Leviticus Chapter 23

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: The Lord's appointed [holy days] that you shall designate as holy occasions. These are My appointed [holy days]:   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מֽוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם מִקְרָאֵ֣י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם מֽוֹעֲדָֽי:
Speak to the children of Israel…The Lord’s appointed [holy days]: Designate the [times] of the festivals so that [all of] Israel will become accustomed to them, [meaning] that they should proclaim leap years for [the Jews in] the Diaspora who had uprooted themselves from their place to ascend to [Jerusalem for] the festivals, but who had not yet arrived in Jerusalem. [The leap year would enable them to arrive in time. Consequently, in ensuing years, they would not lose hope of arriving on time and would be encouraged to make the pilgrimage.]- [Torath Kohanim 23:139; Levush Ha’orah. See also Mizrachi , Nachalath Ya’akov , Sefer Hazikkaron , Yosef Hallel , Chavel]   דבר אל בני ישראל וגו' מועדי ה': עשה מועדות שיהיו ישראל מלומדין בהם, שמעברים את השנה על גליות שנעקרו ממקומם לעלות לרגל ועדיין לא הגיעו לירושלים:
3[For] six days, work may be performed, but on the seventh day, it is a complete rest day, a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work. It is a Sabbath to the Lord in all your dwelling places.   גשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִים֘ תֵּֽעָשֶׂ֣ה מְלָאכָה֒ וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י שַׁבַּ֤ת שַׁבָּתוֹן֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלָאכָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ שַׁבָּ֥ת הִוא֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
[For] six days…: Why does the Sabbath [designated by God,] appear here amidst the festivals [designated by the Sanhedrin]? To teach you that whoever desecrates the festivals is considered [to have transgressed as severely] as if he had desecrated the Sabbath, and that whoever who fulfills the festivals is considered as if he has fulfilled the Sabbath, [and his reward is as great]. — [Be’er Basadeh ; Torath Kohanim 23:144]   ששת ימים: מה ענין שבת אצל מועדות, ללמדך שכל המחלל את המועדות מעלין עליו כאלו חלל את השבתות. וכל המקיים את המועדות, מעלין עליו כאלו קיים את השבתות:
4These are the Lord's appointed [holy days], holy occasions, which you shall designate in their appointed time:   דאֵ֚לֶּה מֽוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה מִקְרָאֵ֖י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם בְּמֽוֹעֲדָֽם:
These are the Lord’s appointed [holy days, holy occasions, that you shall designate]: In the earlier verse (verse 2), Scripture is referring to the proclamation of a leap year, while here, Scripture is referring to sanctifying the new month [i.e., “designating” which day is the first of the month, based on testimony of the sighting of the new moon. Both of these “designations,” therefore, have bearing on the establishment of the festivals.] - [Torath Kohanim 23: 146]   אלה מועדי ה': למעלה מדבר בעבור שנה, וכאן מדבר בקדוש החדש:
5In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, in the afternoon, [you shall sacrifice] the Passover offering to the Lord.   הבַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַרְבָּ֑יִם פֶּ֖סַח לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
in the afternoon: Heb. בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם, lit. between the two evenings. From six [halachic] hours [after dawn,] and onwards [until evening (עֶרֶב), i.e., nightfall.]   בין הערבים: משש שעות ולמעלה:
the Passover offering to the Lord: Heb. פֶּסַח, the offering up of a sacrifice named “Pesach.” [The term “Pesach” here refers to the Pesach offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan, not to the Passover Festival, which begins on the fifteenth. — [Be’er Heitev on Rashi]   פסח לה': הקרבת קרבן ששמו פסח:
6And on the fifteenth day of that month is the Festival of Unleavened Cakes to the Lord; you shall eat unleavened cakes for a seven day period.   ווּבַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֔ה חַ֥ג הַמַּצּ֖וֹת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים מַצּ֥וֹת תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
7On the first day, there shall be a holy occasion for you; you shall not perform any work of labor.   זבַּיּוֹם֙ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן מִקְרָא־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
8And you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord for a seven day period. On the seventh day, there shall be a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work of labor.   חוְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֛ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּיּ֤וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
And you shall bring a fire offering [to the Lord for a seven-day period]: These are the additional offerings [of Passover] delineated in parshath Pinchas (Num. 28:1625). Why are they mentioned here? To inform you that the additional offerings do not impede one another, [if some are omitted, as the Torah states:]   והקרבתם אשה וגו': הם המוספין האמורים בפרשת פנחס ולמה נאמרו כאן, לומר לך שאין המוספין מעכבין זה את זה:
And you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord: in any case. If there are no bulls, bring rams, and if there are neither bulls nor rams, bring lambs [as prescribed in Num. 28:19]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:152]   והקרבתם אשה לה': מכל מקום, אם אין פרים הבא אילים, ואם אין פרים ואילים, הבא כבשים:
for a seven-day period: Heb. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים, lit., a “seven” of days. Wherever the שִׁבְעַת appears, it denotes a noun, and [thus, the expression here שִׁבְעַת יָמִים means “a week of days” ; septaine in Old French [which is the noun, as opposed to sept, meaning the number seven. See Mizrachi on Rashi Exod. 10:22]. Likewise, every [construct expression like], שְׁמוֹנַת, שֵׁשֶׁת, חֲמֵשֶׁת, שְׁלֹשֶׁת [literally means, respectively, “an eight of,” “a six of,” “a five of,” “a three of,” [meaning a unit consisting of one of these numbers]. - [See Gur Aryeh and Levush Haorah on Rashi Exod. 10:22 for the reason this type of expression is used here instead of simply שִׁבְעָה יָמִים, “seven days.”]   שבעת ימים: כל מקום שנאמר שבעת שם דבר הוא, שבוע של ימים, שטיינ"א בלע"ז [קבוצה של שבעה ימים רצופים], וכן כל לשון שמונת, ששת, חמשת, שלשת:
work of labor: Even types of work (מְלָאכוֹת) that are considered by you as labor (עֲבוֹדָה) and necessities, where a monetary loss may be incurred if one would refrain from them, for example, something that will be lost [if the activity is postponed]. I understood this from Torath Kohanim, where it is taught (23:187): “One might think that even during the intermediate days of the Festival, work of labor is prohibited…” [and the text concludes by teaching us that during those days, מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה is permitted, and we know that the type of work that is permitted on the intermediate days is such work whose postponement would cause a loss (דָּבָר הָאָבֵד). Hence, we see that מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה and דָּבָר הָאָבֵד are synonymous, and that is what the Torah meant to prohibit on the festival holy days-namely, the first and seventh days of Passover, when even that type of work is prohibited].   מלאכת עבדה: אפילו מלאכות החשובות לכם עבודה וצורך, שיש חסרון כיס בבטלה שלהן, כגון דבר האבד. כך הבנתי מתורת כהנים, דקתני יכול אף חולו של מועד יהא אסור במלאכת עבודה וכו':
9And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   טוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
10Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When you come to the Land which I am giving you, and you reap its harvest, you shall bring to the kohen an omer of the beginning of your reaping.   ידַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־תָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִי֙ נֹתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֔ם וּקְצַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־קְצִירָ֑הּ וַֽהֲבֵאתֶ֥ם אֶת־עֹ֛מֶר רֵאשִׁ֥ית קְצִֽירְכֶ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
[you shall bring…an omer] of the beginning of your reaping: the first of the harvest [from the fields. Thus, one is permitted to proceed with the general harvest only after this omer has been reaped.]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Men. 71a]   ראשית קצירכם: שתהא ראשונה לקציר:
omer: a tenth of an ephah (see Exod. 16:36). That was its [the measure’s] name, like “And they measured it with an omer” (Exod. 16:18).   עמר: עשירית האיפה, כך היתה שמה, כמו (שמות טז יח) וימודו בעומר:
11And he shall wave the omer before the Lord so that it will be acceptable for you; the kohen shall wave it on the day after the rest day.   יאוְהֵנִ֧יף אֶת־הָעֹ֛מֶר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לִרְצֹֽנְכֶ֑ם מִמָּֽחֳרַת֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת יְנִיפֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And he shall wave: Every [mention of] תְּנוּפָה, “waving,” [in Scripture], denotes moving back and forth, up and down. [It is moved] back and forth to prevent evil winds; [it is moved] up and down to prevent evil dews [i.e., the dew should be a blessing for the crop, not a curse]. — [Men. 61a-62a]   והניף: כל תנופה מוליך ומביא מעלה ומוריד. מוליך ומביא לעצור רוחות רעות, מעלה ומוריד לעצור טללים רעים:
so that it will be acceptable for you: If you offer it up according to these instructions, it will be acceptable for you.   לרצנכם: אם תקריבו כמשפט זה, יהיו לרצון לכם:
on the day after the rest day: מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת. On the day after the first holy day of Passover, [since a holy festival day is also שַׁבָָּת, rest day , in Scripture]. For if you say [that it means] the “Sabbath of Creation” [i.e., the actual Sabbath, the seventh day of the week], you would not know which one. - [Men. 66a]   ממחרת השבת: ממחרת יום טוב הראשון של פסח, שאם אתה אומר שבת בראשית, אי אתה יודע איזהו:
12And on the day of your waving the omer, you shall offer up an unblemished lamb in its [first] year as a burnt offering to the Lord;   יבוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֕ם בְּי֥וֹם הֲנִֽיפְכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָעֹ֑מֶר כֶּ֣בֶשׂ תָּמִ֧ים בֶּן־שְׁנָת֛וֹ לְעֹלָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
you shall offer up [an unblemished lamb in its [first] year]: It comes as obligatory for the omer [not as part the additional offerings of Passover.   ועשיתם כבש: חובה לעומר הוא בא:
13Its meal offering [shall be] two tenths [of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with oil, a fire offering to the Lord as a spirit of satisfaction. And its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine.   יגוּמִנְחָתוֹ֩ שְׁנֵ֨י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֜ים סֹ֣לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֛מֶן אִשֶּׁ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֑חַ וְנִסְכּ֥וֹ (כתיב ונסכה) יַ֖יִן רְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִֽין:
Its meal offering: The meal offering [which accompanies every sacrifice], along with its libations. [See Num. 15:116.] [This is not an independent meal offering.]   ומנחתו: מנחת נסכיו:
two tenths [of an ephah]: It was double [the usual meal offering for a lamb, which is one tenth.] (See Num. 15:4.)   שני עשרנים: כפולה היתה:
and its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine: Although its meal offering is double, its libations are not double, [but the usual libation prescribed for a lamb (Num. 15:5). - [Men. 89b]   ונסכה יין רביעית ההין: אף על פי שמנחתו כפולה, אין נסכיו כפולים:
14You shall not eat bread or [flour made from] parched grain or fresh grain, until this very day, until you bring your God's sacrifice. [This is] an eternal statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.   ידוְלֶ֩חֶם֩ וְקָלִ֨י וְכַרְמֶ֜ל לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֗וּ עַד־עֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה עַ֚ד הֲבִ֣יאֲכֶ֔ם אֶת־קָרְבַּ֖ן אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
or [flour made from] parched grain: [This refers to] flour made from tender, plump grain that is parched in an oven (see Lev. 2:14).   וקלי: קמח עשוי מכרמל רך שמייבשין אותו בתנור:
plump grain: [These are the] plump, parched kernels, grenaillis [in Old French]. — [See Rashi, Sifthei Chachamim on Lev. 2:14]   וכרמל: הן קליות שקורין גרניד"ש [שבולים]:
in all your dwelling places: The Sages of Israel differ concerning this. Some learned from here that [the prohibition of eating] the new crop [before the omer] applies [even] outside the Land [of Israel], while others say that this phrase comes only to teach [us] that they were commanded regarding the new crop only after possession and settlement, after they had conquered and apportioned [the land. — [Kid. 37a]   בכל משבתיכם: נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל, יש שלמדו מכאן שהחדש נוהג בחוצה לארץ, ויש אומרים לא בא אלא ללמד שלא נצטוו על החדש אלא לאחר ירושה וישיבה, משכבשו וחלקו:
15And you shall count for yourselves, from the morrow of the rest day from the day you bring the omer as a wave offering seven weeks; they shall be complete.   טווּסְפַרְתֶּ֤ם לָכֶם֙ מִמָּֽחֳרַ֣ת הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת מִיּוֹם֙ הֲבִ֣יאֲכֶ֔ם אֶת־עֹ֖מֶר הַתְּנוּפָ֑ה שֶׁ֥בַע שַׁבָּת֖וֹת תְּמִימֹ֥ת תִּֽהְיֶֽינָה:
from the morrow of the rest day: On the day after the [first] holy day [of Passover]. — [See Rashi on verse 11; Men. 65b]   ממחרת השבת: ממחרת יום טוב:
[seven weeks;] they shall be complete: [This verse] teaches us that one must begin counting [each of these days] from the evening, because otherwise, they would not be “complete.” - [Men. 66a]   תמימת תהיינה: מלמד שמתחיל ומונה מבערב, שאם לא כן אינן תמימות:
16You shall count until the day after the seventh week, [namely,] the fiftieth day, [on which] you shall bring a new meal offering to the Lord.   טזעַ֣ד מִמָּֽחֳרַ֤ת הַשַּׁבָּת֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔ת תִּסְפְּר֖וּ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים י֑וֹם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֛ם מִנְחָ֥ה חֲדָשָׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
the day after the seventh week: הַשַּׁבָּת הַשְּׁבִיעִת, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: שְׁבוּעֲתָא שְׁבִיעָתָא, “the seventh week.”   השבת השביעת: כתרגומו שבועתא שביעתא:
You shall count until the day after the seventh week: But not inclusive, making forty-nine days.   עד ממחרת השבת השביעת תספרו: ולא עד בכלל, והן ארבעים ותשעה יום:
the fiftieth day, [on which] you will bring a meal offering to the Lord from the new [wheat crop]: [lit., “(You shall count) fifty days and bring a meal offering to the Lord from the new (wheat crop).” But we count only forty-nine days. Therefore, the meaning is:] On the fiftieth day, you shall bring this [meal offering of the new wheat crop]. But I say that this is a Midrashic explanation of the verse [since it requires the forced attachment of the words חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם to the continuation of the verse regarding the meal offering, whereas the cantillation signs attach them to the preceding words regarding the counting]. But its simple meaning is: “until [but not inclusive of]…the day after [the completion of] the seventh week, which is the fiftieth day, shall you count.” Accordingly, this is a transposed verse.   חמשים יום והקרבתם מנחה חדשה לה': ביום החמשים תקריבוה. ואומר אני זהו מדרשו, אבל פשוטו עד ממחרת השבת השביעית, שהוא יום חמשים, תספרו. ומקרא מסורס הוא:
a new meal-offering: This is the first meal offering brought from the new [crop]. Now, if you ask, “But was not the meal offering of the omer already offered up (see verse 10 above)?” [the answer to this is that] that is not like other meal offerings-for it comes from barley [and hence, this meal offering is new since it is the first meal offering from the wheat crop].   מנחה חדשה: היא המנחה הראשונה שהובאה מן החדש. ואם תאמר, הרי קרבה מנחת העומר, אינה כשאר כל המנחות, שהיא באה מן השעורים:
17From your dwelling places, you shall bring bread, set aside, two [loaves] [made from] two tenths [of an ephah]; they shall be of fine flour, [and] they shall be baked leavened, the first offering to the Lord.   יזמִמּֽוֹשְׁבֹ֨תֵיכֶ֜ם תָּבִ֣יאוּ | לֶ֣חֶם תְּנוּפָ֗ה שְׁתַּ֨יִם֙ שְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֔ים סֹ֣לֶת תִּֽהְיֶ֔ינָה חָמֵ֖ץ תֵּֽאָפֶ֑ינָה בִּכּוּרִ֖ים לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
From your dwelling places: but not from outside the Land. — [Men. 83b]   ממושבתיכם: ולא מחוצה לארץ:
bread set aside: Heb. לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה, bread of separation, set aside for the sake of the Most High, and this is the new meal offering, mentioned above [in the preceding verse].   לחם תנופה: לחם תרומה המורם לשם גבוה, וזו היא המנחה החדשה האמורה למעלה:
the first offering: The first of all the meal offerings [brought from the new crop]; even a “jealousy meal offering” [for suspected infidelity, see Num. 5:11-31], which comes from barley [see verse 15 there], may not be offered up from the new crop before the two loaves [have been brought]. — [Men. 84b]   בכורים: ראשונה לכל המנחות, אף למנחת קנאות הבאה מן השעורים, לא תקרב מן החדש קודם לשתי הלחם:
18And associated with the bread, you shall bring seven unblemished lambs in their [first] year, one young bull, and two rams these shall be a burnt offering to the Lord, [along with] their meal offering and libations a fire offering [with] a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord.   יחוְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֣ם עַל־הַלֶּ֗חֶם שִׁבְעַ֨ת כְּבָשִׂ֤ים תְּמִימִם֙ בְּנֵ֣י שָׁנָ֔ה וּפַ֧ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֛ר אֶחָ֖ד וְאֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם יִֽהְי֤וּ עֹלָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּמִנְחָתָם֙ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֔ם אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And associated with the bread: Heb. עַל הַלֶּחֶם,lit. on the bread, i.e., “because of the bread,” i.e., as an obligation for the bread, [but not as a separate obligation for that day. I.e., if they did not bring the bread offering, they do not bring this associated burnt offering. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 23:171]   על הלחם: בגלל הלחם, חובה ללחם:
[along with] their meal offering and libations: i.e., according to the prescription of meal offerings and libations specified for each [type of] animal in the passage that delineates [libations (see Num. 15:1-16), as follows: three tenths [of an ephah of flour] for each bull, two tenths for a ram and one tenth for a lamb-this is the meal offering [for sacrifices]. And the libations are as follows: Half a hin [of wine] for a bull, a third of a hin for a ram, and a quarter of a hin for a lamb.   ומנחתם ונסכיהם: כמשפט מנחה ונסכים המפורשים בכל בהמה בפרשת נסכים (במדבר טו ד - י) שלשה עשרונים לפר ושני עשרונים לאיל ועשרון לכבש, זו היא המנחה. והנסכים חצי ההין לפר ושלישית ההין לאיל ורביעית ההין לכבש:
19And you shall offer up one he goat as a sin offering, and two lambs in their [first] year as a peace offering._   יטוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֛ם שְׂעִֽיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד לְחַטָּ֑את וּשְׁנֵ֧י כְבָשִׂ֛ים בְּנֵ֥י שָׁנָ֖ה לְזֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִֽים:
And you shall offer up one he-goat: One might think that the seven lambs (preceding verse) and the he-goat mentioned here are the same seven lambs and the he-goat enumerated in the Book of Numbers (28:19, 22). However, when you reach [the enumeration there of] the bulls and rams, [the numbers of each animal] they are not the same [as those listed here]. You must now conclude that these are separate and those are separate-these are brought in conjunction with the bread, while those as additional offerings [for the Festival]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:171]   ועשיתם שעיר עזים: יכול שבעת הכבשים והשעיר האמורים כאן הם שבעת הכבשים והשעיר האמורים בחומש הפקודים, כשאתה מגיע אצל פרים ואילים אינן הם, אמור מעתה אלו לעצמן ואלו לעצמן, אלו קרבו בגלל הלחם ואלו למוספין:
20And the kohen shall wave them in conjunction with the first offering bread as a waving before the Lord, along with the two lambs. They shall be holy to the Lord, [and] belong to the kohen.   כוְהֵנִ֣יף הַכֹּהֵ֣ן | אֹתָ֡ם עַל֩ לֶ֨חֶם הַבִּכֻּרִ֤ים תְּנוּפָה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁנֵ֖י כְּבָשִׂ֑ים קֹ֛דֶשׁ יִֽהְי֥וּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לַכֹּהֵֽן:
And the kohen shall wave them…as a waving: This teaches us that they require waving while still alive. Now, one might think that they all [require waving]. Scripture, therefore, says, “along with the two lambs.” - [see Men. 62a]   והניף הכהן אתם תנופה: מלמד שטעונין תנופה מחיים, יכול כולם, תלמוד לומר על שני כבשים:
They shall be holy: Since a peace offering of an individual has itself a minor degree of holiness, Scripture had to say concerning communal peace offering that they are holy of holies.   קדש יהיו: לפי ששלמי יחיד קדשים קלים, הוזקק לומר בשלמי צבור שהם קדשי קדשים:
21And you shall designate on this very day a holy occasion it shall be for you; you shall not perform any work of labor. [This is] an eternal statute in all your dwelling places throughout your generations.   כאוּקְרָאתֶ֞ם בְּעֶ֣צֶם | הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה מִקְרָא־קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם בְּכָל־מֽוֹשְׁבֹ֥תֵיכֶ֖ם לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
22When you reap the harvest of your Land, you shall not completely remove the corner of your field during your harvesting, and you shall not gather up the gleanings of your harvest. [Rather,] you shall leave these for the poor person and for the stranger. I am the Lord, your God.   כבוּבְקֻצְרְכֶ֞ם אֶת־קְצִ֣יר אַרְצְכֶ֗ם לֹֽא־תְכַלֶּ֞ה פְּאַ֤ת שָֽׂדְךָ֙ בְּקֻצְרֶ֔ךָ וְלֶ֥קֶט קְצִֽירְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְלַקֵּ֑ט לֶֽעָנִ֤י וְלַגֵּר֙ תַּֽעֲזֹ֣ב אֹתָ֔ם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
When you reap: [But Scripture has already stated this, “When you…reap its harvest…” (verse 10 above).] Scripture repeats it once again, [so that one who disobeys] transgresses two negative commands. Rabbi Avdimi the son of Rabbi Joseph says: Why does Scripture place this [passage] in the very middle of [the laws regarding] the Festivals-with Passover and Atzereth (Shavuoth) on one side and Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and the Festival [of Succoth] on the other? To teach you that whoever gives לֶקֶט, gleanings, שִׁכְחָה, forgotten sheaves, and פֵּאָה, the corners , to the poor in the appropriate manner, is deemed as if he had built the Holy Temple and offered up his sacrifices within it. — [Torath Kohanim 23:175]   ובקצרכם: חזר ושנה לעבור עליהם בשני לאוין. אמר רבי אבדימס ברבי יוסף מה ראה הכתוב ליתנה באמצע הרגלים, פסח ועצרת מכאן וראש השנה ויום הכפורים והחג מכאן, ללמדך שכל הנותן לקט שכחה ופאה לעני כראוי, מעלין עליו כאילו בנה בית המקדש והקריב קרבנותיו בתוכו:
you shall leave: Leave it before them and let them gather it up. And you shall not help one of them [since this will deprive the others]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:22]   תעזב: הנח לפניהם והם ילקטו, ואין לך לסייע לאחד מהם:
I am the Lord, your God: Who is faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah].   אני ה' אלהיכם: נאמן לשלם שכר: