Leviticus Chapter 27

22And if he consecrates to the Lord a field that he had acquired, that is not part of his inherited property,   כבוְאִם֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה מִקְנָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֕ר לֹ֖א מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ יַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And if [he consecrates…] a field that he had acquired…: There is a difference between an acquired field (שְׂדֵה מִקְנֶה) and a field that is part of inherited property (שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה), namely, that the acquired field is not apportioned among the kohanim in the Jubilee because [the acquirer] can consecrate the field only until Jubilee, for in the Jubilee, the field is destined to leave his possession and revert to the original owner [from whom he acquired it]. Therefore, if he [the original owner (Panim Yafoth; Malbim)] comes to redeem [his property,] he must redeem it with that same fixed rate of valuation for a field that was part of an inherited property. [Should the one who consecrated it redeem it, according to the Sages, he redeems it according to its market value.] But if he does not redeem it, and the treasurer sells it to someone else, or if he does redeem it [according to Tos., Arachin 26b, the reading in Rashi is: If no one redeemed it, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer] in the Jubilee year the field reverts to the one from whom the one who consecrated it bought it, [i.e., the original owner of the field]. Now, lest you say that [the expression] לַאֲשֶׁר קָנֵהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ (in verse 24 below) [refers to] the one from whom this acquirer most recently acquired the field, namely, the treasurer [and that our verse is thus stating here that come Jubilee, the field “reverts” to the treasurer]. Therefore, it was necessary to state (verse 24),“namely, the one whose inherited land it was,” i.e., inherited from his ancestors-referring, therefore, to the original owner who had sold [the field] to the one who consecrated it. — [Arachin 26b]   ואם את שדה מקנתו וגו': חלוק יש בין שדה מקנה לשדה אחוזה, ששדה מקנה לא תתחלק לכהנים ביובל, לפי שאינו יכול להקדישה אלא עד היובל, שהרי ביובל היתה עתידה לצאת מידו ולשוב לבעלים, לפיכך אם בא לגאלה, יגאל בדמים הללו הקצובים לשדה אחוזה. ואם לא יגאל וימכרנה גזבר לאחר, או אם לא יגאל הוא, בשנת היובל ישוב השדה לאשר קנהו מאתו, אותו שהקדישה. ופן תאמר לאשר קנהו הלוקח הזה האחרון מאתו, וזהו הגזבר, לכך הוצרך לומר לאשר לו אחוזת הארץ (פסוק כד), מירושת אבות, וזהו בעלים הראשונים שמכרוה למקדיש:
23the kohen shall calculate for him the amount of the valuation until the Jubilee year, and he shall give the valuation on that day, holy to the Lord.   כגוְחִשַּׁב־ל֣וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן אֵ֚ת מִכְסַ֣ת הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֔ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנָתַ֤ן אֶת־הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
24In the Jubilee year, the field shall return to the one from whom he bought it namely, the one whose inherited land it was.   כדבִּשְׁנַ֤ת הַיּוֹבֵל֙ יָשׁ֣וּב הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָנָ֖הוּ מֵֽאִתּ֑וֹ לַֽאֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
25Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel, whereby one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs.   כהוְכָ֨ל־עֶרְכְּךָ֔ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל:
Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel: i.e., every valuation regarding which shekels are written, will be made according to the holy shekel.   וכל ערכך יהיה בשקל הקדש: כל ערכך שכתוב בו שקלים יהיה בשקל הקדש:
one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs: Twenty ma’ahs. This was how it was originally. However, in later times, they “added a sixth” [i.e., instead of a dinar being worth five ma’ahs (or gerahs), it became worth six ma’ahs (or gerahs)]. And indeed, our Rabbis taught: “A dinar is comprised of six ma’ahs of silver, and [since a shekel is worth four dinars,] there are twenty-four ma’ahs to one sela (i.e., shekel)” [as opposed to twenty ma’ahs in the shekel of the Torah]. — [Bech. 50a]   עשרים גרה: עשרים מעות כך היו מתחילה ולאחר מכאן הוסיפו שתות. ואמרו רבותינו שש מעה כסף דינר, עשרים וארבע מעות לסלע:
26However, a firstborn animal that must be [sacrificed as] a firstborn to the Lord no man may consecrate it; whether it be an ox or sheep, it belongs to the Lord.   כואַךְ־בְּכ֞וֹר אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבֻכַּ֤ר לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה לֹֽא־יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא:
no man may consecrate it: for the purpose of any other sacrifice, because it does not belong to him [but from its birth, a firstborn animal is designated as holy, to be given to the kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:107]   לא יקדיש איש אתו: לשם קרבן אחר, לפי שאינו שלו:
27Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal, he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation, and he shall add its fifth to it, and if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for the valuation [price].   כזוְאִ֨ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּמֵאָה֙ וּפָדָ֣ה בְעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽשִׁת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל וְנִמְכַּ֥ר בְּעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal: [lit., “And if it is with an unclean animal….”] This verse does not refer back to firstborn animals [discussed in the preceding verse], for it cannot state of a firstborn unclean animal that “he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation” [for the only unclean animal to which the law of the firstborn applies is a donkey (see Exod. 13: 12-13)]; and this [verse] cannot refer to a donkey, because the firstborn of a donkey can be redeemed only with a lamb (see Exod. 13:13), which becomes a gift to the kohen and is not given to the Sanctuary [as does the valuation money in our verse]. Rather, our verse here is referring back to consecration [of one’s possessions to the Temple], for Scripture above (verses 11-13) was speaking about the redemption of a clean animal that had been [consecrated and subsequently] blemished (see Rashi there), and here, our verse is speaking about one who consecrates an unclean animal for maintenance of the Temple. — [Men. 101a]   ואם בבהמה הטמאה וגו': אין המקרא הזה מוסב על הבכור, שאין לומר בבכור בהמה טמאה ופדה בערכך. וחמור אין זה, שהרי אין פדיון פטר חמור אלא טלה, והוא מתנה לכהן ואינו להקדש, אלא הכתוב מוסב על ההקדש. שהכתוב שלמעלה (פסוק יא) דבר בפדיון בהמה טהורה שהוממה, וכאן דבר במקדיש בהמה טמאה לבדק הבית:
he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation: According to how much the kohen will assess its value.   ופדה בערכך: כפי מה שיעריכנה הכהן:
and if it is not redeemed: By the owner,   ואם לא יגאל: ע"י בעלים:
it shall be sold for the valuation [price]: to others. — [Torath Kohanim 27: 108]   ונמכר בערכך: לאחרים:
28However, anything that a man devotes to the Lord from any of his property whether a person, an animal, or part of his inherited field shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed, [for] all devoted things are holy of holies to the Lord.   כחאַ֣ךְ כָּל־חֵ֡רֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽחֲרִם֩ אִ֨ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֗וֹ מֵֽאָדָ֤ם וּבְהֵמָה֙ וּמִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ לֹ֥א יִמָּכֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִגָּאֵ֑ל כָּל־חֵ֕רֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
However, anything that a man devotes…: Our Rabbis are in dispute regarding this matter [of devoted property]: Some say that unqualified vows of devoted property [i.e., he says, “This is hereby devoted (חֵרֶם),” and does not specify,] go [automatically] to Sanctuary moneys [designated for maintenance of the Temple. Now, according to this ruling,] what then is the meaning of, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you”? (Num. 18:14). This refers to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim, whereby someone says explicitly: “This is (חֵרֶם) devoted for the kohen .” But some [Rabbis] say that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim . — [Arachin 28b]   אך כל חרם וגו': נחלקו רבותינו בדבר יש אומרים סתם חרמים להקדש, ומה אני מקיים (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, בחרמי כהנים שפירש ואמר הרי זה חרם לכהן, ויש שאמרו סתם חרמים לכהנים:
shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed: But, it must be given to the kohen . [For] according to those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim (see preceding Rashi), they explain this verse as referring to unqualified vows of devoted property, while those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to [Sanctuary moneys designated for] maintenance of the Temple, explain this verse as referring to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim. For all agree that devoted property specifically designated to kohanim does not have any redemption, until it falls into the possession of the kohen [and the property then becomes completely non-consecrated and can even be sold by the kohen (Sifthei Chachamim)]. Devoted property to the One on High [i.e., specifically designated to the maintenance of the Holy Temple, on the other hand], may be redeemed [at its market value even before it reaches the Temple treasury, and its redemption moneys go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, and the property itself then becomes non-consecrated]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Arachin 29a]   לא ימכר ולא יגאל: אלא ינתן לכהן. לדברי האומר סתם חרמים לכהנים, מפרש מקרא זה בסתם חרמים. והאומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית, מפרש מקרא זה בחרמי כהנים, שהכל מודים שחרמי כהנים אין להם פדיון עד שיבואו ליד כהן, וחרמי גבוה נפדים:
all devoted things are holy of holies: Those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, bring this verse as proof [to their position]. However, those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go to the kohanim, explain the phrase here, “all devoted things are holy of holies (קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים),” to mean that the act of devoting items to the kohanim can take effect upon [animal sacrifices with the degree of] “holy of holies” [indicated by the use of the double expression here, קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים] and [moreover, even the single expression itself here, קֹדֶשׁ, indicates that this act can take effect upon sacrifices with a degree] of lesser holiness. Thus, [if someone undertakes to bring a sacrifice, allocates which animal he is to sacrifice and then subsequently devotes that animal to the kohanim,] he must give [the relevant money (see below)] to the kohen [and then sacrifices the animal for the offering he had undertaken], just as we have learnt in Tractate Arachin (28b): If [he made] a vow (נֶדֶר) [to bring a sacrifice, i.e., he said, “I take upon myself (to bring an animal as such-and-such a sacrifice)” (see Rashi on Lev. 22: 18)-in this case, if an animal he had then allocated becomes lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, for his vow was to bring a sacrifice and was not limited to that particular animal. Therefore, in the case of a devoted vow (נֶדֶר),] he must give [to the kohen, money worth] the full value [of the animal, for it is still considered fully his when he devoted it to the kohen]. And if [he committed himself in the form of] a donation (נְדָבָה) [saying, “This particular animal is to be brought as such-and-such a sacrifice” (see Rashi on Lev. 22:18)-in this case, if the animal he had allocated becomes lost or blemished, he need not replace it, for his undertaking was limited only to that particular animal, and therefore the animal is no longer considered his. Therefore, in the case of a devoted donation (נְדָבָה) ,] he need give only [the monetary value of] the “benefit” for the [animal which means: Since in case the animal is lost or dies, he would not be required to bring another one in replacement, then once he has set the animal aside for the purpose of that particular sacrifice, he is considered to have already fulfilled his duty, and so, his actual sacrificing it becomes simply a gift to God, as it were. Enjoying this gesture of presenting a gift to God is the “benefit” he has from that animal and which is also the extent of his monetary ownership. This “benefit” is valued as follows: Someone else, who was not obligated to bring this sacrifice, is asked how much he would pay to have this animal sacrificed in his name as a gift to God. The amount that this person states is the amount that the one devoting must give to the kohen , and then he must bring the animal as a sacrifice, as per his undertaking to bring a donation]. — [Mishnah Arachin 8:6-7 and see Rashi on Talmud Arachin 28b]   כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא: האומר סתם חרמים לבדק הבית מביא ראיה מכאן, והאומר סתם חרמים לכהנים מפרש כל חרם קדש קדשים הוא לה', ללמד שחרמי כהנים חלים על קדשי קדשים ועל קדשים קלים, ונותן לכהן, כמו ששנינו במסכת ערכין (כח ב) אם נדר נותן דמיהם, ואם נדבה נותן את טובתה:
[Anything that a man devotes… from any of his property -] whether it be a person: For example, if he devotes his non-Jewish male or female servants [for they are considered his property]. — [Arachin 28a]   מאדם: כגון שהחרים עבדיו ושפחותיו הכנענים: