Leviticus Chapter 27

16And if a man consecrates some of the field of his inherited property to the Lord, the valuation shall be according to its sowing: an area which requires a chomer of barley seeds at fifty silver shekels.   טז וְאִ֣ם | מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֗וֹ יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ לְפִ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ זֶ֚רַע חֹ֣מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֔ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כָּֽסֶף:
the valuation shall be according to its sowing: And not according to its value, whether it is a field of good quality or a field of bad quality, their redemption from consecration is equal, [namely]: The area requiring a kor (a chomer in Scripture) of barley seeds [must be redeemed] for fifty [silver] shekels. This is Scripture’s decree. — [Torath Kohanim 27:90] Now, this applies to one who comes to redeem it at the beginning of the Jubilee cycle [namely, in its first year]. However, if he comes to redeem it in the middle [of the Jubilee cycle, i.e., after the first year has elapsed], he must pay according to the calculation of one sela (i.e., a shekel) and a pundyon (one forty-eighth of a shekel) per year [depending on how many years until the next Jubilee (see Rashi on verse 18 below)]. — [Arachin 25a] [And why so?] Because property is consecrated only according to the years of the Jubilee cycle-if it is redeemed [within the Jubilee cycle], very good, [i.e., it reverts to its original owners and is no longer Temple property]; but if not, the [Temple] treasurer sells it to someone else at the aforementioned rate, and it remains in the purchaser’s possession until the next Jubilee, just like any other fields which are sold. Then, when it leaves the possession of this purchaser [in the Jubilee], it reverts to the kohanim of that watch, namely, [namely, the shift officiating] when [Yom Kippur of that] Jubilee occurs, and is apportioned among them. — [Arachin 28b] [The kohanim are divided into 24 family watches, or shifts, each in rotation for two or three one-week periods every year.] This is the law stated regarding one who consecrates a field. I will now explain it according to the order of the verses.   והיה ערכך לפי זרעו: ולא כפי שוויה. אחת שדה טובה ואחת שדה רעה, פדיון הקדשן שוה, בית כור שעורים בחמשים שקלים, כך גזירת הכתוב. והוא שבא לגאלה בתחלת היובל, ואם בא לגאלה באמצעו, נותן לפי החשבון סלע ופונדיון לשנה, לפי שאינה הקדש אלא למנין שני היובל, שאם נגאלה הרי טוב, ואם לאו הגזבר מוכרה בדמים הללו לאחר ועומדת ביד הלוקח עד היובל כשאר כל השדות המכורות, וכשהיא יוצאה מידו חוזרת לכהנים של אותו משמר שהיובל פוגע בו ומתחלקת ביניהם, זהו המשפט האמור במקדיש שדה. ועכשיו אפרשנו על סדר המקראות:
17Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended], it shall remain at [its full] valuation.   יזאִם־מִשְּׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֑הוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֖ יָקֽוּם:
Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended]: If, as soon as the Jubilee year has ended, he immediately consecrates [his property i.e., within that first year of the next Shemittah and Jubilee cycle], and then he comes to redeem it immediately [i.e., before that first year has ended].   אם משנת היבל יקדיש וגו': אם משעברה שנת היובל מיד הקדישה ובא לגאלה מיד:
it shall remain at [its full] valuation: i.e., like this aforementioned (in verse 16) valuation, it shall be, [namely,] he must give fifty silver shekels [for the size of field stated]. — [see Arachin 24b]   כערכך יקום: כערך הזה האמור יהיה, חמשים כסף יתן:
18But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years until the [next] Jubilee year, and it shall be deducted from the valuation.   יחוְאִם־אַחַ֣ר הַיֹּבֵל֘ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֒הוּ֒ וְחִשַּׁב־ל֨וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֗סֶף עַל־פִּ֤י הַשָּׁנִים֙ הַנּ֣וֹתָרֹ֔ת עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנִגְרַ֖ע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, [the kohen should calculate the money for him….: [And not only in this case, but] likewise, if [the original owner] had consecrated the property immediately after the Jubilee ended, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer, and this one comes to redeem it after [this first year following] the Jubilee -   ואם אחר היבל יקדיש: וכן אם הקדישה משנת היובל ונשתהה ביד גזבר ובא זה לגאלה אחר היובל:
the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years [until the (next) Jubilee year]: according to the rate. How? [Scripture] has stated the fixed value [of redemption for a field whose size is that stated in our verse,] for forty-nine years as fifty [silver] shekels, i.e., one shekel for each of the [49] years and an extra shekel [paid over] all the [49] years. Now, a shekel is equivalent to 48 pundyons . Thus, one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for each year, except that one pundyon is missing for all of them [i.e., if we figure fifty shekels, we have only 49 shekels and 48 pundyons , which is less than a sela and a pundyon per year, but the redeemer is required to pay one extra pundyon per a 49-year period, for] our Rabbis taught (Bech. 50a) that, the [extra] pundyon is a surcharge for [currency exchange of] small coins [i.e., if someone comes to purchase a silver shekel with pundyons , he will be charged 49 of them, the extra pundyon being a surcharge for attaining the more significant single shekel coin rather than many small coins. This surcharge, then, is passed on to the one who wishes to redeem the field. Hence, at an annual rate of one shekel and one pundyon, the redeemer is actually paying one forty-ninth of a pundyon currency exchange surcharge every year]. And therefore, someone who comes to redeem [a field], must pay one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for every year left until the next Jubilee year.   וחשב לו הכהן את הכסף על פי השנים הנותרת: כפי חשבון. כיצד, הרי קצב דמיה של ארבעים ותשע שנים חמשים שקל, הרי שקל לכל שנה, ושקל יתר בין כולן, והשקל ארבעים ושמנה פודיונין, הרי סלע ופונדיון לשנה אלא שחסר פונדיון אחד לכולן, ואמרו רבותינו שאותו פונדיון קלבון לפרוטרוט, והבא לגאול יתן סלע ופונדיון לכל שנה לשנים הנותרות עד שנת היובל:
thereby deducting from the [full] valuation [amount]: the number of years from the [preceding] Jubilee year until the redemption year.   ונגרע מערכך: מנין השנים שמשנת היובל עד שנת הפדיון:
19If the one who consecrated it redeems the field, he shall add to it a fifth of the valuation money, and it shall be his.   יטוְאִם־גָּאֹ֤ל יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה הַמַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִשִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְקָ֥ם לֽוֹ:
If the [one who consecrated it] redeems the field: The person who consecrated it must add a fifth to this set amount. — [see Rashi on preceding verse; Mizrachi]   ואם גאל יגאל: המקדיש אותו, יוסיף חומש על הקצבה הזאת:
20But if he does not redeem the field, and if he has sold the field to someone else it may no longer be redeemed.   כוְאִם־לֹ֤א יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאִם־מָכַ֥ר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֖ל עֽוֹד:
But if he does not redeem the field: [i.e., if] the one who consecrated [the field does not redeem it].   ואם לא יגאל את השדה: המקדיש:
and if… has sold: [i.e., if] the treasurer (Arachin 25b) has sold   ואם מכר: הגזבר:
the field to someone else-it may no longer be redeemed: to revert to the possession of the one who consecrated it [i.e., the original owner, come Jubilee]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד: לשוב ליד המקדיש:
21But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee, it shall be holy to the Lord like a field devoted; his inherited property shall belong to the kohen.   כאוְהָיָ֨ה הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה בְּצֵאת֣וֹ בַיֹּבֵ֗ל קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה כִּשְׂדֵ֣ה הַחֵ֑רֶם לַכֹּהֵ֖ן תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee: the possession of the one who had purchased it from the treasurer, just like all fields that leave the possession of their purchasers, come Jubilee.   והיה השדה בצאתו ביבל: מיד הלוקחו מן הגזבר, כדרך שאר שדות היוצאות מיד לוקחיהם ביובל:
holy to the Lord: This does not mean that it reverts to the treasurer as sacred property designated for maintenance of the Holy Temple. Rather, it is “like a field devoted” which is given to the kohanim, as it is said, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you” (Num. 18:14). This too shall be divided in Jubilee among the kohanim of the watch at that time, namely, when Yom Kippur of that Jubilee occurs. — [Arachin 28b]   קדש לה': לא שישוב להקדש בדק הבית ליד הגזבר אלא כשדה החרם הנתון לכהנים, שנאמר (במדבר יח יד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, אף זו תתחלק ביובל לכהנים של אותו משמר, שיום הכפורים של יובל פוגע בו: