוּ פָנִים לַהֲלֹךְ רוּחַ מִזְרָחִית:
9And the Lord said to me, Do not distress the Moabites, and do not provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land [as] an inheritance, because I have given Ar to the children of Lot [as] an inheritance.   טוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י אַל־תָּ֨צַר֙ אֶת־מוֹאָ֔ב וְאַל־תִּתְגָּ֥ר בָּ֖ם מִלְחָמָ֑ה כִּ֠י לֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֨ן לְךָ֤ מֵֽאַרְצוֹ֙ יְרֻשָּׁ֔ה כִּ֣י לִבְנֵי־ל֔וֹט נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־עָ֖ר יְרֻשָּֽׁה:
and do not provoke them to war: God forbade Israel only to wage war against Moab. However, Israel did frighten them, appearing before them, armed for battle. Therefore, it is written, “And Moab was very frightened of the people” (Num. 22:3) because Israel plundered and looted them. Regarding the children of Ammon, however, it says (verse 19), “Do not provoke them”-with any kind of provocation, as a reward for the modesty shown by their ancestress [Lot’s younger daughter], who did not publicize her father’s conduct, as did his elder daughter, who named her son Moab [מוֹאָב like מֵאָב, from the father] (Baba Kamma 38b).   וְאַל־תִּתְגָּר בָּם וגו': לֹא אָסַר לָהֶם עַל מוֹאָב אֶלָּא מִלְחָמָה, אֲבָל מְיָרְאִים הָיוּ אוֹתָם, וְנִרְאִים לָהֶם כְּשֵׁהֶם מְזֻיָּנִים, לְפִיכָךְ כְּתִיב (במדבר כ"ב) "וַיָּגָר מוֹאָב מִפְּנֵי הָעָם", שֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹלְלִים וּבוֹזְזִים אוֹתָם; אֲבָל בִּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן נֶאֱמַר (פסוק י"ט) "וְאַל תִּתְגָּר בָּם" – שׁוּם גֵּרוּי, בִּשְׂכַר צְנִיעוּת אִמָּם, שֶׁלֹּא פִרְסְמָה עַל אָבִיהָ כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשְׂתָה הַבְּכִירָה שֶׁקָּרְאָה שֵׁם בְּנָהּ מוֹאָב (בבא קמא ל"ח):
Ar: The name of the province.   עָר: שֵׁם הַמְּדִינָה:
10The Emim dwelt there formerly, a great and numerous people, and tall [in stature], as the Anakim;   יהָֽאֵמִ֥ים לְפָנִ֖ים יָ֣שְׁבוּ בָ֑הּ עַ֣ם גָּד֥וֹל וְרַ֛ב וָרָ֖ם כַּֽעֲנָקִֽים:
The Emim dwelt there formerly: You might think that this is the land of Rephaim which I gave [promised] to Abraham (Gen. 15:20), because the Emim, who are Rephaim, dwelt there before, but this is not that one, for those Rephaim I drove out and made the children of Lot settle there in their stead.   הָֽאֵמִים לְפָנִים וגו': אַתָּה סָבוּר שֶׁזּוֹ אֶרֶץ רְפָאִים שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם, לְפִי שֶׁהָאֵמִים שֶׁהֵם רְפָאִים יָשְׁבוּ בָהּ לְפָנִים, אֲבָל לֹא זוֹ הִיא, כִּי אוֹתָן רְפָאִים הוֹרַשְׁתִּי מִפְּנֵי בְנֵי לוֹט וְהוֹשַׁבְתִּים תַּחְתָּם:
11They also are considered Rephaim, as the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim.   יארְפָאִ֛ים יֵחָֽשְׁב֥וּ אַף־הֵ֖ם כַּֽעֲנָקִ֑ים וְהַמֹּ֣אָבִ֔ים יִקְרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם אֵמִֽים:
They… are considered Rephaim…: These Emim were considered Rephaim, just as the Anakim, who were called Rephaim, because whoever beheld them-his hands became weak (מִתְרַפּוּת) (Gen. Rabbah 26).   רְפָאִים יֵחָֽשְׁבוּ וגו': רְפָאִים הָיוּ נֶחֱשָׁבִין אוֹתָם אֵמִים, כָּעֲנָקִים הַנִּקְרָאִים רְפָאִים, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁכָּל הָרוֹאֶה אוֹתָם יָדָיו מִתְרַפּוֹת (בראשית רבה כ"ו):
Emim: so called, because their fear (אֵימָה) was cast over mankind. And similarly (verse 12), “The Horites dwelt in Seir” and [just as I gave the Rephaim over to the children of Lot,] I gave them [the Horites] over to the children of Esau.   אֵמִֽים: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁאֵימָתָם מֻטֶּלֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת (שם), וְכֵן בְּשֵׂעִיר יָשְׁבוּ הַחֹרִים וּנְתַתִּים לִבְנֵי עֵשָׂו:
12And the Horites formerly dwelt in Seir, and the children of Esau were driving them out, and they exterminated them from before them and dwelt in their stead, just as the Israelites did to the land of their inheritance, which the Lord gave them.   יבוּבְשֵׂעִ֞יר יָֽשְׁב֣וּ הַֽחֹרִים֘ לְפָנִים֒ וּבְנֵ֧י עֵשָׂ֣ו יִֽירָשׁ֗וּם וַיַּשְׁמִידוּם֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ תַּחְתָּ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֧ר עָשָׂ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְאֶ֨רֶץ֙ יְרֻשָּׁת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן יְהֹוָ֖ה לָהֶֽם:
were driving them out: Heb. יִירָשׁוּם [This is expressed in] the present tense, as if to say, I gave them power to go on constantly driving them out.   יִֽירָשׁוּם: לָשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה, כְּלוֹמַר נָתַתִּי בָהֶם כֹּחַ שֶׁהָיוּ מוֹרִישִׁים אוֹתָם וְהוֹלְכִים:
13Now get up and cross the brook of Zered. So we crossed the brook of Zered.   יגעַתָּ֗ה קֻ֛מוּ וְעִבְר֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־נַ֣חַל זָ֑רֶד וַנַּֽעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־נַ֥חַל זָֽרֶד:
14And the days when we went from Kadesh barnea, until we crossed the brook of Zered, numbered thirty eight years, until all the generation of the men of war expired from the midst of the camp, just as the Lord swore to them.   ידוְהַיָּמִ֞ים אֲשֶׁר־הָלַ֣כְנוּ | מִקָּדֵ֣שׁ בַּרְנֵ֗עַ עַ֤ד אֲשֶׁר־עָבַ֨רְנוּ֙ אֶת־נַ֣חַל זֶ֔רֶד שְׁלשִׁ֥ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה עַד־תֹּ֨ם כָּל־הַדּ֜וֹר אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ מִקֶּ֣רֶב הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה לָהֶֽם:
15Also the hand of the Lord was upon them, to destroy them from the midst of the camp, until they were consumed.   טווְגַ֤ם יַד־יְהֹוָה֙ הָ֣יְתָה בָּ֔ם לְהֻמָּ֖ם מִקֶּ֣רֶב הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה עַ֖ד תֻּמָּֽם:
[Also the hand of the Lord] was against them: to quickly destroy them within a period of forty years, so that they would not cause their children to tarry any longer in the desert.   הָיְתָה בָּם: לְמַהֵר וּלְהֻמָּם בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה, שֶׁלֹּא יִגְרְמוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם עוֹד לְהִתְעַכֵּב בַּמִּדְבָּר:
16So it was, when all the men of war finished dying from among the people,   טזוַיְהִ֨י כַֽאֲשֶׁר־תַּ֜מּוּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁ֧י הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה לָמ֖וּת מִקֶּ֥רֶב הָעָֽם:
17that the Lord spoke to me saying,   יזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
So it was, when [all the men of war] finished... that the Lord spoke to me: But since the spies were sent until now, the word וַיְּדַבֵּר [denoting God’s speaking to Moses with endearment] is not mentioned in [this] section, only וַיֹּאמֶר [denoting a less endearing form of communication], to teach us that during those entire thirty-eight years during which time the Israelites were under ban by God, the Divine speech was not directed towards him in an expression of affection, face to face, and with peace of mind-to teach us that the Divine Presence rests upon the prophets only for Israel’s sake (Sifrei , Lev. 6).   וַיְהִי כַֽאֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ וגו' וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֵלַי וגו': אֲבָל מִשִּׁלּוּחַ הַמְרַגְּלִים עַד כָּאן לֹא נֶאֱמַר בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא וַיֹּאמֶר, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל ל"ח שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נְזוּפִים, לֹא נִתְיַחֵד עִמּוֹ הַדִּבּוּר בִּלְשׁוֹן חִבָּה, פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים וְיִשּׁוּב הַדַּעַת – לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאֵין הַשְּׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה עַל הַנְּבִיאִים אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל (מכילתא שמות י"ב):
the men of war: [I.e.,] men from twenty years of age, who go forth to war.   אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה: מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה הַיּוֹצְאִים בַּצָּבָא:
18Today you are crossing the boundary of Moab at Ar.   יחאַתָּ֨ה עֹבֵ֥ר הַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־גְּב֥וּל מוֹאָ֖ב אֶת־עָֽר:
Today you are crossing the boundary of Moab… And when you approach opposite the children of Ammon: from here [we deduce] that the land of Ammon was towards the north.   אַתָּה עֹבֵר הַיּוֹם אֶת־גְּבוּל מוֹאָב וקרבת מול בני עמון: מִכָּאן שֶׁאֶרֶץ עַמּוֹן לְצַד צָפוֹן:
19And when you approach opposite the children of Ammon, neither distress them, nor provoke them, for I will not give you of the land of the children of Ammon as an inheritance, because I have given it to the children of Lot as an inheritance.   יטוְקָֽרַבְתָּ֗ מ֚וּל בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן אַל־תְּצֻרֵ֖ם וְאַל־תִּתְגָּ֣ר בָּ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹֽא־אֶ֠תֵּ֠ן מֵאֶ֨רֶץ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֤וֹן לְךָ֙ יְרֻשָּׁ֔ה כִּ֥י לִבְנֵי־ל֖וֹט נְתַתִּ֥יהָ יְרֻשָּֽׁה:
20It too is considered a land of Rephaim; Rephaim dwelt therein formerly, and the Ammonites call them Zamzummim.   כאֶֽרֶץ־רְפָאִ֥ים תֵּֽחָשֵׁ֖ב אַף־הִ֑וא רְפָאִ֤ים יָֽשְׁבוּ־בָהּ֙ לְפָנִ֔ים וְהָ֣עַמֹּנִ֔ים יִקְרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם זַמְזֻמִּֽים:
It too is considered a land of Rephaim: It too is considered a land of Rephaim because the Rephaim dwelt there formerly, but this is not the one I gave to Abraham.   אֶֽרֶץ־רְפָאִים תֵּֽחָשֵׁב: אֶרֶץ רְפָאִים נֶחְשֶׁבֶת אַף הִיא, לְפִי שֶׁהָרְפָאִים יָשְׁבוּ בָהּ לְפָנִים, אֲבָל לֹא זוֹ הִיא שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם:
21A great, numerous and tall people as the Anakim, but the Lord exterminated them before them, and they drove them out and dwelt in their stead.   כאעַ֣ם גָּד֥וֹל וְרַ֛ב וָרָ֖ם כַּֽעֲנָקִ֑ים וַיַּשְׁמִידֵ֤ם יְהֹוָה֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽירָשֻׁ֖ם וַיֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ תַחְתָּֽם:
22As He did to the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, when He exterminated the Horites from before them; and they drove them out and dwelt in their stead even to this day.   כבכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לִבְנֵ֣י עֵשָׂ֔ו הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּשֵׂעִ֑יר אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִשְׁמִ֤יד אֶת־הַֽחֹרִי֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽירָשֻׁם֙ וַיֵּֽשְׁב֣וּ תַחְתָּ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
23But the Avim, who dwell in open cities, up till Gaza -- the Caphtorites, who came forth of Caphtor, exterminated them, and dwelt in their stead.   כגוְהָֽעַוִּ֛ים הַיּֽשְׁבִ֥ים בַּֽחֲצֵרִ֖ים עַד־עַזָּ֑ה כַּפְתֹּרִים֙ הַיֹּֽצְאִ֣ים מִכַּפְתֹּ֔ר הִשְׁמִידֻ֖ם וַיֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ תַחְתָּֽם:
But the Avim who dwell in open cities: The Avim are of the Philistine people, for they are listed together with them in the Book of Joshua (13:3), as it says, “The five Philistine lords. The Gazites, the Ashdodites, the Ashkelonites, the Gittites, the Ekronites, and the Avim." But because of the oath which Abraham had sworn to Abimelech, (Gen. 21:23-24), the Israelites were unable to take their land away from them; so I brought the Caphtorites against them, and they destroyed them and dwelt in their stead. Now, you are permitted to take it [the land of the Avim] from their [the Caphtorites’] possession (Chullin 60b).   וְהָֽעַוִּים הַיּֽשְׁבִים בַּֽחֲצֵרִים וגו': עַוִּים מִפְּלִשְׁתִּים הֵם, שֶׁעִמָּהֶם הֵם נֶחֱשָׁבִים בְּסֵפֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע י"ג) "חֲמֵשֶׁת סַרְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים הָעַזָּתִי וְהָאַשְׁדּוֹדִי הָאֶשְׁקְלוֹנִי הַגִּתִּי וְהָעֶקְרוֹנִי וְהָעַוִּים", וּמִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע אַבְרָהָם לַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ לֹא יָכְלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהוֹצִיא אַרְצָם מִיָּדָם, וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיהֶם כַּפְתּוֹרִים וְהִשְׁמִידוּם וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם, וְעַכְשָׁיו אַתֶּם מֻתָּרִים לְקַחְתָּהּ מִיָּדָם (חולין ס'):
24Get up, journey, and cross the river Arnon. Behold, I have delivered into your hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land: Begin to possess it, and provoke him to war.   כדק֣וּמוּ סְּע֗וּ וְעִבְרוּ֘ אֶת־נַ֣חַל אַרְנֹן֒ רְאֵ֣ה נָתַ֣תִּי בְ֠יָֽדְךָ֠ אֶת־סִיחֹ֨ן מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶשְׁבּ֧וֹן הָֽאֱמֹרִ֛י וְאֶת־אַרְצ֖וֹ הָחֵ֣ל רָ֑שׁ וְהִתְגָּ֥ר בּ֖וֹ מִלְחָמָֽה:
25Today I will begin to put the dread of you and the fear of you upon the nations that are under the entire heaven, who will hear reports of you and shake and be in trepidation because of you.   כההַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה אָחֵל֙ תֵּ֤ת פַּחְדְּךָ֙ וְיִרְאָ֣תְךָ֔ עַל־פְּנֵי֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים תַּ֖חַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁמְעוּן֙ שִׁמְעֲךָ֔ וְרָֽגְז֥וּ וְחָל֖וּ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ:
under the entire heaven: This [statement that nations under the whole heaven will fear the Israelites] teaches that the sun stood still for Moses on the day of the battle with Og, [Other editions: Sihon,] and the matter became [consequently] known under the entire heaven [that is, to the whole world] (Avodah Zarah 25a).   תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם: לִמֵּד שֶׁעָמְדָה חַמָּה לְמֹשֶׁה בְּיוֹם מִלְחֶמֶת עוֹג וְנוֹדַע הַדָּבָר תַּחַת כָּל הַשָּׁמַיִם (עבודה זרה כ"ה):
26So I sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth to Sihon, king of Heshbon, with words of peace, saying,   כווָֽאֶשְׁלַ֤ח מַלְאָכִים֙ מִמִּדְבַּ֣ר קְדֵמ֔וֹת אֶל־סִיח֖וֹן מֶ֣לֶךְ חֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן דִּבְרֵ֥י שָׁל֖וֹם לֵאמֹֽר:
[And I sent messengers] from the desert of Kedemoth: Even though the Omnipresent had not commanded me to call to Sihon in peace, I learned to do so from the incident at the desert of Sinai, i.e., relating to the Torah which preceded (קָדְמָה) the world. When the Holy One, blessed be He, was about to give the Torah to Israel, He took it to Esau and Ishmael. Although it was clear to Him that they would not accept it, nevertheless, He began with them in peace. So too, I first called to Sihon with words of peace. Another explanation מִמִּדְבַּר קְדֵמוֹת Moses said to God, “I learned this from You, Who preceded (קָדַמְתָּ) the world. You could have sent one flash of lightning to consume the Egyptians, but instead, You sent me from the desert to Pharaoh. saying, (Exod. 5:1) ‘Let my people go’ patiently.” (Midrash Tanchuma)   מִמִּדְבַּר קְדֵמוֹת: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא צִוַּנִי הַמָּקוֹם לִקְרֹא לְסִיחוֹן לְשָׁלוֹם, לָמַדְתִּי מִמִּדְבַּר סִינַי – מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁקָּדְמָה לָעוֹלָם – כְּשֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִתְּנָהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חָזַר אוֹתָהּ עַל עֵשָׂו וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל, וְגָלוּי לְפָנָיו שֶׁלֹּא יְקַבְּלוּהָ וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן פָּתַח לָהֶם בְּשָׁלוֹם, אַף אֲנִי קִדַּמְתִּי אֶת סִיחוֹן בְּדִבְרֵי שָׁלוֹם; דָּבָר אַחֵר, ממדבר קדמות – מִמְּךָ לָמַדְתִּי, שֶׁקָּדַמְתָּ לָעוֹלָם, יָכוֹל הָיִיתָ לִשְׁלֹחַ בָּרָק אֶחָד וְלִשְֹרֹף אֶת הַמִּצְרִים, אֶלָּא שְׁלַחְתַּנִי מִן הַמִּדְבָּר אֶל פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר (שמות ה') "שַׁלַּח אֶת עַמִּי", בְּמִתּוּן (תנחומא):
27"Allow me to pass through your land: I will go along by the highway, I will turn neither to the right nor to the left."   כזאֶעְבְּרָ֣ה בְאַרְצֶ֔ךָ בַּדֶּ֥רֶךְ בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֵלֵ֑ךְ לֹ֥א אָס֖וּר יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹֽאול:
28You shall sell me food for money, that I may eat; and give to me water for money, that I may drink; I will only pass through by my feet.   כחאֹ֣כֶל בַּכֶּ֤סֶף תַּשְׁבִּרֵ֨נִי֙ וְאָכַ֔לְתִּי וּמַ֛יִם בַּכֶּ֥סֶף תִּתֶּן־לִ֖י וְשָׁתִ֑יתִי רַ֖ק אֶעְבְּרָ֥ה בְרַגְלָֽי:
29Just as the children of Esau who dwell in Seir, and the Moabites who dwell in Ar, did for me; until I cross the Jordan to the land which the Lord our God is giving us."   כטכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָֽשׂוּ־לִ֜י בְּנֵ֣י עֵשָׂ֗ו הַיּֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּשֵׂעִ֔יר וְהַמּ֣וֹאָבִ֔ים הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּעָ֑ר עַ֤ד אֲשֶֽׁר־אֶֽעֱבֹר֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽנוּ:
Just as the children of Esau…did for me: This is not referring to permission to pass through their land, [for Edom refused,] rather it refers to the selling of food and water.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר עָֽשׂוּ־לִי בְּנֵי עֵשָׂו: לֹא לְעִנְיַן לַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצָם, אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן מֶכֶר אֹכֶל וּמַיִם:
until I cross the Jordan: This refers to [Moses’ earlier request]“Allow me to pass through your land.” (verse 27)   עַד אֲשֶֽׁר־אֶֽעֱבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן: מוּסָב עַל אֶעְבְּרָה בְאַרְצֶךָ:
30But Sihon, king of Heshbon, did not wish to let us pass by him, for the Lord your God caused his spirit to be hardened and his heart to be obstinate, in order that He would give him into your hand, as this day.   לוְלֹ֣א אָבָ֗ה סִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ חֶשְׁבּ֔וֹן הַֽעֲבִרֵ֖נוּ בּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־הִקְשָׁה֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אֶת־רוּח֗וֹ וְאִמֵּץ֙ אֶת־לְבָב֔וֹ לְמַ֛עַן תִּתּ֥וֹ בְיָֽדְךָ֖ כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה: