Leviticus Chapter 25

47If a resident non Jew gains wealth with you, and your brother becomes destitute with him and is sold to a resident non Jew among you or to an idol of the family of a non Jew.   מזוְכִ֣י תַשִּׂ֗יג יַ֣ד גֵּ֤ר וְתוֹשָׁב֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ וּמָ֥ךְ אָחִ֖יךָ עִמּ֑וֹ וְנִמְכַּ֗ר לְגֵ֤ר תּוֹשָׁב֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ א֥וֹ לְעֵ֖קֶר מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת גֵּֽר:
a resident non-Jew: Heb. גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב. A stranger (גֵּר) who is a resident (תּוֹשָׁב),“ [stranger here meaning non-Jew,] just as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עֲרַל תּוֹתָב, an uncircumcised resident. And the end [of the verse] proves [that it is one person, when it continues:] וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב [without a "vav"].   יד גר ותושב: גר והוא תושב, כתרגומו ערל תותב, וסופו מוכיח ונמכר לגר תושב:
If a resident non-Jew gains wealth with you: What caused him to become wealthy? His connection with you. [He gained wealth through the blessing of the Jewish people]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   וכי תשיג יד גר ותושב עמך: מי גרם לו שיעשיר, דבוקו עמך:
and your brother becomes destitute with him: What caused his destitution? His connection with him, because he learned from his deeds. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   ומך אחיך עמו: מי גרם לו שימוך, דבוקו עמו, על ידי שלמד ממעשיו:
the family of a non-Jew: [Without the word לְעֵקֶר,] this [expression] means [the Jew is sold to] an idolater; but when Scripture says לְעֵקֶר [literally “to uproot,” making it לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר], it refers to [a Jew] who is sold to the idol itself [לְעֵקֶר meaning “that which is to be uprooted”] - i.e., he becomes an attendant to it. He does not worship it as a deity, but to chop wood and draw water. — [Torath Kohanim 25:94]   משפחת גר: זהו הגוי. כשהוא אומר לעקר זה הנמכר לעבודה זרה עצמה להיות לה שמש, ולא לאלהות, אלא לחטוב עצים ולשאוב מים:
48After he is sold, he shall have redemption; one of his brothers shall redeem him.   מחאַֽחֲרֵ֣י נִמְכַּ֔ר גְּאֻלָּ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֑וֹ אֶחָ֥ד מֵֽאֶחָ֖יו יִגְאָלֶֽנּוּ:
he shall have redemption: immediately. Do not allow him to become assimilated [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:95] until the Jubilee year. For the purchaser’s sole purpose here was to acquire this man so that he would serve him until the Jubilee, for [the servant] goes free in the Jubilee, as is stated below, “[And if he has not been redeemed…] he shall go out in the Jubilee year” (verse 54). [Obviously], Scripture is speaking of a non-Jew who is under the jurisdiction of Israel [and therefore obeys the law to free his slave in the Jubilee year]. Nevertheless, you shall not cheat him, because [this may cause] a desecration of God’s Name, but, when [the servant] is to be redeemed, he must be meticulous in his calculation, according to what is due for each year, and the non-Jew should then deduct this amount from his price. If there were twenty years since he was sold, until the Jubilee, and he had purchased him for twenty manehs -it turns out that the non-Jew had purchased each year’s work for a maneh . Now, if this [Jewish servant] had already spent five years with him, and he comes to be redeemed, he [the non-Jew] must deduct five manehs, and the servant must give him fifteen manehs. This, then, is the meaning of: “then, the purchase price shall be divided by the number of years” [in order to determine the annual hiring rate, as above]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:103; B.K. 113b]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד, אל תניחהו שיטמע עד שנת היובל, שהרי כל עצמו לא קנאו אלא לעובדו עד היובל, שהרי ביובל יצא, כמו שנאמר למטה (פסוק נד) ויצא בשנת היובל. ובגוי שתחת ידך הכתוב מדבר ואף על פי כן לא תבא עליו בעקיפין, מפני חלול השם, אלא כשבא ליגאל ידקדק בחשבון לפי המגיע בכל שנה ושנה ינכה לו הגוי מן דמיו, אם היו עשרים שנה משנמכר עד היובל וקנאו בעשרים מנה, נמצא שקנה הגוי עבודת שנה במנה, ואם שהה זה אצלו חמש שנים ובא ליגאל, ינכה לו חמשה מנים ויתן לו העבד ט"ו מנים, וזהו והיה כסף ממכרו במספר שנים:
49Or his uncle or his cousin shall redeem him, or the closest [other] relative from his family shall redeem him; or, if he becomes able to afford it, he can be redeemed [on his own].   מטאֽוֹ־דֹד֞וֹ א֤וֹ בֶן־דֹּדוֹ֙ יִגְאָלֶ֔נּוּ אֽוֹ־מִשְּׁאֵ֧ר בְּשָׂר֛וֹ מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ יִגְאָלֶ֑נּוּ אֽוֹ־הִשִּׂ֥יגָה יָד֖וֹ וְנִגְאָֽל:
50He shall calculate with his purchaser [the number of years] from the year of his being sold to him until the Jubilee year; then, the purchase price shall be [divided] by the number of years; as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him.   נוְחִשַּׁב֙ עִם־קֹנֵ֔הוּ מִשְּׁנַת֙ הִמָּ֣כְרוֹ ל֔וֹ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְהָיָ֞ה כֶּ֤סֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ֙ בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שָׁנִ֔ים כִּימֵ֥י שָׂכִ֖יר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמּֽוֹ:
as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him: He shall calculate the amount [of money] resulting for each year, “as if he had been employed by him for a maneh annually,” and he [the non-Jew] should then deduct it for him, [as explained in the preceding Rashi].   כימי שכיר יהיה עמו: חשבון המגיע לכל שנה ושנה יחשב כאלו נשכר עמו כל שנה במנה וינכה לו:
51If there are still many years, according to them, he shall return his redemption [money] out of the money for which he was purchased.   נאאִם־ע֥וֹד רַבּ֖וֹת בַּשָּׁנִ֑ים לְפִיהֶן֙ יָשִׁ֣יב גְּאֻלָּת֔וֹ מִכֶּ֖סֶף מִקְנָתֽוֹ:
If there are still many years: until the Jubilee.   אם עוד רבות בשנים: עד היובל:
according to them: Everything as I have explained.   לפיהן: הכל כמו שפירשתי:
52But if only a few years remain until the Jubilee year, he shall make the [same] calculation; according to his years [that remain until Jubilee], he shall return the redemption [money]._   נבוְאִם־מְעַ֞ט נִשְׁאַ֧ר בַּשָּׁנִ֛ים עַד־שְׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל וְחִשַּׁב־ל֑וֹ כְּפִ֣י שָׁנָ֔יו יָשִׁ֖יב אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
53He shall be with him as an employee hired year by year; he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight.   נגכִּשְׂכִ֥יר שָׁנָ֛ה בְּשָׁנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמּ֑וֹ לֹֽא־יִרְדֶּ֥נּוּ בְּפֶ֖רֶךְ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ:
he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight: That is to say, while you see this [i.e., a Jew must not see a non-Jew forcing this type of labor upon his Jewish servant without doing anything, but this is not a warning to the non-Jew (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:101]   לא ירדנו בפרך לעיניך: כלומר ואתה רואה:
54And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways], he shall go out in the Jubilee year he and his children with him.   נדוְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל בְּאֵ֑לֶּה וְיָצָא֙ בִּשְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֔ל ה֖וּא וּבָנָ֥יו עִמּֽוֹ:
And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways]: This [Jewish servant of a non-Jew] may be redeemed [only] through “these ways” [described in the verses here], but he may not be redeemed [i.e., released] through six [years]. — [see Exod. 21:2; Kid. 15b]   ואם לא יגאל באלה: באלה הוא נגאל, ואינו נגאל בשש:
he, and his children with him: [But are his children also sold, that Scripture finds it necessary to state here that his children go free together with him? However, we learn from here that just like a Jewish master, so too], the non-Jewish [master] is obligated to provide food for the [servant’s] children, just as an Israelite is obligated [and in this sense, they are released, along with their father]. — [Kid. 22a; see Rashi verse 41 above]   הוא ובניו עמו: הנכרי חייב במזונות בניו כישראל:
55For the children of Israel are servants to Me; they are My servants, whom I took out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   נהכִּי־לִ֤י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ עֲבָדִ֔ים עֲבָדַ֣י הֵ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אוֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
For the children of Israel are servants to Me: “My contract came before.” [And thus, when the Jubilee arrives, the servant must be released and revert to being God’s servant rather than man’s.]- [Torath Kohanim 25:85; see Rashi verse 42 above]   כי לי בני ישראל עבדים: שטרי קודם:
I am the Lord, your God: Whoever subjugates them below [on this earth,] is as if he subjugates [them] above [in heaven, for as long as a Jew is enslaved to another human being, he is not free to do the holy service of God Above (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:104]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כל המשעבדן מלמטה כאלו משעבדן מלמעלה:

Leviticus Chapter 26

1You shall not make idols for yourselves, nor shall you set up a statue or a monument for yourselves. And in your land you shall not place a pavement stone on which to prostrate yourselves, for I am the Lord, your God.   אלֹא־תַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ לָכֶ֜ם אֱלִילִ֗ם וּפֶ֤סֶל וּמַצֵּבָה֙ לֹֽא־תָקִ֣ימוּ לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶ֣בֶן מַשְׂכִּ֗ית לֹ֤א תִתְּנוּ֙ בְּאַרְצְכֶ֔ם לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֹ֖ת עָלֶ֑יהָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
You shall not make idols for yourselves: [This] is addressed to the one who has been sold [as a servant] to a non-Jew, that he should not say, “Since my master has illicit relations, I will also be like him! Since my master worships idols, I will also be like him! Since my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!” This is why these verses are stated here. - [Torath Kohanim 25:106]. Also, the passages [in this whole section (namely, from the beginning of Chapter 25 until the end of Behar),] are written in a meaningful order, [as follows]: At first, Scripture admonishes us to observe [the laws of] Shemittah [and Jubilee (25: 124)]; then, if one covets money and becomes suspect of [unlawfully doing business with produce of] Shemittah (Nachalath Ya’akov), he will eventually [become destitute and] have to sell his personal belongingstherefore, Scripture juxtaposes to it, “And when you make a sale [to your fellow-Jew]” (25:14) (What is written therein? “or make a purchase from the hand…,” something that is transferred from hand to hand). If he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his ineritance (25:25). If he even then does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his home, and if even then, he does not repent, he will eventually have to borrow money with interest (verses 25:35-38). Now, the later the scenario in this passage, the more severe it is [i.e., first he sells his belongings, then his property, then his home and then even borrowing with interest which is more severe than selling one’s property; (Nachalath Ya’akov) thus, the passage continues accordingly, for] if he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell himself [to his fellow Jew as a servant] (verses 25:39-46); and [finally,] if he has still not repented, not enough that he had to be sold to his fellow Jew - but he will [be forced to sell himself] even to a non-Jew!- [25:47-55; Kidd. 20a]   לא תעשו לכם אלילם: כנגד זה הנמכר לגוי, שלא יאמר הואיל ורבי מגלה עריות אף אני כמותו, הואיל ורבי עובד עבודה זרה אף אני כמותו, הואיל ורבי מחלל שבת אף אני כמותו, לכך נאמרו מקראות הללו. ואף הפרשיות הללו נאמרו על הסדר בתחלה הזהיר על השביעית, ואם חמד ממון ונחשד על השביעית סופו למכור מטלטליו, לכך סמך לה וכי תמכרו ממכר (ויק' כה יד), מה כתיב ביה או קנה מיד עמיתך (שם), דבר הנקנה מיד ליד. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר אחוזתו. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר את ביתו. לא חזר בו, סוף לוה ברבית. כל אלו האחרונות קשות מן הראשונות. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר את עצמו. לא חזר בו, לא דיו לישראל אלא אפילו לגוי:
a pavement stone: אֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית, an expression denoting a covering, as in “And I shall cover (וְשַׂכֹּתִי) [you with] My hand.” (Exod. 33:22). [And the meaning of “covering” is relevant here,] as people use a stone floor to make a covering over the ground.   ואבן משכית: לשון כסוי, כמו (שמות לג כב) ושכותי כפי, שמכסין הקרקע ברצפת אבנים:
on which to prostrate yourselves: even to Heaven, for the expression הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה, prostration, denotes stretching one’s hands and feet out [on the ground], and the Torah prohibits one to do this outside the Holy Temple [where prostration on a stone floor is permitted]. — [Meg. 22b and see Rashi there]   להשתחות עליה: אפילו לשמים, לפי שהשתחואה בפשוט ידים ורגלים היא, ואסרה תורה לעשות כן חוץ מן המקדש:
2You shall keep My Sabbaths and fear My Sanctuary. I am the Lord.   באֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמֹ֔רוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁ֖י תִּירָ֑אוּ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
I am the Lord: Who is faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah].   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר: