Leviticus Chapter 13

40If a man loses the hair on [the back of] his head, he is bald. He is clean.   מוְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יִמָּרֵ֖ט רֹאשׁ֑וֹ קֵרֵ֥חַ ה֖וּא טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
he is bald. He is clean: Clean of the uncleanness of nethek lesions (Torath Kohanim; Baraitha of Rabbi Ishmael 1:5). I.e., this case is not judged by the signs of the head and beard, which are places of hair (see verses 29, 37). Rather, [it is judged] by the signs of a lesion on the skin of the flesh, namely: 1) white hair, 2) healthy flesh, and 3) spread.   קרח הוא טהור הוא: טהור מטומאת נתקין, שאינו נדון בסימני ראש וזקן, שהם מקום שער, אלא בסימני נגע עור בשר בשער לבן, מחיה ופשיון:
41And if he loses his hair on the side toward his face, he is bald at the front. He is clean.   מאוְאִם֙ מִפְּאַ֣ת פָּנָ֔יו יִמָּרֵ֖ט רֹאשׁ֑וֹ גִּבֵּ֥חַ ה֖וּא טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
at the front of his head: [The area] from the slope of the crown toward one’s face is called גַּבַּחַת 82 “forehead,” and included in this are the temples on either side as well. [The area] from the slope of the crown toward one’s back is called קָרַחַת, the “back of the head.” - [Torath Kohanim 13:144]   ואם מפאת פניו: משפוע קדקד כלפי פניו קרוי גבחת, ואף הצדעין שמכאן ומכאן בכלל. ומשפוע קדקד כלפי אחוריו, קרוי קרחת:
42If there is a reddish white lesion on the back or front bald area, it is a spreading tzara'ath in his back or front bald area.   מבוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בַקָּרַ֨חַת֙ א֣וֹ בַגַּבַּ֔חַת נֶ֖גַע לָבָ֣ן אֲדַמְדָּ֑ם צָרַ֤עַת פֹּרַ֨חַת֙ הִ֔וא בְּקָֽרַחְתּ֖וֹ א֥וֹ בְגַבַּחְתּֽוֹ:
a reddish-white lesion: blended [of red and white]. How do we know [that the lesion is also unclean if it has] other colors? Because Scripture says, “like the appearance of tzara’ath on the skin of the flesh” (verse 43), i.e., appearing like the tzara’ath dealt with in the passage of [lesions of the] skin of the flesh, [which begins with] “If a man has [se’eith, sapachat or bahereth] on the skin of his flesh” (verse 13:2). And what is stated regarding it [i.e., regarding a lesion on the skin]? That one becomes unclean through [it, if it appears as one of] four shades [namely: 1) the snow-white of bahereth ; 2) the white as “lime of the Holy Temple” of the secondary form (sapachat) of bahereth ; 3) the white as white wool of se’eith; and 4) the white as a “membrane that covers an egg” of the secondary (sapachat) form of se’eith (Nega’im 1:1), and that it is judged with [a possible] two weeks [of quarantine], and not like the appearance of tzara’ath stated concerning inflamed areas and burns, which is judged with [only] one [possible] week [of quarantine], and is also unlike the appearance of nethek lesions, [which are tzara’ath found] in hairy places, which do not become unclean through the four shades [as above].   נגע לבן אדמדם: פתוך. מנין שאר המראות, תלמוד לומר כמראה צרעת עור בשר כמראה הצרעת האמור בפרשת עור בשר (פסוק ב) אדם כי יהיה בעור בשרו. ומה אמור בו, שמטמא בארבע מראות ונדון בשני שבועות, ולא כמראה צרעת האמור בשחין ומכוה, שהוא נדון בשבוע אחד, ולא כמראה נתקין של מקום שער שאין מטמאין בארבע מראות שאת ותולדתה, בהרת ותולדתה:
43So the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! there is a reddish white se'eith lesion on his back or front bald area, like the appearance of tzara'ath on the skin of the flesh,   מגוְרָאָ֨ה אֹת֜וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה שְׂאֵֽת־הַנֶּ֨גַע֨ לְבָנָ֣ה אֲדַמְדֶּ֔מֶת בְּקָֽרַחְתּ֖וֹ א֣וֹ בְגַבַּחְתּ֑וֹ כְּמַרְאֵ֥ה צָרַ֖עַת ע֥וֹר בָּשָֽׂר:
44He is a man afflicted with tzara'ath; he is unclean. The kohen shall surely pronounce him unclean; his lesion is on his head.   מדאִֽישׁ־צָר֥וּעַ ה֖וּא טָמֵ֥א ה֑וּא טַמֵּ֧א יְטַמְּאֶ֛נּוּ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן בְּרֹאשׁ֥וֹ נִגְעֽוֹ:
His lesion is on his head: I know only that [these laws apply to those stricken with] nethek lesions [the tzara’ath of the head]. From where [do I know] to include other afflicted people? Therefore, Scripture says: טַמֵּא יְטַמְּאֶנּוּ, shall surely pronounce him unclean. [The double expression comes] to include them all. Concerning them all, Scripture says: “ his garments shall be torn…” (verses 45-46). - [Torath Kohanim 13:154]   בראשו נגעו: אין לי אלא נתקין, מנין לרבות שאר המנוגעים, תלמוד לומר טמא יטמאנו, לרבות את כולן. על כולן הוא אומר בגדיו יהיו פרומים וגו':
45And the person with tzara'ath, in whom there is the lesion, his garments shall be torn, his head shall be unshorn, he shall cover himself down to his mustache and call out, "Unclean! Unclean!"   מהוְהַצָּר֜וּעַ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֣וֹ הַנֶּ֗גַע בְּגָדָ֞יו יִֽהְי֤וּ פְרֻמִים֙ וְרֹאשׁוֹ֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה פָר֔וּעַ וְעַל־שָׂפָ֖ם יַעְטֶ֑ה וְטָמֵ֥א | טָמֵ֖א יִקְרָֽא:
torn: Heb. פְרֻמִים, torn. — [Mo’ed Katan 15a]   פרמים: קרועים:
unshorn: Heb. פָּרוּעַ, with hair grown long. — [Mo’ed Katan 15a]   פרוע: מגודל שער:
He shall cover himself down to his mustache: like a mourner. — [Torath Kohanim 13:154]   ועל שפם יעטה: כאבל:
mustache: Heb. שָׂפָם, the hair on the lips (שְׂפָתַיִם) [i.e., the mustache], grenon in Old French.   שפם: שער השפתים גירנו"ן בלע"ז [שפם]:
and he shall call out,“ Unclean! Unclean!”: He announces that he is unclean, so that everyone should stay away from him. — [Torath Kohanim 13:155]   וטמא טמא יקרא: משמיע שהוא טמא ויפרשו ממנו:
46All the days the lesion is upon him, he shall remain unclean. He is unclean; he shall dwell isolated; his dwelling shall be outside the camp.   מוכָּל־יְמֵ֞י אֲשֶׁ֨ר הַנֶּ֥גַע בּ֛וֹ יִטְמָ֖א טָמֵ֣א ה֑וּא בָּדָ֣ד יֵשֵׁ֔ב מִח֥וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה מֽוֹשָׁבֽוֹ:
He shall dwell isolated: [meaning] that other unclean people [not stricken with tzara’ath] shall not abide with him. Our Sages said: “Why is he different from other unclean people, that he must remain isolated? Since, with his slander, he caused a separation [i.e., a rift] between man and wife or between man and his fellow, he too, shall be separated [from society].”- [Arachin 16b] [This rationale is based on the premise that a person is stricken with tzara’ath as a result of his talking לְשׁוֹן הָרַע, i.e., speaking derogatorily of others, although he may be telling the truth.]   בדד ישב: שלא יהיו שאר טמאים יושבים עמו. ואמרו רבותינו מה נשתנה משאר טמאים לישב בדד, הואיל והוא הבדיל בלשון הרע בין איש לאשתו ובין איש לרעהו, אף הוא יבדל:
outside the camp: Outside the three camps [of Israel, namely: 1) the camp of the Shechinah, in which the Mishkan was located; 2) the Levite camp, and 3) the camp of the Israelites]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:157, Pes. 67a]   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לשלש מחנות:
47[And as for] the garment that has the lesion of tzara'ath upon it, on a woolen garment, or on a linen garment,   מזוְהַבֶּ֕גֶד כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ נֶ֣גַע צָרָ֑עַת בְּבֶ֣גֶד צֶ֔מֶר א֖וֹ בְּבֶ֥גֶד פִּשְׁתִּֽים:
48or on [threads prepared for the] warp or the woof of linen or of wool, or on leather or on anything made from leather.   מחא֤וֹ בִשְׁתִי֙ א֣וֹ בְעֵ֔רֶב לַפִּשְׁתִּ֖ים וְלַצָּ֑מֶר א֣וֹ בְע֔וֹר א֖וֹ בְּכָל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֽוֹר:
of linen or of wool: Heb. וְלַצָּמֶר לַפִּשְׁתִּים, of linen or of wool. [Here the ל, usually meaning “to,” means “of.”]   לפשתים ולצמר: של פשתים או של צמר:
or the leather: This [refers to] leather upon which no work has been performed.   או בעור: זה עור שלא נעשה בו מלאכה:
or anything made from leather: This [refers] to leather upon which work has been performed.   או בכל מלאכת עור: זה עור שנעשה בו מלאכה:
49If the lesion on the garment, the leather, the warp or woof [threads] or on any leather article, is deep green or deep red, it is a lesion of tzara'ath, and it shall be shown to the kohen.   מטוְהָיָ֨ה הַנֶּ֜גַע יְרַקְרַ֣ק | א֣וֹ אֲדַמְדָּ֗ם בַּבֶּ֩גֶד֩ א֨וֹ בָע֜וֹר אֽוֹ־בַשְּׁתִ֤י אֽוֹ־בָעֵ֨רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בְכָל־כְּלִי־ע֔וֹר נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת ה֑וּא וְהָרְאָ֖ה אֶת־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
deep green: Heb. יְרַקְרַק, the greenest of greens. — [Torath Kohanim 13:161]   ירקרק: ירוק שבירוקין:
deep red: אֲדַמְדָָּם, the reddest of reds. — [Torath Kohanim 13:161]   אדמדם: אדום שבאדומים:
50The kohen shall look at the lesion, and he shall quarantine [the article with] the lesion for seven days.   נוְרָאָ֥ה הַכֹּהֵ֖ן אֶת־הַנָּ֑גַע וְהִסְגִּ֥יר אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
51And he shall look at the lesion on the seventh day. [If] the lesion has spread on the garment, or on the warp or woof [threads], or on the leather or on any article made from leather, the lesion is a malignant tzara'ath; it is unclean.   נאוְרָאָ֨ה אֶת־הַנֶּ֜גַע בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י כִּֽי־פָשָׂ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ בַּ֠בֶּ֠גֶד אֽוֹ־בַשְּׁתִ֤י אֽוֹ־בָעֵ֨רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בָע֔וֹר לְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה הָע֖וֹר לִמְלָאכָ֑ה צָרַ֧עַת מַמְאֶ֛רֶת הַנֶּ֖גַע טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא:
a malignant tzara’th: Heb. צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת, an expression similar to “a pricking briar (סִלּוֹן מַמְאִיר), (Ezek. 28: 24),” point in Old French, stinging, pricking. The midrashic explanation is: Place a curse (מְאֵרָה) upon it [the item afflicted with tzara’ath], that you shall not derive benefit from it. — [Torath Kohanim 13:166]   צרעת ממארת: לשון סילון ממאיר (יחזקאל כח כד). פוינינ"ט בלע"ז [דוקר]. ומדרשו תן בו מארה שלא תהנה הימנו:
52And he shall burn the garment, the warp or woof [threads] of wool or of linen, or any leather article which has the lesion upon it, for it is a malignant tzara'ath ; it shall be burned in fire.   נבוְשָׂרַ֨ף אֶת־הַבֶּגֶ֜ד א֥וֹ אֶת־הַשְּׁתִ֣י | א֣וֹ אֶת־הָעֵ֗רֶב בַּצֶּ֨מֶר֙ א֣וֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּ֔ים א֚וֹ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלִ֣י הָע֔וֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ב֖וֹ הַנָּ֑גַע כִּֽי־צָרַ֤עַת מַמְאֶ֨רֶת֙ הִ֔וא בָּאֵ֖שׁ תִּשָּׂרֵֽף:
of wool or of linen: Heb. בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים, of wool or of linen. [The ב, which usually means “in,” here means “of.”] This is its simple meaning. Its midrashic explanation is, however: [The words, בַּצֶּמֶר אוֹ בַפִּשְׁתִּים וְשָׂרַף אֶת בֶּגֶד, can be understood literally, as: “And he shall burn the garment…in the wool or in the linen.” Thus,] one might think that [when burning the unclean garment,] one is required to bring wool shearings and stalks of flax and burn them along with it. Scripture, therefore, says [at the end of this verse], “for it…; it shall be burned in fire. ” [I.e., it alone] it does not require anything else [to be burned] along with it. If so, why does Scripture say, “in the wool or the linen”? To exclude [from the requirement of burning] the edges (אִימְרִיּוֹת) if they are of another material (Torath Kohanim 13:167). אִימְרִיּוֹת means “edges,” like אִימְרָא, border.   בצמר או בפשתים: של צמר או של פשתים, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו יכול יביא גיזי צמר ואניצי פשתן וישרפם עמו, תלמוד לומר היא באש תשרף, אינה צריכה דבר אחר עמה. אם כן מה תלמוד לומר בצמר או בפשתים, להוציא את האימריות שבו, שהן ממין אחר. אימריות לשון שפה, כמו אימרא:
53But if the kohen looks, and, behold! the lesion has not spread on the garment, the warp or woof [threads], or any leather article,   נגוְאִם֘ יִרְאֶ֣ה הַכֹּהֵן֒ וְהִנֵּה֙ לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֣ה הַנֶּ֔גַע בַּבֶּ֕גֶד א֥וֹ בַשְּׁתִ֖י א֣וֹ בָעֵ֑רֶב א֖וֹ בְּכָל־כְּלִי־עֽוֹר:
54the kohen shall order, and they shall wash what the lesion is upon, and he shall quarantine it again for seven days.   נדוְצִוָּה֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְכִ֨בְּס֔וּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־בּ֖וֹ הַנָּ֑גַע וְהִסְגִּיר֥וֹ שִׁבְעַת־יָמִ֖ים שֵׁנִֽית:
what the lesion is upon: One might think that [one need wash] the area of the lesion alone. Scripture, therefore, says, “what the lesion is upon,” [meaning, the garment upon which the lesion is found. But if so,] one might think that the entire garment requires washing. Scripture, therefore, says, “[after] the lesion [has been washed],” (verse 55) [teaching us that only the lesion must be washed, not the entire garment]. So how [do we reconcile this apparent discrepancy]? He must wash part of the garment with it. — [see Torath Kohanim 13:169]   את אשר בו הנגע : יכול מקום הנגע בלבד, תלמוד לומר את אשר בו הנגע, יכול כל הבגד כולו טעון כבוס, תלמוד לומר הנגע, הא כיצד, יכבס מן הבגד עמו