Leviticus Chapter 17

8And you should say to them: Any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers who will sojourn among them, who offers up a burnt offering or [any other] sacrifice,   ח וַֽאֲלֵהֶ֣ם תֹּאמַ֔ר אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֖ר אֲשֶׁר־יָג֣וּר בְּתוֹכָ֑ם אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲלֶ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה אוֹ־זָֽבַח:
Who offers up a burnt-offering: [This passage] comes to make liable one who causes the limbs [of a sacrifice] to go up in smoke outside [the Temple Courtyard] like the one who slaughters [a sacrifice] outside [the Courtyard. Consequently,] if one person slaughtered [the sacrifice] and his fellow offered it up [outside the Courtyard], they are both liable [to the penalty of excision]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:103; Zev. 106a]   אשר יעלה עלה: לחייב על המקטיר איברים בחוץ כשוחט בחוץ, שאם שחט אחד והעלה חבירו שניהם חייבין:
9but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to make it [a sacrifice] to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people.   טוְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ לֹ֣א יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֹת֖וֹ לַֽיהוָֹ֑ה וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מֵֽעַמָּֽיו:
[that man] will be cut off [from his people]: Heb. מֵעַמָּיו, lit. from his peoples. [The plural form of “peoples” teaches us that] his offspring will be cut off as well as his own days being cut off.   ונכרת: זרעו נכרת וימיו נכרתין:
10And any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers that sojourn among them, who eats any blood, I will set My attention upon the soul who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from among his people.   יוְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאכַ֖ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֣י פָנַ֗י בַּנֶּ֨פֶשׁ֙ הָֽאֹכֶ֣לֶת אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽהּ:
any blood: Since Scripture says, “[For it is the blood] that atones for the soul” (next verse), one might think that a person is liable only for [eating] the blood of sanctified things, [which effects atonement]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “any blood” [to include even the blood of ordinary animals]. — [Kereithoth 4b]   כל דם: לפי שנאמר בנפש יכפר, יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על דם המוקדשים, תלמוד לומר כל דם:
I will set my attention: Heb. פָנַי. [The word פָנַי here is to be understood to mean] My פְּנַאי, i.e., My leisure. [God is saying,] “I will make Myself free (פּוֹנֶה) from all My affairs, and I will deal with this person!” - [Torath Kohanim 17:108]   ונתתי פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק בו:
11For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have therefore given it to you [to be placed] upon the altar, to atone for your souls. For it is the blood that atones for the soul.   יאכִּי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר֘ בַּדָּ֣ם הִוא֒ וַֽאֲנִ֞י נְתַתִּ֤יו לָכֶם֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־הַדָּ֥ם ה֖וּא בַּנֶּ֥פֶשׁ יְכַפֵּֽר:
For the soul of the flesh: of every creature is dependent upon the blood, and therefore, I have given it to atone for the soul of man. [In this way,] one “soul” [namely, the blood of a sacrifice] shall come and atone for another soul.   כי נפש הבשר: של כל בריה בדם היא תלויה, ולפיכך נתתיו על המזבח לכפר על נפש האדם. תבוא נפש ותכפר על הנפש:
12Therefore, I said to the children of Israel: None of you shall eat blood, and the stranger who sojourns among you shall not eat blood.   יבעַל־כֵּ֤ן אָמַ֨רְתִּי֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ מִכֶּ֖ם לֹא־תֹ֣אכַל דָּ֑ם וְהַגֵּ֛ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֖ם לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל דָּֽם:
None of you: [This phrase] comes to warn adults regarding minors [not to feed them blood]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:110; Yev. 114a]   כל נפש מכם: להזהיר גדולים על הקטנים:
13And any man of the children of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who traps a quarry of a wild animal or bird that may be eaten, and sheds its blood, he shall cover it [the blood] with dust.   יגוְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָצ֜וּד צֵ֥יד חַיָּ֛ה אוֹ־ע֖וֹף אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֑ל וְשָׁפַךְ֙ אֶת־דָּמ֔וֹ וְכִסָּ֖הוּ בֶּֽעָפָֽר:
who traps: [Had the verse stated only this phrase,] we would know only [that this law applies to] creatures that require trapping. But how would we know [that the law includes also] geese and roosters, [which do not require trapping]? Scripture, therefore, adds [the word] צֵיד -a quarry, meaning in any way [even if not trapped]. But if so, why is it stated, “who traps”? [To teach us] that one should not eat flesh except with this preparation, [meaning, that just as one does not go out to trap every day, neither should one eat meat regularly at all his meals, as if he had to go out and trap it]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:111; Chul. 84a]   אשר יצוד: אין לי אלא ציד, אווזין ותרנגולין מנין, תלמוד לומר ציד, מכל מקום. אם כן למה נאמר אשר יצוד, שלא יאכל בשר אלא בהזמנה הזאת:
that may be eaten: [This comes] to exclude unclean creatures [which are prohibited to be eaten, that their blood does not require covering]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:112]   אשר יאכל: פרט לטמאים:
14For [regarding] the soul of all flesh its blood is in its soul, and I said to the children of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the soul of any flesh is its blood all who eat it shall be cut off.   ידכִּי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר דָּמ֣וֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ֘ הוּא֒ וָֽאֹמַר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל דַּ֥ם כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ כִּ֣י נֶ֤פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ דָּמ֣וֹ הִ֔וא כָּל־אֹֽכְלָ֖יו יִכָּרֵֽת:
its blood is in its soul: Its blood is in the place of its very soul, because the soul is dependent upon it.   דמו בנפשו הוא: דמו הוא לו במקום הנפש, שהנפש תלויה בו:
for the soul of any flesh is its blood: [The word הִוא, meaning here “it is,” is feminine in gender.] “for the soul […] is the blood.” [For] the words דָּם and בָּשָׂר are masculine in gender, while the word נֶפֶשׁ is feminine in gender. [Hence, the antecedent of הִוא is נֶפֶשׁ.]   כי נפש כל בשר דמו הוא: הנפש היא הדם. דם ובשר לשון זכר, נפש לשון נקבה:
15And any person, whether a native or a stranger, who eats carrion or what was torn, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in the waters, and shall remain unclean until evening, and then he shall become clean.   טווְכָל־נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאכַ֤ל נְבֵלָה֙ וּטְרֵפָ֔ה בָּֽאֶזְרָ֖ח וּבַגֵּ֑ר וְכִבֶּ֨ס בְּגָדָ֜יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֛יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר:
who eats carrion or what was torn: Scripture is speaking about the carcass of a clean bird [i.e., a kosher species of bird], which transmits defilement only at the time it is swallowed into the esophagus. And it teaches you here, that it defiles [the person], when he eats it. [The trefah, the bird mortally wounded by a wild beast, or stricken with a terminal illness, however, does not transmit defilement. Consequently,] the torn one mentioned here was written only to expound upon it. Thus we learned: One might think that the carcass of an unclean bird [also] defiles when it is swallowed into the esophagus. Scripture, therefore, says, “or what was torn,” [referring to a type of bird] that may fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [i.e., a kosher bird, which is prohibited only if it is torn], thus, excluding the case of an unclean bird, which can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה, [because it is prohibited in any case]. - [Torath Kohanim 17:126]   אשר תאכל נבלה וטרפה: בנבלת עוף טהור דבר הכתוב, שאין לה טומאה אלא בשעה שנבלעת בבית הבליעה, ולמדך כאן שמטמאה באכילתה, ואינה מטמאה במגע. וטרפה האמורה כאן לא נכתבה אלא לדרוש. וכן שנינו יכול תהא נבלת עוף טמא מטמאה בבית הבליעה, תלמוד לומר טרפה, מי שיש במינו טרפה, יצא עוף טמא שאין במינו טרפה:
16But if he does not immerse [his garments] or immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin.   טזוְאִם֙ לֹ֣א יְכַבֵּ֔ס וּבְשָׂר֖וֹ לֹ֣א יִרְחָ֑ץ וְנָשָׂ֖א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
he shall bear his sin: If he [subsequently] eats holy sacrifices or enters the Sanctuary [in his unclean state], he is punished by excision because of this uncleanness, like all other cases of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 17: 129]   ונשא עונו: אם יאכל קדש או יכנס למקדש חייב על טומאה זו ככל שאר טומאות:
[But if he does not]…immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin: For [not] immersing his body he is punished by excision. However, for [not] immersing his garments, [and entering the Mishkan wearing them,] he is punished by lashes. — [Torath Kohanim 17:129]   ובשרו לא ירחץ ונשא עונו: על רחיצת גופו ענוש כרת ועל כבוס בגדים במלקות:

Leviticus Chapter 18

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: I am the Lord, your God.   בדַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
I am the Lord, your God: I am the One Who said at Sinai, “I am the Lord, your God” (Exod. 20:2), and you accepted My sovereignty upon yourselves [at that time]; consequently, accept My decrees. Rabbi [Yehudah Hanassi] says: “It is openly known before Him, that they would eventually be scourged by [transgressing the laws of] immoral relations, in the days of Ezra. Therefore, [concerning these laws,] God came to them with the decree: I am the Lord, your God! You should know Who is placing these decrees upon you-the Judge Who exacts retribution (אֱלֹקִים), but Who is faithful also to pay a reward ('ה)!”- [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   אני ה' אלהיכם: אני הוא שאמרתי בסיני (שמות כ ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך, וקבלתם עליכם מלכותי, מעתה קבלו גזרותי. רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפניו שסופן לנתק בעריות בימי עזרא, לפיכך בא עליהם בגזירה אני ה' אלהיכם, דעו מי גוזר עליכם, דיין להפרע ונאמן לשלם שכר:
3Like the practice of the land of Egypt, in which you dwelled, you shall not do, and like the practice of the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you, you shall not do, and you shall not follow their statutes.   גכְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֧ה אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֛יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ וּכְמַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֶֽרֶץ־כְּנַ֡עַן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אֶתְכֶ֥ם שָׁ֨מָּ֨ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּ וּבְחֻקֹּֽתֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א תֵלֵֽכוּ:
Like the practice of the land of Egypt […and like the practice of the land of Canaan]: [This verse] informs [us] that the deeds of the Egyptians and the Canaanites were more corrupt than those of all other nations, and moreover, that the [Egyptians residing in that] region [of Egypt] in which the Israelites had dwelt, were the most corrupt of all. — [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   כמעשה ארץ מצרים: מגיד שמעשיהם של מצריים ושל כנעניים מקולקלים מכל האומות, ואותו מקום שישבו בו ישראל מקולקל מן הכל:
and like the practice of the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you: [This verse] informs [us] that those [Canaanite] peoples whom the Israelites conquered, were more corrupt than any other [people, even the Egyptians]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   אשר אני מביא אתכם שמה: מגיד שאותן עממין שכבשו ישראל מקולקלים יותר מכולם:
and you shall not follow their statutes: What did Scripture omit [until now] that it did not state [and includes in this clause]? However, these are their social practices, things that assumed the status of law (חָקוּק) for them, for example, [certain days set aside for attendance at] theaters and stadiums. Rabbi Meir says: These [practices referred to here,] are the “ways of the Amorites,” [the superstitious practices] enumerated by our Sages. — [see Shab. 67ab; Torath Kohanim 18: 139]   ובחקתיהם לא תלכו: מה הניח הכתוב שלא אמר, אלא אלו נמוסות שלהן, דברים החקוקין להם, כגון טרטיאות ואצטדיאות. רבי מאיר אומר אלו דרכי האמורי שמנו חכמים:
4You shall fulfill My ordinances and observe My statutes, to follow them. I am the Lord, your God.   דאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֧י תַּֽעֲשׂ֛וּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
You shall fulfill My ordinances: These are the laws stated in the Torah in justice, [i.e., which human intellect deems proper,] which, had they not been stated [in the Torah], would have been deemed worthy to be stated [e.g., not to steal, not to murder, etc.]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:140]   את משפטי תעשו: אלו דברים האמורים בתורה במשפט, שאלו לא נאמרו, היו כדאי לאמרן:
and observe My statutes: These are the “King’s decrees” [without apparent rationale to man], against which the evil inclination protests, “Why should we keep them?” Likewise, the nations of the world object to them. Examples are: [The prohibition of] eating pig and wearing shaatnez [a mixture of wool and linen] (see Lev. 19:19), and the purification procedure effected by purification water [the mixture including the ashes of the red cow] (see Num., Chapter 19). Therefore it says, “I am the Lord.” I have decreed [these] upon you; you are not permitted to exempt yourselves [from fulfilling them]. — Torath Kohanim 18:140]   ואת חקתי תשמורו: דברים שהם גזירת המלך, שיצר הרע משיב עליהם, למה לנו לשומרן, ואומות העולם משיבין עליהם, כגון אכילת חזיר ולבישת שעטנז וטהרת מי חטאת, לכך נאמר אני ה' גזרתי עליכם, אי אתם רשאים להפטר:
to follow them: Do not take leave from [studying] them, i.e., you shall not say, “I have learned the wisdom of Israel-now I will go and learn the wisdom of the [other] nations.” - [Torath Kohanim 18:141]   ללכת בהם: אל תפטר מתוכם, שלא תאמר למדתי חכמת ישראל אלך ואלמד חכמת האומות:
5You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances, which a man shall do and live by them. I am the Lord.   הוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֛ם הָֽאָדָ֖ם וָחַ֣י בָּהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹֽה:
You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances: [This comes to include other details of [laws pertaining to] this passage, that Scripture did not mention explicitly. — [Torath Kohanim 18:142] Another explanation: [This clause, “You shall observe My statutes and My judgments, which a man shall do,” was added,] in order to apply “observance” (שְׁמִירָה) and fulfillment (עֲשִׂיָּה) to statutes, and to apply “observance” (שְׁמִירָה) and “fulfillment” (עֲשִׂיָּה) to ordinances. For [up till now,] Scripture had mentioned only “fulfillment” regarding ordinances and “observance” regarding statutes (see previous verse). - [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   ושמרתם את חקתי וגו': לרבות שאר דקדוקי הפרשה, שלא פרט הכתוב בהם. דבר אחר ליתן שמירה ועשייה לחוקים ושמירה ועשייה למשפטים, לפי שלא נתן אלא עשייה למשפטים ושמירה לחוקים:
and live by them: in the World-To-Come. For if you say [that the verse refers to living] in this world, does he not eventually die? [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   וחי בהם: לעולם הבא, שאם תאמר בעולם הזה, והלא סופו הוא מת:
I am the Lord: faithful to pay a reward [an attribute represented by the Name 'ה ]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר: