Genesis Chapter 30

14Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest, and he found dudaim in the field and brought them to Leah, his mother, and Rachel said to Leah, "Now give me some of your son's dudaim."   ידוַיֵּ֨לֶךְ רְאוּבֵ֜ן בִּימֵ֣י קְצִֽיר־חִטִּ֗ים וַיִּמְצָ֤א דֽוּדָאִים֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַיָּבֵ֣א אֹתָ֔ם אֶל־לֵאָ֖ה אִמּ֑וֹ וַתֹּ֤אמֶר רָחֵל֨ אֶל־לֵאָ֔ה תְּנִי־נָ֣א לִ֔י מִדּֽוּדָאֵ֖י בְּנֵֽךְ:
in the days of the wheat harvest: [This is] to tell the praise of the [progenitors of] the tribes. It was harvest time, and he did not stretch out his hand upon stolen property, to bring wheat or barley, but only upon an ownerless thing, which no one cares about. — [from Gen. Rabbah 72: 2]   בִּימֵי קְצִֽיר־חִטִּים: לְהַגִּיד שִׁבְחָן שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים; שְׁעַת הַקָּצִיר הָיָה וְלֹא פָשַׁט יָדוֹ בַגֶּזֶל לְהָבִיא חִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִים, אֶלָּא דְּבַר הַהֶפְקֵר, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְפִּיד בּוֹ:
dudaim: (Sanh. 99b) Sigli. This is an herb, [called] jasmine in Arabic.   דֽוּדָאִים: סִיגְלִי, עֵשֶׂב הוּא (סנהדרין צ"ט), וּבִלְשׁוֹן יִשְׁמָעֵאל יַסְמִי"ן:
15And she said to her, "Is it a small matter that you have taken my husband, that [you wish] also to take my son's dudaim?" So Rachel said, "Therefore, he shall sleep with you tonight as payment for your son's dudaim."   טווַתֹּ֣אמֶר לָ֗הּ הַֽמְעַט֙ קַחְתֵּ֣ךְ אֶת־אִישִׁ֔י וְלָקַ֕חַת גַּ֥ם אֶת־דּֽוּדָאֵ֖י בְּנִ֑י וַתֹּ֣אמֶר רָחֵ֗ל לָכֵן֙ יִשְׁכַּ֤ב עִמָּךְ֙ הַלַּ֔יְלָה תַּ֖חַת דּֽוּדָאֵ֥י בְנֵֽךְ:
that [you wish] also to take my son’s dudaim?: This is a question: and [do you wish] to do this also, to take also my son’s dudaim? The Targum for this is וּלְמֵיסַב, and to take.   וְלָקַחַת גַּם אֶת־דּֽוּדָאֵי בְּנִי: בִּתְמִיהָ, וְלַעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד זֹאת לִקַּח גַם אֶת דּוּדָאֵי בְּנִי; וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ וּלְמֵיסַב:
Therefore, he shall sleep with you tonight: Tonight’s cohabitation belonged to me, but I will give it to you in lieu of your son’s dudaim. Since she treated the cohabitation of the righteous man lightly, she did not merit to be buried with him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 72:3]   לָכֵן יִשְׁכַּב עִמָּךְ הַלַּיְלָה: שֶׁלִּי הָיְתָה שְׁכִיבַת לַיְלָה זוֹ, וַאֲנִי נוֹתְנָה לָךְ תַּחַת דּוּדָאֵי בְנֵךְ, וּלְפִי שֶׁזִּלְזְלָה בְּמִשְׁכַּב הַצַּדִּיק לֹא זָכְתָה לְהִקָּבֵר עִמּוֹ (נדה ל"א):
16When Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah came forth toward him, and she said, "You shall come to me, because I have hired you with my son's dudaim," and he slept with her on that night.   טזוַיָּבֹ֨א יַֽעֲקֹ֥ב מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה֘ בָּעֶ֒רֶב֒ וַתֵּצֵ֨א לֵאָ֜ה לִקְרָאת֗וֹ וַתֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֵלַ֣י תָּב֔וֹא כִּ֚י שָׂכֹ֣ר שְׂכַרְתִּ֔יךָ בְּדֽוּדָאֵ֖י בְּנִ֑י וַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב עִמָּ֖הּ בַּלַּ֥יְלָה הֽוּא:
I have hired you: I gave Rachel her payment. — [from Targum Jonathan]   שָׂכֹר שְׂכַרְתִּיךָ: נָתַתִּי לְרָחֵל שְׂכָרָהּ:
on that night: Heb. בָּלַיְלָה הוּא. The Holy One, blessed be He, assisted that Issachar should be born from that union. — [from Niddah 31a]   בַּלַּיְלָה הֽוּא: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא סִיְּעוֹ, שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם יִשָּׂשכָר (בראשית רבה):
17And God hearkened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son.   יזוַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־לֵאָ֑ה וַתַּ֛הַר וַתֵּ֥לֶד לְיַֽעֲקֹ֖ב בֵּ֥ן חֲמִישִֽׁי:
And God hearkened to Leah: That she desired and was seeking means to increase the number of tribes. — [from Gen. Rabbah 72:5]   וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶל־לֵאָה: שֶׁהָיְתָה מִתְאַוָּה וּמְחַזֶּרֶת לְהַרְבּוֹת שְׁבָטִים:
18And Leah said, "God has given [me] my reward for I have given my maidservant to my husband"; so she named him Issachar.   יחוַתֹּ֣אמֶר לֵאָ֗ה נָתַ֤ן אֱלֹהִים֙ שְׂכָרִ֔י אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥תִּי שִׁפְחָתִ֖י לְאִישִׁ֑י וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יִשָּׂשכָֽר:
19And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son.   יטוַתַּ֥הַר ע֖וֹד לֵאָ֑ה וַתֵּ֥לֶד בֵּֽן־שִׁשִּׁ֖י לְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
20And Leah said, "God has given me a good portion. This time, my husband will live with me, for I have borne him six sons"; so she named him Zebulun.   כוַתֹּ֣אמֶר לֵאָ֗ה זְבָדַ֨נִי אֱלֹהִ֥ים | אֹתִי֘ זֶ֣בֶד טוֹב֒ הַפַּ֨עַם֙ יִזְבְּלֵ֣נִי אִישִׁ֔י כִּֽי־יָלַ֥דְתִּי ל֖וֹ שִׁשָּׁ֣ה בָנִ֑ים וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ זְבֻלֽוּן:
a good portion: Heb. זֶבֶד טוֹב. [To be interpreted] according to its Aramaic translation [חוּלַק טַב, a good portion].   זֶבֶד טוֹב: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
will live with me: An expression of a dwelling place; herberjerie in O.F.; lodging, abode, home. From now on, his principal dwelling will be only with me, because I have as many sons as all his [other] wives have.   יִזְבְּלֵנִי: לְ' בֵּית זְבֻל (מלכים א ח' י"ג), הירבריי"א בְּלַעַז, בֵּית מָדוֹר, מֵעַתָּה לֹא תְהֵא עִקַּר דִּירָתוֹ אֶלָּא עִמִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בָנִים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל נָשָׁיו:
21And afterwards, she bore a daughter, and she named her Dinah.   כאוְאַחַ֖ר יָ֣לְדָה בַּ֑ת וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמָ֖הּ דִּינָֽה:
Dinah: Our Sages explained that Leah pronounced judgment (דָּנָה) upon herself. [She reasoned:] If this is a male, my sister Rachel will not be [esteemed even] as one of the handmaids. So she prayed over him, and he was turned into a female (Ber. 60a).   דִּינָֽה: פֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁדָּנָה לֵאָה דִּין בְּעַצְמָהּ, אִם זֶה זָכָר לֹא תְהֵא רָחֵל אֲחוֹתִי כְּאַחַת הַשְּׁפָחוֹת, וְהִתְפַּלְּלָה עָלָיו וְנֶהְפַּךְ לִנְקֵבָה (ברכות ס'):
22And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and He opened her womb.   כבוַיִּזְכֹּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־רָחֵ֑ל וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע אֵלֶ֨יהָ֙ אֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיִּפְתַּ֖ח אֶת־רַחְמָֽהּ:
And God remembered Rachel: (Gen. Rabbah 73:4) He remembered for her that she gave over her signs to her sister [Leah] and that she was troubled lest she fall into Esau’s lot, perhaps Jacob would divorce her because she had no children. The wicked Esau also got that idea when he heard that she had no children. This is what the paytan incorporated [into his poem for the first day of Rosh Hashanah, entitled אֶבֶן חוּג]: When the ruddy one (Esau) saw that she (Rachel) had not experienced birth pangs, he wished to take her for himself, and she was terrified.   ויזכור אֱלֹהִים אֶת־רָחֵל: זָכַר לָהּ שֶׁמָּסְרָה סִימָנֶיהָ לַאֲחוֹתָהּ וְשֶׁהָיְתָה מְצֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תַּעֲלֶה בְּגוֹרָלוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, שֶׁמָּא יְגָרְשֶׁנָּה יַעֲקֹב לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ בָּנִים, וְאַף עֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע כָּךְ עָלָה בְּלִבּוֹ כְּשֶׁשָּׁמַע שֶׁאֵין לָהּ בָּנִים; הוּא שֶׁיִּסֵּד הַפַּיָּט הָאַדְמוֹן כְּבָט שֶׁלֹּא חָלָה, צָבָה לְקַחְתָּהּ לוֹ וְנִתְבֶּהָלָה:
23And she conceived and bore a son, and she said, "God has taken away my reproach."   כגוַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַתֹּ֕אמֶר אָסַ֥ף אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־חֶרְפָּתִֽי:
has taken away: Heb. אָסַף He took it into a place where it would not be seen, and similarly (Isa. 4:1): “take away (אֱסֹף) our reproach;” (Ex. 9:19): “and will not be taken in (יֵאָסֵף) the house;” (Joel 4:15): “have withdrawn (אָסְפוּ) their shining;” (Isa. 60: 20): “shall your moon be gathered in (יֵאָסֵף),” [meaning that] it will not be hidden.   אָסַף: הִכְנִיסָהּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא תֵרָאֶה, וְכֵן אֱסֹף חֶרְפָּתֵנוּ (ישעיהו ד'), וְלֹא יֵאָסֵף הַבַּיתָה (שמות ט'), אָסְפוּ נָגְהָם (יואל ד'), וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף (ישעיהו ס') – לֹא יִטָּמֵן:
my reproach: For I was put to shame, having been barren, and [people] were saying about me that I would fall to the lot of the wicked Esau (Tan. Buber, Vayetze 20). The Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 73:5) [explains it thus:] As long as a woman has no child, she has no one to blame for her faults. As soon as she has a child, she blames him. “Who broke this dish?” “Your child!” “Who ate these figs?” “Your child!”   חֶרְפָּתִֽי: שֶׁהָיִיתִי לְחֶרְפָּה שֶׁאֲנִי עֲקָרָה וְהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים עָלַי שֶׁאֱעֶלֶה לְחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע. וְאַגָּדָה: כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵין לָאִשָּׁה בֵּן, אֵין לָהּ בְּמִי לִתְלוֹת סִרְחוֹנָהּ, מִשֶּׁיֵשׁ לָהּ בֵּן תּוֹלָה בוֹ: מִי שִׁבֵּר כְּלִי זֶה? בִּנְךָ. מִי אָכַל תְּאֵנִים אֵלּוּ? בִּנְךָ:
24So she named him Joseph, saying, "May the Lord grant me yet another son!"   כדוַתִּקְרָ֧א אֶת־שְׁמ֛וֹ יוֹסֵ֖ף לֵאמֹ֑ר יֹסֵ֧ף יְהֹוָ֛ה לִ֖י בֵּ֥ן אַחֵֽר:
May the Lord grant me yet another son: She knew through prophecy that Jacob was destined to establish only twelve tribes. She said, “May it be His will that the one he is destined to establish be from me.” Therefore, she prayed only for another son [and no more]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 72:6]   יֹסֵף ה' לִי בֵּן אַחֵֽר: יוֹדַעַת הָיְתָה בִנְבוּאָה שֶׁאֵין יַעֲקֹב עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד אֶלָּא שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, אָמְרָה יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁאוֹתוֹ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד יְהֵא מִמֶּנִּי, לְכָךְ לֹא נִתְפַּלְּלָה אֶלָּא עַל בֵּן אַחֵר:
25It came to pass when Rachel had borne Joseph, that Jacob said to Laban, "Send me away, and I will go to my place and to my land.   כהוַיְהִ֕י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר יָֽלְדָ֥ה רָחֵ֖ל אֶת־יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־לָבָ֔ן שַׁלְּחֵ֨נִי֙ וְאֵ֣לְכָ֔ה אֶל־מְקוֹמִ֖י וּלְאַרְצִֽי:
when Rachel had borne Joseph: When the adversary of Esau was born, as it is said (Obadiah 1:18): “And the house of Jacob shall be fire and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau shall become stubble.” Fire without a flame does not burn anything a distance away. As soon as Joseph was born, Jacob trusted in the Holy One, blessed be He and desired to return [to Canaan]. — [from B.B. 123b, Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel, Gen. Rabbah 73:7]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יָֽלְדָה רָחֵל אֶת־יוֹסֵף: מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד שְׂטָנוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיָה בֵית יַעֲקֹב אֵשׁ וּבֵית יוֹסֵף לֶהָבָה וּבֵית עֵשָׂו לְקַשׁ (עובדיה א'), אֵשׁ בְּלֹא לֶהָבָה אֵינוֹ שׁוֹלֵט לְמֵרָחוֹק, מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יוֹסֵף בָּטַח יַעֲקֹב בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְרָצָה לָשׁוּב:
26Give [me] my wives and my children for whom I worked for you, and I will go, for you know my work, which I have worked for you."   כותְּנָ֞ה אֶת־נָשַׁ֣י וְאֶת־יְלָדַ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָבַ֧דְתִּי אֹֽתְךָ֛ בָּהֵ֖ן וְאֵלֵ֑כָה כִּ֚י אַתָּ֣ה יָדַ֔עְתָּ אֶת־עֲבֹֽדָתִ֖י אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֲבַדְתִּֽיךָ:
Give [me] my wives, etc.: I do not wish to leave without permission. — [from Zohar vol. 1, 158b]   תְּנָה אֶת־נָשַׁי וגו': אֵינִי רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת כִּי אִם בִּרְשׁוּת:
27And Laban said to him, "If only I have now found favor in your eyes! I have divined, and the Lord has blessed me for your sake."   כזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ לָבָ֔ן אִם־נָ֛א מָצָ֥אתִי חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ נִחַ֕שְׁתִּי וַיְבָֽרֲכֵ֥נִי יְהֹוָ֖ה בִּגְלָלֶֽךָ:
I have divined: He was a diviner. [He said:] I ascertained with my divination that a blessing came to me through you. When you came here, I had no sons, as it is said (above, 29:6): “and behold, his daughter Rachel is coming with the sheep” (is it possible that he has sons, yet sends his daughter along with the shepherds?). Now, however, he had sons, as it is said (31:1): “And he heard the words of Laban’s sons.” - [from Tanchuma Shemoth 16]   נִחַשְׁתִּי: מְנַחֵשׁ הָיָה, נִסִּיתִי בְּנִחוּשׁ שֶׁלִּי שֶׁעַל יָדְךָ בָּאָה לִי בְרָכָה; כְּשֶׁבָּאתָ לְכָאן לֹא הָיוּ לִי בָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהִנֵּה רָחֵל בִּתּוֹ בָּאָה עִם הַצֹּאן (בראשית כ״ט:ו׳), אֶפְשַׁר יֵשׁ לוֹ בָנִים וְהוּא שׁוֹלֵחַ בִתּוֹ אֵצֶל הָרוֹעִים? עַכְשָׁיו הָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּשְׁמַע אֶת דִּבְרֵי בְנֵי לָבָן (שם ל"א):