Genesis Chapter 42

19If you are honest, your one brother will be confined in your prison, and you, go bring the grain for the hunger of your households.   יטאִם־כֵּנִ֣ים אַתֶּ֔ם אֲחִיכֶ֣ם אֶחָ֔ד יֵֽאָסֵ֖ר בְּבֵ֣ית מִשְׁמַרְכֶ֑ם וְאַתֶּם֙ לְכ֣וּ הָבִ֔יאוּ שֶׁ֖בֶר רַֽעֲב֥וֹן בָּֽתֵּיכֶֽם:
in your prison: In which you are now imprisoned.   בבית משמרכם: שאתם אסורים בו עכשיו:
and you, go bring: to your father’s house.   ואתם לכו הביאו: לבית אביכם:
the grain for the hunger of your households: What you have purchased for the hunger of the members of your households. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel].   שבר רעבון בתיכם: מה שקניתם לרעבון אנשי בתיכם:
20And bring your youngest brother to me, so that your words may be verified, and you will not die." And they did so.   כוְאֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֤ם הַקָּטֹן֙ תָּבִ֣יאוּ אֵלַ֔י וְיֵאָֽמְנ֥וּ דִבְרֵיכֶ֖ם וְלֹ֣א תָמ֑וּתוּ וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן:
so that your words may be verified: Heb. וְיֵאָמְנוּ, let them be confirmed and fulfilled, like“Amen, amen (אָמֵן)” (Num. 5:22), and like“may Your word now be verified (יֵאָמֵן)” (I Kings 8:26).   ויאמנו דבריכם: יתאמתו ויתקיימו, כמו (במדבר ה כב) אמן אמן, וכמו (מ"א ח כו) יאמן נא דבריך:
21And they said to one another, "Indeed, we are guilty for our brother, that we witnessed the distress of his soul when he begged us, and we did not listen. That is why this trouble has come upon us."   כאוַיֹּֽאמְר֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֗יו אֲבָל֘ אֲשֵׁמִ֣ים | אֲנַ֘חְנוּ֘ עַל־אָחִ֒ינוּ֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר רָאִ֜ינוּ צָרַ֥ת נַפְשׁ֛וֹ בְּהִתְחַֽנְנ֥וֹ אֵלֵ֖ינוּ וְלֹ֣א שָׁמָ֑עְנוּ עַל־כֵּן֙ בָּ֣אָה אֵלֵ֔ינוּ הַצָּרָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת:
Indeed: Heb. אִבָל, as the Targum renders: בָּקוּשְׁטָא, in truth. I [also] saw in Genesis Rabbah (91:8): It is the language of the Southerners; אִבָל means בְּרַם, in truth.   אבל: כתרגומו בקושטא. וראיתי בבראשית רבה (צא ח) לישנא דרומאה הוא אבל, ברם:
has come upon us: Heb. בָּאָה. Its accent is on the“beth,” because it is in the past tense, [meaning] that it has already come, and the Targum is אָתַת לָנָא [which is the past tense in Aramaic].   באה אלינו: טעמו בבי"ת, לפי שהוא בלשון עבר שכבר באה, ותרגומו אתת לנא:
22And Reuben answered them, saying, "Didn't I tell you, saying, 'Do not sin against the lad,' but you did not listen? Behold, his blood, too, is being demanded!"   כבוַיַּ֩עַן֩ רְאוּבֵ֨ן אֹתָ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר הֲלוֹא֩ אָמַ֨רְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶ֧ם | לֵאמֹ֛ר אַל־תֶּֽחֶטְא֥וּ בַיֶּ֖לֶד וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם וְגַם־דָּמ֖וֹ הִנֵּ֥ה נִדְרָֽשׁ:
his blood, too, is being demanded: The use of the word אֶת or the word גַם denotes inclusion. In this case it means“his blood and also the blood of his aged father.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8]   וגם דמו: אתין וגמין רבויין, דמו וגם דם הזקן:
23They did not know that Joseph understood, for the interpreter was between them.   כגוְהֵם֙ לֹ֣א יָֽדְע֔וּ כִּ֥י שֹׁמֵ֖עַ יוֹסֵ֑ף כִּ֥י הַמֵּלִ֖יץ בֵּֽינֹתָֽם:
They did not know that Joseph understood: Heb. שֹׁמֵעַ, understood their language, and they were speaking in this manner in his presence. — [from Tanchuma Buber Vayigash 7]   והם לא ידעו כי שומע יוסף: מבין לשונם ובפניו היו מדברים כן:
for the interpreter was between them: For whenever they spoke with him, the interpreter, who knew both Hebrew and Egyptian, was between them, and he would interpret their words for Joseph and Joseph’s words for them. Therefore, they thought that Joseph did not understand Hebrew. — [from Targum Onkelos]   כי המליץ בינותם: כי כשהיו מדברים עמו היה המליץ ביניהם, היודע לשון עברי ולשון מצרי, והיה מליץ דבריהם ליוסף ודברי יוסף להם, לכך היו סבורים שאין יוסף מכיר בלשון עברי:
the interpreter: This was his son Manasseh. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8, Targum Jonathan, Targum Yerushalmi]   המליץ: זה מנשה:
24And he turned away from them and wept, then returned to them and spoke to them; and he took Simeon from among them and imprisoned him before their eyes.   כדוַיִּסֹּ֥ב מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶ֖ם וַיֵּ֑בְךְּ וַיָּ֤שָׁב אֲלֵהֶם֙ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם וַיִּקַּ֤ח מֵֽאִתָּם֙ אֶת־שִׁמְע֔וֹן וַיֶּֽאֱסֹ֥ר אֹת֖וֹ לְעֵֽינֵיהֶֽם:
And he turned away from them: Heb. וַיִסֹב. He distanced himself from them so that they would not see him weeping.   ויסב מעליהם: נתרחק מעליהם שלא יראוהו בוכה:
and wept: Because he heard that they were remorseful. — [from Bereishith Rabbathi , p. 204]   ויבך: לפי ששמע שהיו מתחרטין:
Simeon: He [was the one who] had cast him into the pit. It was he who said to Levi,“Behold, that dreamer is coming” (Gen. 37:19). Another explanation: Joseph intended to separate him from Levi, lest the two of them take counsel to assassinate him.   את שמעון: הוא השליכו לבור, הוא שאמר ללוי (לעיל לז יט) הנה בעל החלומות הלזה בא. דבר אחר נתכוין יוסף להפרידו מלוי שמא יתיעצו שניהם להרוג אותו:
and imprisoned him before their eyes: He imprisoned him only before their eyes, but as soon as they left, he released him and gave him food and drink. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:8]   ויאסור אותו לעיניהם: לא אסרו אלא לעיניהם, וכיון שיצאו הוציאו והאכילו והשקהו:  
25And Joseph commanded, and they filled their vessels with grain, and [he commanded] to return their money into each one's sack, and to give them provisions for the journey, and he did so for them.   כהוַיְצַ֣ו יוֹסֵ֗ף וַיְמַלְא֣וּ אֶת־כְּלֵיהֶם֘ בָּר֒ וּלְהָשִׁ֤יב כַּסְפֵּיהֶם֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־שַׂקּ֔וֹ וְלָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם צֵדָ֖ה לַדָּ֑רֶךְ וַיַּ֥עַשׂ לָהֶ֖ם כֵּֽן:
26And they loaded their grain upon their donkeys, and they went away from there.   כווַיִּשְׂא֥וּ אֶת־שִׁבְרָ֖ם עַל־חֲמֹֽרֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֵּֽלְכ֖וּ מִשָּֽׁם:
27The one opened his sack to give fodder to his donkey at the lodging place, and he saw his money there it was, in the mouth of his sack.   כזוַיִּפְתַּ֨ח הָֽאֶחָ֜ד אֶת־שַׂקּ֗וֹ לָתֵ֥ת מִסְפּ֛וֹא לַֽחֲמֹר֖וֹ בַּמָּל֑וֹן וַיַּרְא֙ אֶת־כַּסְפּ֔וֹ וְהִנֵּה־ה֖וּא בְּפִ֥י אַמְתַּחְתּֽוֹ:
The one opened: That was Levi, who was left alone, without Simeon, his companion. — [from Gen. Rabbah]   ויפתח האחד: הוא לוי שנשאר יחיד משמעון בן זוגו:
at the lodging place: Heb.בַּמָלוֹן. In the place where they lodged at night.   במלון: במקום שלנו בלילה:
his sack: Heb. אַמְתַּחְתּוֹ. That is a sack.   אמתחתו: הוא שק:
28And he said to his brothers, "My money has been returned, and indeed, here it is in my sack! " Their hearts sank, and trembling, they turned to one another, saying, "What is this that God has done to us?"   כחוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֶל־אֶחָיו֙ הוּשַׁ֣ב כַּסְפִּ֔י וְגַ֖ם הִנֵּ֣ה בְאַמְתַּחְתִּ֑י וַיֵּצֵ֣א לִבָּ֗ם וַיֶּֽחֶרְד֞וּ אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מַה־זֹּ֛את עָשָׂ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים לָֽנוּ:
and indeed, here it is in my sack: The money is in it with the grain.   וגם הנה באמתחתי: גם הכסף בו עם התבואה:
What is this that God has done to us: to bring us to this accusation, for it (the money) was not returned except to accuse us falsely.   מה זאת עשה א-להים לנו: להביאנו לידי עלילה זו שלא הושב אלא להתעולל עלינו:  
29And they came to Jacob their father, to the land of Canaan, and they told him all that had befallen them, saying,   כטוַיָּבֹ֛אוּ אֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב אֲבִיהֶ֖ם אַ֣רְצָה כְּנָ֑עַן וַיַּגִּ֣ידוּ ל֔וֹ אֵ֛ת כָּל־הַקֹּרֹ֥ת אֹתָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
30"The man, the lord of the land, spoke to us harshly, and he accused us of spying on the land.   לדִּ֠בֶּ֠ר הָאִ֨ישׁ אֲדֹנֵ֥י הָאָ֛רֶץ אִתָּ֖נוּ קָשׁ֑וֹת וַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֹתָ֔נוּ כִּמְרַגְּלִ֖ים אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
31And we said to him, 'We are honest; we were never spies.   לאוַנֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו כֵּנִ֣ים אֲנָ֑חְנוּ לֹ֥א הָיִ֖ינוּ מְרַגְּלִֽים:
32We are twelve brothers, the sons of our father; one is gone, and today the youngest is with our father in the land of Canaan.'   לבשְׁנֵֽים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֲנַ֛חְנוּ אַחִ֖ים בְּנֵ֣י אָבִ֑ינוּ הָֽאֶחָ֣ד אֵינֶ֔נּוּ וְהַקָּטֹ֥ן הַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־אָבִ֖ינוּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
33And the man, the lord of the land, said to us, 'With this I will know that you are honest; leave one of your brothers with me, and [what is needed for] the hunger of your households, take and go.   לגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלֵ֗ינוּ הָאִישׁ֙ אֲדֹנֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ בְּזֹ֣את אֵדַ֔ע כִּ֥י כֵנִ֖ים אַתֶּ֑ם אֲחִיכֶ֤ם הָֽאֶחָד֙ הַנִּ֣יחוּ אִתִּ֔י וְאֶת־רַֽעֲב֥וֹן בָּֽתֵּיכֶ֖ם קְח֥וּ וָלֵֽכוּ:
34And bring your youngest brother to me, so that I will know that you are not spies, that you are honest; [then] I will give you your brother, and you may travel around in the land.' "   לדוְ֠הָבִ֠יאוּ אֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֣ם הַקָּטֹן֘ אֵלַי֒ וְאֵֽדְעָ֗ה כִּ֣י לֹ֤א מְרַגְּלִים֙ אַתֶּ֔ם כִּ֥י כֵנִ֖ים אַתֶּ֑ם אֶת־אֲחִיכֶם֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ תִּסְחָֽרוּ:
and you may travel around in the land: Heb. תִּסְחָרוּ, you may go around. Likewise, every expression of merchants (סוֹחִרִים) and commerce (סְחוֹרָה) is based on the fact that they (the merchants) travel around and look for merchandise.   ואת הארץ תסחרו: תסובבו. וכל לשון סוחרים וסחורה על שם שמחזרים וסובבים אחר פרקמטיא:
35And it came to pass that they were emptying their sacks and behold! Each one's bundle of money was in his sack; they saw the bundles of their money, they and their father, and they became frightened.   להוַיְהִ֗י הֵ֚ם מְרִיקִ֣ים שַׂקֵּיהֶ֔ם וְהִנֵּה־אִ֥ישׁ צְרֽוֹר־כַּסְפּ֖וֹ בְּשַׂקּ֑וֹ וַיִּרְא֞וּ אֶת־צְרֹר֧וֹת כַּסְפֵּיהֶ֛ם הֵ֥מָּה וַֽאֲבִיהֶ֖ם וַיִּירָֽאוּ:
bundle of money: Heb. צְרוֹר כַּסְפּוֹ, his bundle of money. — [from Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel]   צרור כספו: קשר כספו:
36And their father Jacob said to them, "You have bereaved me-Joseph is gone, and Simeon is gone, and you want to take Benjamin! All these troubles have come upon me."   לווַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֣ב אֲבִיהֶ֔ם אֹתִ֖י שִׁכַּלְתֶּ֑ם יוֹסֵ֤ף אֵינֶ֨נּוּ֙ וְשִׁמְע֣וֹן אֵינֶ֔נּוּ וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֣ן תִּקָּ֔חוּ עָלַ֖י הָי֥וּ כֻלָּֽנָה:
You have bereaved me: [This] teaches [us] that he suspected them-perhaps they had killed him (Simeon) or sold him like Joseph. [Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   אתי שכלתם: מלמד שחשדן שמא הרגוהו או מכרוהו כיוסף:
You have bereaved: Heb. שִׁכַּלְתֶּם Anyone who has lost his children is called שַׁכּוּל.   שכלתם: כל מי שבניו אבודים קרוי שכול:
37And Reuben spoke to his father, saying, "You may put my two sons to death if I don't bring him (Benjamin) to you. Put him into my hand[s] and I will return him to you."   לזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר רְאוּבֵן֙ אֶל־אָבִ֣יו לֵאמֹ֔ר אֶת־שְׁנֵ֤י בָנַי֙ תָּמִ֔ית אִם־לֹ֥א אֲבִיאֶ֖נּוּ אֵלֶ֑יךָ תְּנָ֤ה אֹתוֹ֙ עַל־יָדִ֔י וַֽאֲנִ֖י אֲשִׁיבֶ֥נּוּ אֵלֶֽיךָ:
38But he (Jacob) said, "My son shall not go down with you, because his brother is dead, and he alone is left, and if misfortune befalls him on the way you are going, you will bring down my gray head in sorrow to the grave."   לחוַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹֽא־יֵרֵ֥ד בְּנִ֖י עִמָּכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אָחִ֨יו מֵ֜ת וְה֧וּא לְבַדּ֣וֹ נִשְׁאָ֗ר וּקְרָאָ֤הוּ אָסוֹן֙ בַּדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּֽלְכוּ־בָ֔הּ וְהֽוֹרַדְתֶּ֧ם אֶת־שֵֽׂיבָתִ֛י בְּיָג֖וֹן שְׁאֽוֹלָה:
My son shall not go down with you: He did not accept Reuben’s offer. He said,“This firstborn is a fool. He offers to kill his sons. Are they his sons and not my sons?” - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:9]   לא ירד בני עמכם: לא קבל דבריו של ראובן. אמר בכור שוטה הוא זה, הוא אומר להמית בניו, וכי בניו הם ולא בני:

Genesis Chapter 43

1But the hunger was severe in the land.   אוְהָֽרָעָ֖ב כָּבֵ֥ד בָּאָֽרֶץ:
2And it came to pass, when they finished eating the grain that they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, "Go back [and] buy us a little food."   בוַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר כִּלּוּ֙ לֶֽאֱכֹ֣ל אֶת־הַשֶּׁ֔בֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֵבִ֖יאוּ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ אֲבִיהֶ֔ם שֻׁ֖בוּ שִׁבְרוּ־לָ֥נוּ מְעַט־אֹֽכֶל:
when they finished eating: Judah had said to them, “Wait for the old man until there is no more bread left in the house.” - [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 8, Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   כאשר כלו לאכול: יהודה אמר להם המתינו לזקן עד שתכלה פת מן הבית:
when they finished.: [Onkelos renders:] כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ, when they stopped. The one who renders: כַּד סַפִּיקוּ is in error.“When the camels had finished drinking” (Gen. 24:22) is rendered: כַּד סַפִּיקוּ, which means “when they had drunk their fill,” [for] that was the end of their drinking. This instance of “when they had finished eating,” however, means“when the food was depleted,” and we render: כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ   כאשר כלו: כד שציאו. והמתרגם כד ספיקו, טועה כאשר כלו הגמלים לשתות מתורגם כד ספיקו כששתו די ספוקם הוא גמר שתייתם. אבל זה כאשר כלו לאכול, כאשר תם האוכל הוא, ומתרגמינן כד שציאו:
3But Judah spoke to him, saying, "The man warned us repeatedly, saying, 'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.'   גוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו יְהוּדָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר הָעֵ֣ד הֵעִד֩ בָּ֨נוּ הָאִ֤ישׁ לֵאמֹר֙ לֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ פָנַ֔י בִּלְתִּ֖י אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אִתְּכֶֽם:
warned us repeatedly: Heb. הָעֵד הֵעִד, an expression of warning, since a warning is usually given in the presence of witnesses (עֵדִים) . Similarly,“I warned (הַעִדֹתִי) your forefathers” (Jer. 11:7);“Go down, warn (הָעֵד) the people” (Exod. 19:21).   העד העד: לשון התראה, שסתם התראה מתרה בו בפני עדים, וכן (דברים ל יט) העידותי בכם, (שמות יט כא) רד העד בעם:
‘You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.’: Heb. בִּלְתִּי, lit., without. You shall not see me without your brother [being] with you. Onkelos, however, renders: except when your brother is with you. He explained the verse according to its context, but he was not precise in translating it in accordance with the language of the verse.   לא תראו פני בלתי אחיכם אתכם: לא תראוני בלא אחיכם אתכם. ואנקלוס תרגם אלהין כד אחוכון עמכון, יישב ביאור הדבר על אופנו ולא דקדק לתרגם אחר לשון המקרא: 
4If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy food for you.   דאִם־יֶשְׁךָ֛ מְשַׁלֵּ֥חַ אֶת־אָחִ֖ינוּ אִתָּ֑נוּ נֵֽרְדָ֕ה וְנִשְׁבְּרָ֥ה לְךָ֖ אֹֽכֶל:
5But if you do not send [him], we will not go down, because the man said to us, 'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.' "   הוְאִם־אֵֽינְךָ֥ מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ לֹ֣א נֵרֵ֑ד כִּֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אָמַ֤ר אֵלֵ֨ינוּ֙ לֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ פָנַ֔י בִּלְתִּ֖י אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אִתְּכֶֽם:
6And Israel said, "Why have you harmed me, by telling the man that you have another brother?"   ווַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לָמָ֥ה הֲרֵֽעֹתֶ֖ם לִ֑י לְהַגִּ֣יד לָאִ֔ישׁ הַע֥וֹד לָכֶ֖ם אָֽח:
7They said, "The man asked about us and about our family, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?' And we told him according to these words. Could we have known that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?"   זוַיֹּֽאמְר֡וּ שָׁא֣וֹל שָֽׁאַל־הָ֠אִ֠ישׁ לָ֣נוּ וּלְמֽוֹלַדְתֵּ֜נוּ לֵאמֹ֗ר הַע֨וֹד אֲבִיכֶ֥ם חַי֙ הֲיֵ֣שׁ לָכֶ֣ם אָ֔ח וַנַּ֨גֶּד־ל֔וֹ עַל־פִּ֖י הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה הֲיָד֣וֹעַ נֵדַ֔ע כִּ֣י יֹאמַ֔ר הוֹרִ֖ידוּ אֶת־אֲחִיכֶֽם:
about us and about our family: Heb. וּלְמוֹלַדְתֵּנוּ, about our lineage (Targum Jonathan). Midrashically, [it is explained:] Even the matters (עִנְיָנֵי) of our cradles he revealed to us. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:10]   לנו ולמולדתנו: למשפחותינו, ומדרשו אפילו עצי עריסותינו גלה לנו:
And we told him: that we have a father and a brother.   ונגד לו: שיש לנו אב ואח:
according to these words: According to his questions that he asked, we were compelled to answer.   על פי הדברים האלה: על פי שאלותיו אשר שאל הוזקקנו להגיד:
that he would say: Heb. כִּי יֹאמַר. [This is equivalent to] אִשֶׁר יֹאמַר, that he would say. כִּי is used as an expression for אִם, and אִם is used as an expression for אִשֶׁר, that. Hence, this is one of its four usages, for this [כִּי] is like אִם, as“until (עַד אִם) I have spoken my words” (24:33). - [after targumim]   כי יאמר: אשר יאמר, כי משמש בלשון אם, ואם משמש בלשון אשר. הרי זה שימוש אחד מארבע לשונותיו שמשמש כי, והוא אם, שהרי כי זה כמו אם, כמו עד אם דברתי דברי (כד לג):
8And Judah said to Israel, his father, "Send the lad with me, and we will get up and go, and we will live and not die, both we and you and also our young children.   חוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוּדָ֜ה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל אָבִ֗יו שִׁלְחָ֥ה הַנַּ֛עַר אִתִּ֖י וְנָק֣וּמָה וְנֵלֵ֑כָה וְנִֽחְיֶה֙ וְלֹ֣א נָמ֔וּת גַּם־אֲנַ֥חְנוּ גַם־אַתָּ֖ה גַּם־טַפֵּֽנוּ:
and we will live: The Holy Spirit flickered within him. Through this trip, your spirit will be revived, as it is said:“and the spirit of their father Jacob was revived” (Gen. 45:27).   ונחיה: נצנצה בו רוח הקודש, על ידי הליכה זו תחי רוחך שנאמר (מה כז) ותחי רוח יעקב אביהם:
and not die: of hunger. As for Benjamin, we are not sure whether he will be seized or he will not be seized, but all of us will [certainly] die of hunger if we do not go. It would be better to leave the doubtful situation and seize the [situation that is] certain. — [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 8]   ולא נמות: ברעב. בנימין ספק יתפש ספק לא יתפש, ואנו כלנו מתים ברעב אם לא נלך, מוטב שתניח את הספק ותתפוש את הודאי:
9I will guarantee him; from my hand you can demand him. If I do not bring him to you and stand him up before you, I will have sinned against you forever.   טאָֽנֹכִי֙ אֶֽעֶרְבֶ֔נּוּ מִיָּדִ֖י תְּבַקְשֶׁ֑נּוּ אִם־לֹ֨א הֲבִֽיאֹתִ֤יו אֵלֶ֨יךָ֙ וְהִצַּגְתִּ֣יו לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְחָטָ֥אתִי לְךָ֖ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
and stand him up before you: That I will not bring him to you dead, but alive.   והצגתיו לפניך: שלא אביאנו אליך מת כי אם חי:
I will have sinned against you forever: For the world to come. - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:10]   וחטאתי לך כל הימים: לעולם הבא:
10For had we not tarried, by now we would have already returned twice."   יכִּ֖י לוּלֵ֣א הִתְמַהְמָ֑הְנוּ כִּֽי־עַתָּ֥ה שַׁ֖בְנוּ זֶ֥ה פַֽעֲמָֽיִם:
had we not tarried: because of you, we would have [already] returned with Simeon, and you would not have suffered all these days.   לולא התמהמהנו: על ידך, כבר היינו שבים עם שמעון ולא נצטערת כל הימים הללו:
11So Israel, their father, said to them, "If so, then do this: take some of the choice products of the land in your vessels, and take down to the man as a gift, a little balm and a little honey, wax and lotus, pistachios and almonds.   יאוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל אֲבִיהֶ֗ם אִם־כֵּ֣ן | אֵפוֹא֘ זֹ֣את עֲשׂוּ֒ קְח֞וּ מִזִּמְרַ֤ת הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ בִּכְלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהוֹרִ֥ידוּ לָאִ֖ישׁ מִנְחָ֑ה מְעַ֤ט צֳרִי֙ וּמְעַ֣ט דְּבַ֔שׁ נְכֹ֣את וָלֹ֔ט בָּטְנִ֖ים וּשְׁקֵדִֽים:
then: Heb. אֵפוֹא. This is a redundant word, used for stylistic purposes in the Hebrew. If [it is] so, [that] I will be compelled to do [this]-that I will [have to] send him with you-I will have to search and seek where [is the place that we can say,]“Here is (אַיֵּה פֹה) a solution as well as advice to give you, and [therefore] I say, ‘Do this.’”   אפוא: כל לשון אפוא לשון יתר הוא לתקן מלה בלשון עברי, אם כן אזדקק לעשות שאשלחנו עמכם, צריך אני לחזור ולבקש איה פה תקנה ועצה להשיאכם, ואומר אני זאת עשו:
some of the choice products of the land: Heb. מִזִמְּרַת הָאָרֶץ lit., from the song of the land. Targumim render: מִדִּמְשַׁבָּח בְּאַרְעָא,“from what is praised in the land,” about which everyone sings, [rejoicing] that it came into the world.   מזמרת הארץ: מתורגם מדמשבח בארעא שהכל מזמרים עליו כשהוא בא לעולם:
wax: Heb. נְכֹאת, wax. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:11, Targum Onkelos] Cf. Rashi above on 37:25.   נכאת: שעוה:
pistachios: Heb. בָּטְנִים I do not know what they are. In the alphabetized dictionary of Rabbi Machir, I saw [that they are] pistachios, but I believe that they are אִפַרְסְקִים (mentioned in the Mishnah, Kilayim 1:4, and the Talmud, Shabbath 45a).   בטנים: לא ידעתי מה הם ובפרושי א' ב' של רבי מכיר ראיתי פישיטצי"ש [פיסטוקים] ודומה לי שהם אפרסקין:
12And take double the money in your hand[s], and the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks you shall return in your hand[s], perhaps it was an error.   יבוְכֶ֥סֶף מִשְׁנֶ֖ה קְח֣וּ בְיֶדְכֶ֑ם וְאֶת־הַכֶּ֜סֶף הַמּוּשַׁ֨ב בְּפִ֤י אַמְתְּחֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ תָּשִׁ֣יבוּ בְיֶדְכֶ֔ם אוּלַ֥י מִשְׁגֶּ֖ה הֽוּא:
And…double the money: Twice as much as the first.   וכסף משנה: פי שנים כראשון:
take…in your hand[s]: to purchase food, perhaps the price has risen.   קחו בידכם: לשבור אוכל, שמא הוקר השער:
perhaps it was an error: Perhaps the one appointed over the house inadvertently forgot it.   אולי משגה הוא: שמא הממונה על הבית שכחו שוגג:
13And take your brother, and get up, go back to the man.   יגוְאֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֖ם קָ֑חוּ וְק֖וּמוּ שׁ֥וּבוּ אֶל־הָאִֽישׁ:
14And may the Almighty God grant you compassion before the man, and he will release to you your other brother and Benjamin, and as for me as I am bereaved, I am bereaved."   ידוְאֵ֣ל שַׁדַּ֗י יִתֵּ֨ן לָכֶ֤ם רַֽחֲמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָאִ֔ישׁ וְשִׁלַּ֥ח לָכֶ֛ם אֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אַחֵ֖ר וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֑ין וַֽאֲנִ֕י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁכֹ֖לְתִּי שָׁכָֽלְתִּי:
And may the Almighty God: From now on, you lack nothing but prayer. Behold I am praying for you. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:11]   ואל שדי: מעתה אינכם חסרים כלום אלא תפלה, הריני מתפלל עליכם:
the Almighty God: Heb. א-ֵל שַׁדָּי, Whose grant of mercy is sufficient (שֶׁדַי) , and Who has sufficient power to grant, May He grant you compassion. This is its simple meaning (Zohar , vol. 2, p. 257a). Its midrashic interpretation, however, is: May He Who said to His world,“Enough!” (שֶׁאָמַר דָּי) say to my troubles,“Enough!” for I have not enjoyed tranquility since my youth. [I endured] the trouble of Laban (who tricked me and pursued me with the desire of killing me), the trouble of Esau (who wanted to kill me), the trouble of Rachel (who died in childbirth), the trouble of Dinah (who was violated and kidnapped by Shechem), the trouble of Joseph (who disappeared), the trouble of Simeon (who is being detained by the ruler of Egypt), and the trouble of Benjamin (whom he demands that I send to him) (Tanchuma Mikeitz 10).   ואל שדי: שדי בנתינת רחמיו, וכדי היכולת בידו ליתן, יתן לכם רחמים, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו מי שאמר לעולם די יאמר די לצרותי, שלא שקטתי מנעורי, צרת לבן, צרת עשו, צרת רחל, צרת דינה, צרת יוסף, צרת שמעון, צרת בנימין:
and he will release to you: Heb. וְשִׁלַח. He will release to you, as the Targum renders, [meaning that] he will release him from his bonds, an expression similar to“he shall let him out to freedom (לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְחֶנוּ)” (Exod. 21:26). It is, however, inappropriate to translate it as an expression of sending away because they were going there to him.   ושלח לכם: ויפטר לכון, תרגומו, יפטרנו מאסיריו, לשון (שמות כא כו) לחפשי ישלחנו, ואינו נופל בתרגום [לתרגמו] לשון וישלח, שהרי לשם הם הולכים אצלו:
your…brother: This is Simeon.   את אחיכם: זה שמעון:
other: The Holy Spirit [of prophecy] was cast into him to include Joseph. - [from Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan,]   אחר: רוח הקודש נזרקה בו, לרבות יוסף:
and as for me: Until you return, I will be bereaved out of doubt.   ואני: עד שובכם אהיה שכול מספק:
as I am bereaved: of Joseph and Simeon.   כאשר שכלתי: מיוסף ומשמעון:
I am bereaved: of Benjamin.   שכלתי: מבנימין:
15So the men took this gift, and they took double the money in their hand[s] and Benjamin, and they got up and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.   טווַיִּקְח֤וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את וּמִשְׁנֶה־כֶּ֛סֶף לָֽקְח֥וּ בְיָדָ֖ם וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וַיָּקֻ֨מוּ֙ וַיֵּֽרְד֣וּ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יוֹסֵֽף:
and Benjamin: The Targum renders: וּדְבָרוּ יַת בִּנְיָמִן, and they led Benjamin away. [I.e., Onkelos was not satisfied with the verb נְסִיבוּ, they took, but added another verb, וּדְבָרוּ, and they led away. [That is] because [the expressions for] taking money and taking a person are not the same in Aramaic. Regarding a thing“taken in the hand,” we translate וּנְסִיב, but something taken by persuasion, we translate וּדְבָר.   ואת בנימין: מתרגמינן ודברו ית בנימין, לפי שאין לקיחת הכסף ולקיחת האדם שוה בלשון ארמי, בדבר הנקח ביד מתורגם ונסיב, ודבר הנקח בהנהגת דברים מתרגמינן ודבר: