Leviticus Chapter 25

19And the land will then yield its fruit and you will eat to satiety, and live upon it securely.   יט וְנָֽתְנָ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ פִּרְיָ֔הּ וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם לָשׂ֑בַע וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לָבֶ֖טַח עָלֶֽיהָ:
And the land will then yield [its fruit…and you will…] live upon it securely: i.e., you will have no worry about a year of drought.   ונתנה הארץ וגו' וישבתם לבטח עליה: שלא תדאגו משנת בצורת:
and you will eat to satiety: There will be a blessing in it even inside your innards.   ואכלתם לשבע: אף בתוך המעים תהא בו ברכה:
20And if you should say, "What will we eat in the seventh year? We will not sow, and we will not gather in our produce!"   כוְכִ֣י תֹֽאמְר֔וּ מַה־נֹּאכַ֖ל בַּשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑ת הֵ֚ן לֹ֣א נִזְרָ֔ע וְלֹ֥א נֶֽאֱסֹ֖ף אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתֵֽנוּ:
and will not gather in: to the house [for storage (Sefer Hazikkaron)].   ולא נאסף: אל הבית:
our produce: for example, wine and fruit of the trees and aftergrowth that grew spontaneously [and that, therefore, was not sown by you]. — [Pes. 51b]   את תבואתנו: כגון יין ופירות האילן וספיחין הבאים מאליהם:
21[Know then, that] I will command My blessing for you in the sixth year, and it will yield produce for three years.   כאוְצִוִּ֤יתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי֙ לָכֶ֔ם בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הַשִּׁשִּׁ֑ית וְעָשָׂת֙ אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָ֔ה לִשְׁל֖שׁ הַשָּׁנִֽים:
for three years: for part of the sixth year from Nissan [when the crop is reaped] until Rosh Hashanah, for the [entire] seventh [Shemittah] year, and for the eighth [year, namely,] for they will sow [a new crop] in Marcheshvan of the eighth year and reap [this new crop] in Nissan [while still eating of the sixth year’s crop].   לשלש השנים: למקצת הששית מניסן ועד ראש השנה, ולשביעית ולשמינית, שיזרעו בשמינית במרחשון ויקצרו בניסן:
22And you will sow in the eighth year, while [still] eating from the old crops until the ninth year; until the arrival of its crop, you will eat the old [crop].   כבוּזְרַעְתֶּ֗ם אֵ֚ת הַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁמִינִ֔ת וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם מִן־הַתְּבוּאָ֣ה יָשָׁ֑ן עַ֣ד | הַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַתְּשִׁיעִ֗ת עַד־בּוֹא֙ תְּב֣וּאָתָ֔הּ תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ יָשָֽׁן:
until the ninth year: Until the Festival of Succoth in the ninth year, the time the crop of the eighth year is brought into the house, for throughout the summer season, it was kept in granaries in the field. In Tishrei-that is the time the crop is gathered into the house. Now, there were occasions when it would need to yield for four years, namely: in the sixth year preceding the seventh Shemittah, when they would refrain from doing work on the land for two consecutive years, the seventh year and the Jubilee year. Our verse, however, refers to all the other Shemittah years [i.e., the first through sixth cycles of Shemittah]. — [see Ned. 61a]   עד השנה התשיעת: עד חג הסכות של תשיעית, שהיא עת בוא תבואתה של שמינית לתוך הבית, שכל ימות הקיץ היו בשדה בגרנות, ובתשרי הוא עת האסיף לבית. ופעמים שהיתה צריכה לעשות לארבע שנים, בששית שלפני השמטה השביעית, שהן בטלין מעבודת קרקע שתי שנים רצופות השביעית והיובל, ומקרא זה נאמר בשאר השמטות כולן:
23The land shall not be sold permanently, for the land belongs to Me, for you are strangers and [temporary] residents with Me.   כגוְהָאָ֗רֶץ לֹ֤א תִמָּכֵר֙ לִצְמִתֻ֔ת כִּי־לִ֖י הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּֽי־גֵרִ֧ים וְתֽוֹשָׁבִ֛ים אַתֶּ֖ם עִמָּדִֽי:
The land shall not be sold [permanently]: [Although this is already understood from the earlier verses in our passage (10 and 13), it is stated here] to impose a negative commandment regarding the reversion of fields to their [original] owners in Jubilee, that the purchaser must not seize [the land] forcibly [in an effort to keep it as a “permanent” sale].   והארץ לא תמכר: ליתן לאו על חזרת שדות לבעלים ביובל, שלא יהא הלוקח כובשה:
permanently: לִצְמִתֻת, irreversibly. [Thus, the לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת, has the meaning of] a permanent, irreversible sale.   לצמתת: לפסיקה, למכירה פסוקה עולמית:
for the land belongs to Me: [Says God:] Do not be selfish about the land [hesitating to return it to its rightful owner at Jubilee], because the land does not belong to you. - [Torath Kohanim 25:39]   כי לי הארץ: אל תרע עינך בה שאינה שלך:
24Therefore, throughout the land of your possession, you shall give redemption for the land.   כדוּבְכֹ֖ל אֶ֣רֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶ֑ם גְּאֻלָּ֖ה תִּתְּנ֥וּ לָאָֽרֶץ:
throughout the land of your possession: [The seemingly superfluous word here, “throughout,”] comes to include [the right of relatives to redeem] houses [of walled cities (Sifthei Chachamim , Rashi on Kid. 21a)] and a Hebrew slave. This matter is explained in the first chapter of Tractate Kid. (21a). And according to its simple meaning, [this] is connected to the passage that follows, that one who sells his property is permitted to redeem it after two years-either he or his relative, and that the purchaser cannot impede [this redemption].   ובכל ארץ אחזתכם: לרבות בתים ועבד עברי, ודבר זה מפורש בקידושין בפרק ראשון (דף כא א). ולפי פשוטו סמוך לפרשה שלאחריו, שהמוכר אחוזתו רשאי לגאלה לאחר שתי שנים או הוא או קרובו, ואין הלוקח יכול לעכב:
25If your brother becomes destitute and sells some of his inherited property, his redeemer who is related to him shall come forth and redeem his brother's sale.   כהכִּֽי־יָמ֣וּךְ אָחִ֔יךָ וּמָכַ֖ר מֵֽאֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ וּבָ֤א גֹֽאֲלוֹ֙ הַקָּרֹ֣ב אֵלָ֔יו וְגָאַ֕ל אֵ֖ת מִמְכַּ֥ר אָחִֽיו:
If your brother becomes destitute and sells: [This] teaches [us] that a person may not sell his field except when under the pressure of poverty. - [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   כי ימוך אחיך ומכר: מלמד שאין אדם רשאי למכור שדהו אלא מחמת דוחק עוני:
some of his inherited property: But not all of it. [Scripture] teaches [us] proper conduct, namely, that he should leave one field for himself. — [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   מאחזתו: ולא כולה, למד דרך ארץ שישייר שדה לעצמו:
and redeem his brother’s sale: and the purchaser cannot impede [the redemption].   וגאל את ממכר אחיו: ואין הלוקח יכול לעכב:
26And if a man does not have a redeemer, but he gains enough means to afford its redemption,   כווְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־לּ֖וֹ גֹּאֵ֑ל וְהִשִּׂ֣יגָה יָד֔וֹ וּמָצָ֖א כְּדֵ֥י גְאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
And if a man does not have a redeemer: But is there a man in Israel who has no [relative] to redeem [his sale]? However, [Scripture means] a redeemer who is [financially] able to redeem his sale. — [Kid. 21a]   ואיש כי לא יהיה לו גאל: וכי יש לך אדם בישראל שאין לו גואלים, אלא גואל שיוכל לגאול ממכרו:
27he shall calculate the years for which the land has been sold, and return the remainder to the man to whom he sold it, and [then] he may return to his inheritance.   כזוְחִשַּׁב֙ אֶת־שְׁנֵ֣י מִמְכָּר֔וֹ וְהֵשִׁיב֙ אֶת־הָ֣עֹדֵ֔ף לָאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָֽכַר־ל֑וֹ וְשָׁ֖ב לַֽאֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
he shall calculate the years of his sale: [The original owner asks the purchaser:] “How many years were left until the [next] Jubilee?” [He answers:] “Such-and-such [a number of years].” [The owner continues:] “And how much did I sell it to you for?” [He answers:] “For such-and-such [an amount of money].” [Continues the original owner:] “You would have eventually had to return the field to me at Jubilee.” Hence, [rather than buying actual land,] in effect, you bought [from me] a number of produce yields, according to the total for every year [remaining until Jubilee]. Now, you have eaten from it for three or four years [or whatever the amount may be]. Therefore, subtract their value from the total [i.e., from the original sale price], and take the remainder [until Jubilee].“ And this is the meaning of ”and return the remainder" of the purchase price over the crops he had eaten, and he shall give it to the purchaser.   וחשב את שני ממכרו: כמה שנים היו עד היובל, כך וכך. ובכמה מכרתיה לך בכך וכך. עתיד היית להחזירה ביובל, נמצאת קונה מספר התבואות כפי חשבון של כל שנה. אכלת אותה שלש שנים או ארבע הוצא את דמיהן מן החשבון וטול את השאר, וזהו והשיב את העדף - בדמי המקח על האכילה שאכלה, ויתנם ללוקח:
the man to whom he had sold [it]: [i.e., “the man to whom he-] this seller who is coming to redeem it- [had sold it.” If the first purchaser had sold it to another person for a higher price, the original owner makes the above calculation only with the first purchaser to whom he sold the field and not with the subsequent purchaser]. — [Arachin 30a; Mizrachi]   לאיש אשר מכר לו: המוכר הזה שבא לגאלה:
28But if he cannot afford enough to repay him, his sale shall remain in the possession of the one who has purchased it, until the Jubilee year. And then, in the Jubilee year, it shall go out and revert to his inheritance.   כחוְאִ֨ם לֹא־מָֽצְאָ֜ה יָד֗וֹ דֵּי֘ הָשִׁ֣יב לוֹ֒ וְהָיָ֣ה מִמְכָּר֗וֹ בְּיַד֙ הַקֹּנֶ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיּוֹבֵ֑ל וְיָצָא֙ בַּיֹּבֵ֔ל וְשָׁ֖ב לַֽאֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
enough to repay him: From here, [we learn] that he cannot redeem part [of a field but either all or nothing]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:48, Arachin 30a, Kid. 20b; Sifthei Chachamim]   די השיב לו: מכאן שאינו גואל לחצאין:
until the Jubilee year: [i.e., until, but not including the Jubilee year (Torath Kohanim 25:50; Mizrachi), and hence the purchaser] must not at all enter the Jubilee year [while in possession of the field,] because the Jubilee year releases [the field from his possession] at its very onset. — [Arachin 28b and Rashi there]   עד שנת היובל: שלא יכנס לתוך אותה שנה כלום, שהיובל משמט בתחלתו: