Leviticus Chapter 16

18And he shall then go out to the altar that is before the Lord and effect atonement upon it: He shall take some of the bull's blood and some of the he goat's blood, and place it on the horns of the altar, around.   יחוְיָצָ֗א אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִפְנֵֽי־יְהוָֹ֖ה וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלָ֑יו וְלָקַ֞ח מִדַּ֤ם הַפָּר֙ וּמִדַּ֣ם הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְנָתַ֛ן עַל־קַרְנ֥וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
to the altar that is before the Lord: This is the golden altar, which is “before the Lord” in the heichal [i.e., in the Temple, it was in the heichal , was the equivalent of the Holy in the Mishkan]. And [since the Kohen Gadol was to remain inside the Holy for the next procedure,] what does Scripture mean when it says, “And he shall then go out?” Since he had just performed the blood sprinklings on the dividing curtain, standing on the inner side of the altar to sprinkle [i.e., between the altar and the dividing curtain], for the applications on the altar, [Scripture] required him to “go out” to the outer side of the altar and to begin with the north-eastern corner. — [Torath Kohanim 16:45; Yoma 58b. See Mizrachi , Gur Aryeh. Also Chavel, who asserts that, according to the Reggio edition of Rashi, the Kohen Gadol did not stand beyond the altar, but alongside it, from where he commenced to apply the blood from the north-eastern corner.]   אל המזבח אשר לפני ה': זה מזבח הזהב שהוא לפני ה' בהיכל. ומה תלמוד לומר ויצא, לפי שהזה ההזאות על הפרוכת ועמד מן המזבח ולפנים והזה, ובמתנות המזבח הזקיקו לצאת מן המזבח ולחוץ, ויתחיל מקרן מזרחית צפונית:
and effect atonement upon it: And what is the [procedure that effects the] atonement? [As the verse continues:] “He shall take some of the bull’s blood and some of the he-goat’s blood,” one mingled with the other. — [Torath Kohanim 16:46; Yoma 57b]   וכפר עליו: ומה היא כפרתו, ולקח מדם הפר ומדם השעיר, מעורבין זה לתוך זה:
19He shall then sprinkle some of the blood upon it with his index finger seven times, and he shall cleanse it and sanctify it of the defilements of the children of Israel.   יטוְהִזָּ֨ה עָלָ֧יו מִן־הַדָּ֛ם בְּאֶצְבָּע֖וֹ שֶׁ֣בַע פְּעָמִ֑ים וְטִֽהֲר֣וֹ וְקִדְּשׁ֔וֹ מִטֻּמְאֹ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
He shall then sprinkle some of the blood upon it: After he has applied the blood with his index finger on its horns, he shall then sprinkle seven sprinklings on its top.   והזה עליו מן הדם: אחר שנתן מתנות באצבעו על קרנותיו, מזה שבע הזאות על גגו:
and he shall cleanse it: from any [defilements] that had occurred in the past,   וטהרו: ממה שעבר:
and sanctify it: for the future. — [Torath Kohanim 16:48] [According to Mizrachi, this means that now that the altar had been purified from past defilements, care would be taken not to defile this now pure altar. Maskil LeDavid explains that, after the altar was cleansed of its previous defilements, it had to be resanctified for future use. This the Kohen Gadol would effect. Raavad explains that, by cleansing it of its defilements, he would sanctify it for future use.]   וקדשו: לעתיד לבא:
20And he shall finish effecting atonement for the Holy, the Tent of Meeting, and the altar, and then he shall bring the live he goat.   כוְכִלָּה֙ מִכַּפֵּ֣ר אֶת־הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְהִקְרִ֖יב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִ֥יר הֶחָֽי:
21And Aaron shall lean both of his hands [forcefully] upon the live he goat's head and confess upon it all the willful transgressions of the children of Israel, all their rebellions, and all their unintentional sins, and he shall place them on the he goat's head, and send it off to the desert with a timely man.   כאוְסָמַ֨ךְ אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י יָדָ֗יו (כתיב ידו) עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר֘ הַחַי֒ וְהִתְוַדָּ֣ה עָלָ֗יו אֶת־כָּל־עֲו‍ֹנֹת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶ֖ם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָ֑ם וְנָתַ֤ן אֹתָם֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְשִׁלַּ֛ח בְּיַד־אִ֥ישׁ עִתִּ֖י הַמִּדְבָּֽרָה:
with a timely man: Heb. אִישׁ עִתִּי, one who had been prepared for this from the day before. — [Torath Kohanim 16:60; Yoma 32a]   איש עתי: המוכן לכך מיום אתמול:
22The he goat shall thus carry upon itself all their sins to a precipitous land, and he shall send off the he goat into the desert.   כבוְנָשָׂ֨א הַשָּׂעִ֥יר עָלָ֛יו אֶת־כָּל־עֲו‍ֹנֹתָ֖ם אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ גְּזֵרָ֑ה וְשִׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־הַשָּׂעִ֖יר בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
23And Aaron shall enter the Tent of Meeting and remove the linen garments that he had worn when he came into the Holy, and there, he shall store them away.   כגוּבָ֤א אַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד וּפָשַׁט֙ אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֣י הַבָּ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָבַ֖שׁ בְּבֹא֣וֹ אֶל־הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחָ֖ם שָֽׁם:
And Aaron shall come into the Tent of Meeting: Our Rabbis stated (Torath Kohanim 16:60; Yoma 32a) that this is not the [correct chronological] place for this verse, and they gave a reason for this in Tractate Yoma (32a). And they said: “This whole passage is in correct chronological order, except for this entry, for this followed the performance of his burnt offering and the people’s burnt offering, and the burning of the sacrificial parts of the bull and the he-goat, which were performed outside [the Holy of Holies, with the Kohen Gadol attired] in golden garments. Then he would immerse himself, sanctify [his hands and feet with water from the washstand], remove them [his golden garments], don his white garments”-   ובא אהרן אל אהל מועד: אמרו רבותינו, שאין זה מקומו של מקרא זה, ונתנו טעם לדבריהם במסכת יומא (דף לב א) ואמרו כל הפרשה כולה אמורה על הסדר, חוץ מביאה זו, שהיא אחר עשיית עולתו ועולת העם והקטרת אימורי פר ושעיר שנעשים בחוץ בבגדי זהב, וטובל ומקדש ופושטן ולובש בגדי לבן:
and…shall come into the Tent of Meeting: to take out the spoon and the pan, with which he had caused the incense to go up in smoke in the inner Holy. [Then,]   ובא אל אהל מועד: להוציא את הכף ואת המחתה שהקטיר בה הקטרת לפני ולפנים:
[Aaron shall…] remove the linen garments: After he took them [the spoon and the pan] out, and then he would don his golden garments the afternoon תָּמִיד [i.e., the daily burnt offering sacrificed twice every day]. The following, [therefore,] is the order of the services: 1) The morning תָּמִיד in golden garments; 2) the service involving the bull and he-goat whose blood was sprinkled inside [the Holy] and the incense procedure [with the burning coals] in the pan, in white garments. 3) Then, his ram, the people’s ram and some of the additional sacrifices [of the day (see Num. 29:7-11)] in golden garments; 4) then, the removal of the spoon and the pan in white garments; 5) the remainder of the additional sacrifices, the afternoon תָּמִיד, and the incense procedure in the heichal upon the inner altar in golden garments. Hence, the [chronological] sequence of the verses, corresponding to [the chronological order of] the services is as follows: (Verse 22), “and he shall send off the he-goat into the desert”; then (verse 24),“And he shall immerse his flesh…He shall then go out and sacrifice his burnt offering…”; then (verse 25),“the fat of the sin-offering…”; then the remainder of this passage, up till (verse 26),“And after this, he may come into the camp”; only then [comes our verse 23 into the chronological sequence,] “And Aaron shall enter [the Tent of Meeting, and remove the linen garments],”   ופשט את בגדי הבד: אחר שהוציאם ולובש בגדי זהב לתמיד של בין הערבים. וזהו סדר העבודות תמיד של שחר בבגדי זהב, ועבודת פר ושעיר הפנימים וקטרת של מחתה בבגדי לבן, ואילו ואיל העם ומקצת המוספין בבגדי זהב, והוצאת כף ומחתה בבגדי לבן, ושעירי [ושיירי] המוספין ותמיד של בין הערבים וקטורת ההיכל שעל מזבח הפנימי בבגדי זהב. וסדר המקראות לפי סדר העבודות כך הוא ושלח את השעיר במדבר, ורחץ את בשרו במים וגו' ויצא ועשה את עולתו וגו' ואת חלב החטאת וגו'. וכל הפרשה עד ואחרי כן יבא אל המחנה, ואחר כך ובא אהרן:
and there, he shall store them away: This teaches [us] that they require being stored away [forever], and he shall not use those four garments for any other Yom Kippur. — [Torath Kohanim 16:61; Yoma 12b]   והניחם שם: מלמד שטעונין גניזה, ולא ישתמש באותן ארבעה בגדים ליום כפורים אחר:
24And he shall immerse his flesh in a holy place and don his garments. He shall then go out and sacrifice his burnt offering and the people's burnt offering, and he shall effect atonement for himself and for the people.   כדוְרָחַ֨ץ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֤וֹ בַמַּ֨יִם֙ בְּמָק֣וֹם קָד֔וֹשׁ וְלָבַ֖שׁ אֶת־בְּגָדָ֑יו וְיָצָ֗א וְעָשָׂ֤ה אֶת־עֹֽלָתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־עֹלַ֣ת הָעָ֔ם וְכִפֶּ֥ר בַּֽעֲד֖וֹ וּבְעַ֥ד הָעָֽם:
And he shall immerse his flesh…: Above (see Rashi verse 4), we learned from “he shall immerse in water and then don them,” that when he changes from golden garments to white garments, he is required to immerse himself, for with that immersion, he removed the golden garments, with which he had performed the service of the morning תָּמִיד, and subsequently changed into white garments, to perform the service of the day (see verse 4). Here, we learn that when he changes from white garments to golden garments, he [also] is required to immerse [in a mikvah]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:60; Yoma 32a]   ורחץ את בשרו וגו': למעלה למדנו מורחץ את בשרו ולבשם (פסוק ד), שכשהוא משנה מבגדי זהב לבגדי לבן טעון טבילה, שבאותה טבילה פשט בגדי זהב שעבד בהן עבודת תמיד של שחר ולבש בגדי לבן לעבודת היום, וכאן למדנו שכשהוא משנה מבגדי לבן לבגדי זהב טעון טבילה:
in a holy place: sanctified with the [degree of] holiness of the Courtyard [of the Holy Temple], and it was on the roof of [a chamber in the Holy Temple, called] Beth HaParvah. And so were [all] four immersions which were obligatory for the day, except for the very first immersion, which was performed in an unsanctified [place because this immersion, in preparation to sacrifice the morning תָּמִיד, took place every day and was not, therefore, specific to the Yom Kippur service]. — [Torath Kohanim 16:62; Yoma 30a]   במקום קדוש: המקודש בקדושת עזרה והיא היתה בגג בית הפרוה, וכן ארבע טבילות הבאות חובה ליום, אבל הראשונה היתה בחול:
and don his garments: [meaning “his” regular] eight garments, in which he officiates all the days of the year.   ולבש את בגדיו: שמנה בגדים שהוא עובד בהן כל ימות השנה:
He shall then go out: of the heichal, to the Courtyard in which the altar for burnt offerings was located.   ויצא: מן ההיכל אל החצר שמזבח העולה שם:
and sacrifice his burnt offering: namely, the ram for a burnt offering, stated above (verse 3), [when Scripture says there,] “Aaron shall come with this…,”   ועשה את עלתו: איל לעולה האמור למעלה (פסוק ג) בזאת יבא אהרון וגו':
and the people’s burnt offering: namely, “and one ram for a burnt offering,” stated above (verse 5), [when Scripture says,] “And from the community of the children of Israel….”   ואת עלת העם: ואיל אחד לעולה האמור למעלה (פסוק ה) ומאת עדת בני ישראל וגו':