Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 19

21And he said to him, "Behold I have favored you also as regards this matter, that I will not overturn the city that you have mentioned.   כאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּה֙ נָשָׂ֣אתִי פָנֶ֔יךָ גַּ֖ם לַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה לְבִלְתִּ֛י הָפְכִּ֥י אֶת־הָעִ֖יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתָּ:
also as regards this matter: Not only will you be saved, but I will save the entire city for your sake.   גַּם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה: לֹא דַּיְּךָ שֶׁאַתָּה נִצָּל, אֶלָּא אַף כָּל הָעִיר אַצִּיל בִּגְלָלְךָ:
that I will…overturn: Heb. הָפְכִּי, I overturn, as (below 48:5) “until I come (בֹּאִי)”; (above 16:13) “after I have seen (רֹאִי)”; (Jer. 31:19) “whenever I speak (דַבְּרִי) of him.”   הָפְכִּי: הוֹפֵךְ אֲנִי, כְּמוֹ עַד בֹּאִי (בראשית מ"ח), אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי (בראשית ט״ז:י״ג), מִדֵּי דַבְּרִי בּוֹ (ירמיהו ל"א):
22Hasten, flee there, for I will not be able to do anything until you arrive there." Therefore, he named the city Zoar.   כבמַהֵר֙ הִמָּלֵ֣ט שָׁ֔מָּה כִּ֣י לֹ֤א אוּכַל֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת דָּבָ֔ר עַד־בֹּֽאֲךָ֖ שָׁ֑מָּה עַל־כֵּ֛ן קָרָ֥א שֵֽׁם־הָעִ֖יר צֽוֹעַר:
Hasten, flee there, for I will not be able to do: This is the angels’ punishment because they said (verse 13): “For we are destroying,” and they attributed the matter to themselves; therefore they did not move from there until they were compelled to say that the matter was not in their power. — [based on Gen. Rabbah 50:9]   כִּי לֹא אוּכַל לַֽעֲשׂוֹת: זֶה עָנְשָׁן שֶׁל מַלְאָכִים עַל שֶׁאָמְרוּ כִּי מַשְׁחִתִים אֲנַחְנוּ, וְתָלוּ הַדָּבָר בְּעַצְמָן, לְפִיכָך לֹא זָזוּ מִשָּׁם עַד שֶׁהֻזְקְקוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר בִּרְשׁוּתָן:
for I will not be able: [This expression is] in the singular. From here you learn that one was to overturn [the cities] and one was to save [Lot and his family], because two angels are not sent for one mission. — [from Gen. Rabbah 50:2]   כִּי לֹא אוּכַל: לְשׁוֹן יָחִיד; מִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁהָאֶחָד הוֹפֵךְ וְהָאֶחָד מַצִּיל, שֶׁאֵין ב' מַלְאָכִים נִשְׁלָחִים לְדָבָר א':
Therefore, he named the city Zoar: Because of [the words] “and it is small” (מִצְעָר).   עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שֵֽׁם־הָעִיר צֽוֹעַר: עַל שֵׁם וְהִוא מִצְעָר:
23The sun came out upon the earth, and Lot came to Zoar.   כגהַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ יָצָ֣א עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְל֖וֹט בָּ֥א צֹֽעֲרָה:
24And the Lord caused to rain down upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire, from the Lord, from heaven.   כדוַֽיהֹוָ֗ה הִמְטִ֧יר עַל־סְדֹ֛ם וְעַל־עֲמֹרָ֖ה גָּפְרִ֣ית וָאֵ֑שׁ מֵאֵ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה מִן־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
And the Lord caused to rain down: Wherever it is written “And the Lord,” it refers to God and His tribunal. — [from Gen. Rabbah 51:2]   וה' הִמְטִיר: כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַה' – הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ:
caused to rain down upon Sodom: At the rise of dawn, as it is stated (verse 15): “And as the dawn rose,” a time when the moon is in the sky with the sun. Since some of them worshipped the sun and some of them the moon, the Holy One, blessed be He, said, “If I punish them by day, the moon worshippers will say, ‘Had it been at night, when the moon rules, we would not have been destroyed.’ And if I punish them at night, the sun worshippers will say, ‘Had it been by day, when the sun rules, we would not have been destroyed.’” Therefore, it is written: “And as the dawn rose”: He punished them at a time when the sun and the moon [both] rule. — [from Gen. Rabbah 60:12]   הִמְטִיר עַל־סדום: בַּעֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּכְמוֹ הַשַּׁחַר עָלָה, שָׁעָה שֶׁהַלְּבָנָה עוֹמֶדֶת בָּרָקִיעַ עִם הַחַמָּה, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ מֵהֶם עוֹבְדִין לַחַמָּה וּמֵהֶם לַלְּבָנָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אֶפָּרַע מֵהֶם בַּיּוֹם, יִהְיוּ עוֹבְדֵי לְבָנָה אוֹמְרִים אִלּוּ הָיָה בַלַּיְלָה, כְּשֶׁהַלְּבָנָה מוֹשֶׁלֶת, לֹא הָיִינוּ חֲרֵבִין, וְאִם אֶפָּרַע מֵהֶם בַּלַּיְלָה, יִהְיוּ עוֹבְדֵי הַחַמָּה אוֹמְרִים אִלּוּ הָיָה בַּיּוֹם, כְּשֶׁהַחַמָּה מוֹשֶׁלֶת, לֹא הָיִינוּ חֲרֵבִין; לְכָךְ כְּתִיב וּכְמוֹ הַשַּׁחַר עָלָה, וְנִפְרַע מֵהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַחַמָּה וְהַלְּבָנָה מוֹשְׁלוֹת:
caused to rain down, etc., brimstone and fire: At first it was rain, and it became brimstone and fire. — [from Mechilta Beshallach, Massechta d’Shiratha, ch. 5]   הִמְטִיר גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ: בַּתְּחִלָּה מָטָר, וְנַעֲשָׂה גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ:
from the Lord: It is customary for the Scriptural verses to speak in this manner, as in (above 4:23): “wives of Lemech,” and he did not say, “my wives.” And so did David say (I Kings 1:33): “Take with you the servants of your lord,” and he did not say, “my servants”; and so did Ahasuerus say (Esther 8:8): “in the name of the king,” and he did not say, “in my name.” Here too it states “from the Lord,” and it does not state “from Him.” - [from Sanh. 38b]   מֵאֵת ה': דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָאוֹת לְדַבֵּר כֵּן, כְּמוֹ נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ, וְלֹא אָמַר נָשַׁי; וְכֵן אָמַר דָּוִד קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם אֶת עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנֵיכֶם (מלכים א א'), וְלֹא אָמַר מֵעֲבָדַי; וְכֵן אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אָמַר בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְלֹא אָמַר בִּשְׁמִי; אַף כָּאן אָמַר, מֵאֵת ה' וְלֹא אָמַר מֵאִתִּי:
from heaven: This is what Scripture says (Job 36:31): “For He judges the nations therewith” [i.e., with the heavens]. When He comes to chastise mankind, He brings upon them fire from heaven, as He did to Sodom, and when He comes to let down the manna, [it is also] from heaven [as Scripture states] (Exod. 16:4): “Behold I am raining down to you bread from heaven.” - [from Tan. Buber, Beshallach 20]   מִן־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם: הוּא שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב כִּי בָם יָדִין עַמִּים וְגוֹ' (איוב ל"ו), כְּשֶׁבָּא לְיַסֵּר הֵבְּרִיוֹת מֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם אֵשׁ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה לִסְדוֹם, וּכְשֶׁבָּא לְהוֹרִיד הַמָּן מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם (שמות ט"ז):
25And He turned over these cities and the entire plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and the vegetation of the ground.   כהוַיַּֽהֲפֹךְ֙ אֶת־הֶֽעָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔ל וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־הַכִּכָּ֑ר וְאֵת֙ כָּל־יֽשְׁבֵ֣י הֶֽעָרִ֔ים וְצֶ֖מַח הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
And He turned over these cities, etc.: The four of them were situated on one rock, and He turned them upside down, as it is said (Job 28:9): “He stretched forth His hand upon the flinty rock, etc.” [He turned it over from the root of the mountains.]- [from Gen. Rabbah 51:4]   וַיַּֽהֲפֹךְ אֶת־הֶֽעָרִים וגו': אַרְבַּעְתָּם יוֹשְׁבוֹת בְּסֶלַע אֶחָד וַהֲפָכָן מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּחַלָּמִישׁ שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וְגוֹ' (איוב כ'):
26And his wife looked from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.   כווַתַּבֵּ֥ט אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ מֵאַֽחֲרָ֑יו וַתְּהִ֖י נְצִ֥יב מֶֽלַח:
And his wife looked from behind him: from behind Lot. — [from Zohar, vol. 1, 108b]   וַתַּבֵּט אִשְׁתּוֹ מֵאַֽחֲרָיו: שֶׁל לוֹט:
and she became a pillar of salt: She sinned with salt, and she was punished with salt. He said to her, “Give a little salt to these guests.” She replied, “Also this evil custom you wish to introduce into this place?” - [from Gen. Rabbah 50:4]   וַתְּהִי נְצִיב מֶֽלַח: בְּמֶלַח חָטְאָה וּבְמֶלַח לָקְתָה; אָמַר לָהּ תְּנִי מְעַט מֶלַח לָאוֹרְחִים הַלָּלוּ, אָמְרָה לוֹ אַף הַמִּנְהָג הָרַע הַזֶּה אַתָּה בָא לְהַנְהִיג בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה (בראשית רבה):
27And Abraham arose early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the Lord.   כזוַיַּשְׁכֵּ֥ם אַבְרָהָ֖ם בַּבֹּ֑קֶר אֶ֨ל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥מַד שָׁ֖ם אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
28And he looked over the face of Sodom and Gomorrah and over the entire face of the land of the plain, and he saw, and behold, the smoke of the earth had risen like the smoke of a furnace.   כחוַיַּשְׁקֵ֗ף עַל־פְּנֵ֤י סְדֹם֙ וַֽעֲמֹרָ֔ה וְעַ֥ל כָּל־פְּנֵ֖י אֶ֣רֶץ הַכִּכָּ֑ר וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה עָלָה֙ קִיטֹ֣ר הָאָ֔רֶץ כְּקִיטֹ֖ר הַכִּבְשָֽׁן:
smoke: Heb. קִיטוֹר a pillar of smoke, torche in Old French, column of fire (or smoke).   קיטור: תִּמּוּר שֶׁל עָשָׁן, טורק"א בלע"ז:
furnace: An excavation in which stones are burned into lime. This is the meaning of כִּבְשָׁן wherever it appears in Scripture.   הַכִּבְשָֽׁן: חֲפִירָה שֶׁשּׂוֹרְפִין בָּה אֶת הָאֲבָנִים לְסִיד, וְכֵן כָּל כִּבְשָׁן שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה:
29And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the plain, that God remembered Abraham, and He sent Lot out of the midst of the destruction when He overturned the cities in which Lot had dwelt.   כטוַיְהִ֗י בְּשַׁחֵ֤ת אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־עָרֵ֣י הַכִּכָּ֔ר וַיִּזְכֹּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיְשַׁלַּ֤ח אֶת־לוֹט֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַֽהֲפֵכָ֔ה בַּֽהֲפֹךְ֙ אֶת־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יָשַׁ֥ב בָּהֵ֖ן לֽוֹט:
that God remembered Abraham: What does the remembrance of Abraham have to do with Lot? He remembered that Lot knew that Sarah was Abraham’s wife, and that he had heard in Egypt that Abraham said about Sarah, “She is my sister,” yet he did not reveal the matter because he [Lot] had pity on him [Abraham]. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, had pity on him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 51:6]   ויזכור אֱלֹהִים אֶת־אַבְרָהָם: מַהוּ זְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם עַל לוֹט? נִזְכַּר שֶׁהָיָה לוֹט יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁשָּׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם וְשָׁמַע שֶׁאָמַר אַבְרָהָם בְּמִצְרַיִם עַל שָׂרָה אֲחוֹתִי הִיא, וְלֹא גִלָּה הַדָּבָר, שֶׁהָיָה חָס עָלָיו, לְפִיכָךְ חָס הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָלָיו (בראשית רבה):
30And Lot went up from Zoar, and he dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters were with him, for he was afraid to dwell in Zoar; so he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters.   לוַיַּ֩עַל֩ ל֨וֹט מִצּ֜וֹעַר וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב בָּהָ֗ר וּשְׁתֵּ֤י בְנֹתָיו֙ עִמּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י יָרֵ֖א לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בְּצ֑וֹעַר וַיֵּ֨שֶׁב֙ בַּמְּעָרָ֔ה ה֖וּא וּשְׁתֵּ֥י בְנֹתָֽיו:
for he was afraid to dwell in Zoar: Because it was near Sodom. — [from Zohar, vol. 1, 109a]   כִּי יָרֵא לָשֶׁבֶת בְּצוֹעַר: לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה קְרוֹבָה לִסְדוֹם:
31And the elder said to the younger, "Our father is old, and there is no man on earth to come upon us, as is the custom of all the earth.   לאוַתֹּ֧אמֶר הַבְּכִירָ֛ה אֶל־הַצְּעִירָ֖ה אָבִ֣ינוּ זָקֵ֑ן וְאִ֨ישׁ אֵ֤ין בָּאָ֨רֶץ֙ לָב֣וֹא עָלֵ֔ינוּ כְּדֶ֖רֶךְ כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Our father is old: And if not now, when? Perhaps he will die or will no longer be able to beget children.   אָבִינוּ זָקֵן: וְאִם לֹא עַכְשָׁו אֵימָתַי? שֶׁמָּא יָמוּת אוֹ יִפְסֹק מֵהוֹלִיד:
and there is no man on earth: They thought that the entire world had been destroyed, as in the Generation of the Flood (Gen. Rabbah 51:8).   וְאִישׁ אֵין בָּאָרֶץ: סְבוּרוֹת הָיוּ שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹלָם נֶחֱרַב כְּמוֹ בְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל: (בראשית רבה):
32Come, let us give our father wine to drink, and let us lie with him, and let us bring to life seed from our father."   לבלְכָ֨ה נַשְׁקֶ֧ה אֶת־אָבִ֛ינוּ יַ֖יִן וְנִשְׁכְּבָ֣ה עִמּ֑וֹ וּנְחַיֶּ֥ה מֵֽאָבִ֖ינוּ זָֽרַע:
33And they gave their father wine to drink on that night, and the elder came and lay with her father, and he did not know of her lying down or of her rising up.   לגוַתַּשְׁקֶ֧יןָ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶ֛ן יַ֖יִן בַּלַּ֣יְלָה ה֑וּא וַתָּבֹ֤א הַבְּכִירָה֙ וַתִּשְׁכַּ֣ב אֶת־אָבִ֔יהָ וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע בְּשִׁכְבָ֖הּ וּבְקוּמָֽהּ:
And they gave, etc., to drink: Wine was made available to them in the cave, to make it possible for two nations to emerge from them. — [from Sifrei Ekev 43]   וַתַּשְׁקֶיןָ וגו': יַיִן נִזְדַּמֵּן לָהֶן בַּמְּעָרָה לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן שְׁנֵי אֻמּוֹת:
and lay with her father: But in the case of the younger, it says: “and she lay with him.” Since the younger one was not the initiator of the illicit relations, but rather her sister taught it to her, Scripture covers up for her and does not explicitly tell of her disgrace. But [concerning] the elder, who initiated the illicit relations, Scripture publicizes her explicitly (Tan. Buber, Balak 26).   וַתִּשְׁכַּב אֶת־אָבִיהָ: וּבַצְּעִירָה כְתִיב וַתִּשְׁכַּב עִמּוֹ? צְעִירָה, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא פָּתְחָה בִזְנוּת אֶלָּא אֲחוֹתָהּ לִמְּדַתָּה חָסַךְ עָלֶיהָ הַכָּתוּב וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ גְּנוּתָהּ; אֲבָל בְּכִירָה שֶׁפָּתְחָה בִזְנוּת פִּרְסְמָהּ הַכָּתוּב בִּמְפֹרָשׁ.
or of her rising up: Heb. וּבְקוּמָהּ, mentioned in conjunction with the elder, is dotted (i.e., there is a dot over the second “vav”), to denote that when she arose, he did know, but nevertheless he was not careful not to drink on the second night (Nazir 23a). (Said Rabbi Levi: Whoever is inflamed by the lust for illicit relations, will ultimately be made to eat his own flesh (i.e., to commit incest). - [from Gen. Rabbah 51:9] [This does not appear in all editions of Rashi.]   וּבְקוּמָֽהּ: שֶׁל בְּכִירָה נָקוּד, לוֹמַר, שֶׁבְּקוּמָהּ יָדַע, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִשְׁמַר לַיִל שֵׁנִי מִלִּשְׁתּוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא לָהוּט אַחַר בּוּלְמוּס שֶׁל עֲרָיוֹת לַסּוֹף מַאֲכִילִים אוֹתוֹ מִבְּשָׂרוֹ:
34And it came to pass on the morrow, that the elder said to the younger, "Behold, last night I lay with my father. Let us give him wine to drink tonight too, and come, lie with him, and let us bring to life seed from our father."   לדוַֽיְהִי֙ מִמָּֽחֳרָ֔ת וַתֹּ֤אמֶר הַבְּכִירָה֙ אֶל־הַצְּעִירָ֔ה הֵֽן־שָׁכַ֥בְתִּי אֶ֖מֶשׁ אֶת־אָבִ֑י נַשְׁקֶ֨נּוּ יַ֜יִן גַּם־הַלַּ֗יְלָה וּבֹ֨אִי֙ שִׁכְבִ֣י עִמּ֔וֹ וּנְחַיֶּ֥ה מֵֽאָבִ֖ינוּ זָֽרַע:
35So they gave their father to drink on that night also, and the younger arose and lay with him, and he did not know of her lying down or of her rising up.   להוַתַּשְׁקֶ֜יןָ גַּ֣ם בַּלַּ֧יְלָה הַה֛וּא אֶת־אֲבִיהֶ֖ן יָ֑יִן וַתָּ֤קָם הַצְּעִירָה֙ וַתִּשְׁכַּ֣ב עִמּ֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע בְּשִׁכְבָ֖הּ וּבְקֻמָֽהּ:
36And Lot's two daughters conceived from their father.   לווַתַּֽהֲרֶ֛יןָ שְׁתֵּ֥י בְנֽוֹת־ל֖וֹט מֵֽאֲבִיהֶֽן:
And…conceived: Although a woman does not conceive from the first intercourse, these controlled themselves and took out their maidenhoods and conceived from the first intercourse. — [from Gen. Rabbah 51:9]   וַתַּֽהֲרֶיןָ וגו': אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַבֶּרֶת מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, אֵלּוּ שָׁלְטוּ בְעַצְמָן וְהוֹצִיאוּ עֶרְוָתָן לַחוּץ וְנִתְעַבְּרוּ מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה:
37And the elder bore a son, and she named him Moab; he is the father of Moab until this day.   לזוַתֵּ֤לֶד הַבְּכִירָה֙ בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ מוֹאָ֑ב ה֥וּא אֲבִֽי־מוֹאָ֖ב עַד־הַיּֽוֹם:
Moab: This one, who was immodest, publicized that he was from her father (מוֹאָב-מֵאָב), but the younger one named him euphemistically (בֶּן עַמִּי, the son of my people) and was rewarded in the time of Moses, for it is stated concerning the children of Ammon (Deut. 2:19): “You shall not involve yourself in strife with them” at all, but concerning Moab, He warned them only not to wage war with them, but He permitted them [the Israelites] to cause them pain. — [from Nazir 23b]   מוֹאָב: זוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה צְנוּעָה פֵּרְשָׁה שֶׁמֵּאָבִיהָ הוּא, אֲבָל צְעִירָה קְרָאַתּוּ בְלָשׁוֹן נְקִיָּה, וְקִבְּלָה שָׂכָר בִּימֵי מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בִּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן אַל תִּתְגָּר בָּם (דברים ב') – כְּלָל, וּבְמוֹאָב לֹא הִזְהִיר אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יִלָּחֵם בָּם, אֲבָל לְצַעֲרָן הִתִּיר לוֹ:
38And the younger, she too bore a son, and she named him Ben-ami; he is the father of the children of Ammon until this day.   לחוְהַצְּעִירָ֤ה גַם־הִוא֙ יָ֣לְדָה בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בֶּן־עַמִּ֑י ה֛וּא אֲבִ֥י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֖וֹן עַד־הַיּֽוֹם:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 20

1And Abraham traveled from there to the land of the south, and he dwelt between Kadesh and between Shur, and he sojourned in Gerar.   אוַיִּסַּ֨ע מִשָּׁ֤ם אַבְרָהָם֙ אַ֣רְצָה הַנֶּ֔גֶב וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בֵּין־קָדֵ֖שׁ וּבֵ֣ין שׁ֑וּר וַיָּ֖גָר בִּגְרָֽר:
Abraham traveled from there: When he saw that the cities had been destroyed and that travelers had ceased to pass by, he migrated from there. Another explanation: To distance himself from Lot, who had acquired a bad reputation, because he had been intimate with his daughters. — [from Gen. Rabbah 52:3, 4]   וַיִּסַּע מִשָּׁם אַבְרָהָם: כְּשֶׁרָאָה שֶׁחָרְבוּ הַכְּרַכִּים וּפָסְקוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים, נָסַע לוֹ מִשָּׁם. דָּבָר אַחֵר לְהִתְרַחֵק מִלּוֹט, שֶׁיָּצָא עָלָיו שֵׁם רָע, שֶׁבָּא עַל בְּנוֹתָיו:
2And Abraham said about Sarah his wife, "She is my sister," and Abimelech the king of Gerar sent and took Sarah.   בוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶל־שָׂרָ֥ה אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח אֲבִימֶ֨לֶךְ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ גְּרָ֔ר וַיִּקַּ֖ח אֶת־שָׂרָֽה:
And Abraham said: Here he did not ask her permission, but [said that she was his sister] forcibly, against her will, because she had already been taken to Pharaoh’s house on account of this. — - [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם: כָּאן לֹא נָטַל רְשׁוּת אֶלָּא עַל כָּרְחָהּ שֶׁלֹּא בְטוֹבָתָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר לֻקְּחָה לְבֵית פַּרְעֹה עַל יְדֵי כֵן:
about Sarah his wife: [אֶל means] “about” Sarah his wife, and similarly (I Sam. 4:21): “concerning (אֶל) the taking of the Ark, and concerning (אֶל) [the death of] her father-in-law.” Both expressions (of אֶל) have the meaning of עַל: “concerning.” - [from Targum Onkelos, Targum Jonathan; Ibn Ezra]   אֶל־שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ: עַל שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ, כַּיוֹצֵא בוֹ אֶל הִלָּקַח אֲרוֹן וְגוֹ' וְאֶל מוֹת חָמִיהָ (שמואל א ד'), שְׁנֵיהֶם בִּלְשׁוֹן עַל:
3And God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night, and He said to him, "Behold you are going to die because of the woman whom you have taken, for she is a married woman."   גוַיָּבֹ֧א אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶל־אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ בַּֽחֲל֣וֹם הַלָּ֑יְלָה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ הִנְּךָ֥ מֵת֙ עַל־הָֽאִשָּׁ֣ה אֲשֶׁר־לָקַ֔חְתָּ וְהִ֖וא בְּעֻ֥לַת בָּֽעַל:
4And Abimelech had not come near to her, and he said, "O Lord, will You kill even a righteous nation?   דוַֽאֲבִימֶ֕לֶךְ לֹ֥א קָרַ֖ב אֵלֶ֑יהָ וַיֹּאמַ֕ר אֲדֹנָ֕י הֲג֥וֹי גַּם־צַדִּ֖יק תַּֽהֲרֹֽג:
And Abimelech had not come near to her: The angel stopped him, as it is said: “ I did not let you touch her.” - [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 26]   לֹא קָרַב אֵלֶיהָ: הַמַּלְאָךְ מְנָעוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לֹא נְתַתִּיךָ לִנְגֹּעַ אֵלֶיהָ:
will You kill even a righteous nation: Even if he is righteous, will You kill him? Is that Your way, to destroy the nations for nought? You did so to the Generation of the Flood and to the Generation of the Dispersion. I too will say that You destroyed them for no reason, just as You threaten (lit. say) to kill me. — [from Gen. Rabbah 52:6]   הֲגוֹי גַּם־צַדִּיק תַּֽהֲרֹֽג: אַף אִם הוּא צַדִּיק תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ, שֶׁמָּא כָךְ דַּרְכְּךָ לְאַבֵּד הָאֻמּוֹת חִנָּם? כָּךְ עָשִׂיתָ לְדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל וּלְדוֹר הַפַּלָּגָה, אַף אֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁהֲרַגְתָּם עַל לֹא דָבָר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר לְהָרְגֵנִי:
5Did he not say to me, 'She is my sister'? And she, even she said, 'He is my brother.' With the innocence of my heart and with the purity of my hands have I done this."   ההֲלֹ֨א ה֤וּא אָֽמַר־לִי֙ אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֔וא וְהִֽיא־גַם־הִ֥וא אָֽמְרָ֖ה אָחִ֣י ה֑וּא בְּתָם־לְבָבִ֛י וּבְנִקְיֹ֥ן כַּפַּ֖י עָשִׂ֥יתִי זֹֽאת:
even she: This is to include her servants, camel drivers, and donkey drivers.“ I asked them all, and they said: He is her brother.” -- [from Gen. Rabbah 52:6]   גַם־הוּא: לְרַבּוֹת עֲבַדִים וְגַמָּלִים וְחַמָּרִים שֶׁלָּהּ, אֶת כֻּלָּם שָׁאַלְתִּי וְאָמְרוּ לִי אָחִיהָ הוּא:
With the innocence of my heart: I did not intend to sin. —   בְּתָם־לְבָבִי: שֶׁלֹּא דִמִּיתִי לַחֲטֹא:
and with the purity of my hands: I am pure of sin, for I did not touch her. —   ובנקיון כַּפַּי: נָקִי אֲנִי מִן הַחֵטְא, שֶׁלֹּא נָגַעְתִּי בָהּ:
6And God said to him in a dream, "I too know that you did this with the innocence of your heart, and I too have withheld you from sinning to Me; therefore, I did not let you touch her.   ווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ אֵלָ֨יו הָֽאֱלֹהִ֜ים בַּֽחֲלֹ֗ם גַּ֣ם אָֽנֹכִ֤י יָדַ֨עְתִּי֙ כִּ֤י בְתָם־לְבָֽבְךָ֙ עָשִׂ֣יתָ זֹּ֔את וָֽאֶחְשׂ֧ךְ גַּם־אָֽנֹכִ֛י אֽוֹתְךָ֖ מֵֽחֲטוֹ־לִ֑י עַל־כֵּ֥ן לֹֽא־נְתַתִּ֖יךָ לִנְגֹּ֥עַ אֵלֶֽיהָ:
I know that, etc., with the innocence of your heart: It is true that you did not intend at first to sin, but you cannot claim purity of hands [because…]- [from Gen. Rabbah 52:6; Tan. Buber, Vayera 25]   יָדַעְתִּי כִּי בְתָם־לְבָֽבְךָ וגו': אֱמֶת שֶׁלֹּא דִמִּיתָ מִתְּחִלָּה לַחֲטֹא אֲבָל נִקְיוֹן כַּפַּיִם אֵין כָּאן:
I did not let you: It was not due to you that you did not touch her, but I prevented you from sinning, for I did not give you strength, and so (below 31:7): “and God did not let him (וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ);” and so (Jud. 15:1): “but her father did not allow him (וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ) to come.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 52:7]   לֹֽא־נְתַתִּיךָ: לֹא מִמְּךָ הָיָה שֶׁלֹּא נָגַעְתָּ בָהּ, אֶלָּא חָשַׂכְתִּי אֲנִי אוֹתְךָ מֵחֲטֹא וְלֹא נָתַתִּי לְךָ כֹּחַ, וְכֵן וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ אֱלֹהִים (בראשית ל״א:ז׳), וְכֵן וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ אָבִיהָ לָבוֹא (שופטים ט"ו):
7And now, return the man's wife, because he is a prophet, and he will pray for you and [you will] live; but if you do not return [her], know that you will surely die, you and all that is yours."   זוְעַתָּ֗ה הָשֵׁ֤ב אֵֽשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ֙ כִּֽי־נָבִ֣יא ה֔וּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּ֥ל בַּֽעַדְךָ֖ וֶֽחְיֵ֑ה וְאִם־אֵֽינְךָ֣ מֵשִׁ֔יב דַּ֚ע כִּי־מ֣וֹת תָּמ֔וּת אַתָּ֖ה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָֽךְ:
return the man’s wife: And do not think that perhaps she will be repugnant to him, and he will not accept her, or that he will hate you and not pray for you. (Abimelech said to Him,“ Who will let him know that I did not touch her?” He replied,)   הָשֵׁב אֵֽשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ: וְאַל תְּהֵא סָבוּר שֶׁמָּא תִּתְגַּנֶּה בְעֵינָיו וְלֹא יְקַבְּלֶנָּה אוֹ יִשְׂנָאֲךָ וְלֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עָלֶיךָ:
because he is a prophet: And he knows that you did not touch her; therefore,“ he will pray for you.” - [from Tan. Buber, Vayera 25]   כִּֽי־נָבִיא הוּא: וְיוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא נָגַעְתָּ בָהּ, לְפִיכָךְ ויתפלל בעדך (בבא קמא צ"ב):
8And Abimelech arose early in the morning, and he summoned all his servants, and he spoke all these words in their ears; and the men were very frightened.   חוַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיִּקְרָא֙ לְכָל־עֲבָדָ֔יו וַיְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה בְּאָזְנֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּֽירְא֥וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים מְאֹֽד:
9And Abimelech summoned Abraham and said to him, "What have you done to us, and what have I sinned against you, that you have brought upon me and upon my kingdom a great sin? Deeds that are not done, you have done to me."   טוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ לְאַבְרָהָ֗ם וַיֹּ֨אמֶר ל֜וֹ מֶה־עָשִׂ֤יתָ לָּ֨נוּ֙ וּמֶה־חָטָ֣אתִי לָ֔ךְ כִּֽי־הֵבֵ֧אתָ עָלַ֛י וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתִּ֖י חֲטָאָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֑ה מַֽעֲשִׂים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־יֵֽעָשׂ֔וּ עָשִׂ֖יתָ עִמָּדִֽי:
Deeds that are not done: A plague that was not accustomed to come upon any creature has come upon us because of you: the closing up of all bodily orifices: those of semen, of urine, of excrement, and of the ears and nose. — [based on B.K. 93a; Tan. Buber, Vayera 36]   מַֽעֲשִׂים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵֽעָשׂוּ: מַכָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא הֻרְגְּלָה לָבֹא עַל בְּרִיָה בָּאָה לָנוּ עַל יָדְךָ, עֲצִירַת כָּל נְקָבִים שֶׁל זֶרַע וְשֶׁל קְטַנִּים וּרְעִי וְאָזְנַיִם וְחֹטֶם:
10And Abimelech said to Abraham, "What did you see, that you did this thing?"   יוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֑ם מָ֣ה רָאִ֔יתָ כִּ֥י עָשִׂ֖יתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
11And Abraham said, "For I said, 'Surely, there is no fear of God in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.   יאוַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אַבְרָהָ֔ם כִּ֣י אָמַ֗רְתִּי רַ֚ק אֵֽין־יִרְאַ֣ת אֱלֹהִ֔ים בַּמָּק֖וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וַֽהֲרָג֖וּנִי עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אִשְׁתִּֽי:
Surely, there is no fear of God: A guest who comes to a city-do we ask him about eating and drinking, or do we ask him about his wife-“ Is she your wife or is she your sister?” - [from B.K. 93a, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 26]   רַק אֵֽין־יִרְאַת אֱלֹהִים: אַכְסְנַאי שֶׁבָּא לָעִיר, עַל עִסְקֵי אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה שׁוֹאֲלִין אוֹתוֹ אוֹ עַל עִסְקֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ שׁוֹאֲלִין אוֹתוֹ? אִשְׁתְּךָ הִיא אוֹ אֲחוֹתְךָ הִיא? (בבא קמא שם):
12And also, indeed, she is my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother, and she became my wife.   יבוְגַם־אָמְנָ֗ה אֲחֹתִ֤י בַת־אָבִי֙ הִ֔וא אַ֖ךְ לֹ֣א בַת־אִמִּ֑י וַתְּהִי־לִ֖י לְאִשָּֽׁה:
my sister, the daughter of my father: And the daughter of one’s father is permitted to a Noahide [for marriage], for a gentile has no father (i.e., his lineage is not traced from his father). And in order to justify his words, he answered him in this way. Now if you ask: Was she not the daughter of his brother? [The answer is that] grandchildren are considered like children (Tosefta, Yev. 8:8; Talmud Bavli, Yev. 62b); therefore, she was (considered as) Terah’s daughter. And so did he say to Lot, “For we are kinsmen” (אֲנָשִׁים אַחִים) [lit. men, brothers] (although, in fact, Lot was his brother Haran’s son). - [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 36]   אֲחֹתִי בַת־אָבִי הִוא: וּבַת אָב מֻתֶּרֶת לְבֶן נֹחַ, שֶׁאֵין אַבְהוּת לְגוֹי, וּכְדֵי לְאַמֵּת דְּבָרָיו הֱשִׁיבָם כֵּן. וְאִם תֹּאמַר וַהֲלֹא בַּת אָחִיו הָיְתָה? בְּנֵי בָנִים הֲרֵי הֵן כְּבָנִים, וַהֲרֵי הִיא בִתּוֹ שֶׁל תֶּרַח וְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר לְלוֹט כִּי אֲנָשִׁים אַחִים אֲנָחְנוּ (בראשית י״ג:ח׳):
but not the daughter of my mother: Haran was [born] of a different mother [than Abraham]. —   אַךְ לֹא בַת־אִמִּי: הָרָן מֵאֵם אֲחֶרֶת הָיָה:
13And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said to her: This is your kindness, which you shall do with me: whither we come, say about me, 'He is my brother.'"   יגוַיְהִ֞י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֧ר הִתְע֣וּ אֹתִ֗י אֱלֹהִים֘ מִבֵּ֣ית אָבִי֒ וָֽאֹמַ֣ר לָ֔הּ זֶ֣ה חַסְדֵּ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשִׂ֖י עִמָּדִ֑י אֶ֤ל כָּל־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָב֣וֹא שָׁ֔מָּה אִמְרִי־לִ֖י אָחִ֥י הֽוּא:
And it came to pass, when [God] caused me to wander, etc.: Onkelos rendered as he rendered: [And it came to pass, when the peoples went astray after the work of their hands, that God brought me near to His fear from my father’s house.] However, it can also be interpreted in a more appropriate manner, according to its structure [as follows]: When the Holy One, blessed be He, took me out of my father’s house to be a wanderer, roaming from place to place, I knew that I would pass through places where there are wicked people, and [therefore] “I said to her: This is your kindness, etc.”   וַיְהִי כַּֽאֲשֶׁר הִתְעוּ וגו': אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם מַה שֶּׁתִּרְגֵּם; וְיֵשׁ לְיַשְּׁבוֹ עוֹד דָּבָר דָּבוּר עַל אָפְנָיו, כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיאַנִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִבֵּית אָבִי לִהְיוֹת מְשׁוֹטֵט וְנָד מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, יָדַעְתִּי שֶׁאֶעֱבֹר בִּמְקוֹם רְשָׁעִים ואמר לה זה חסדך:
When God caused me to wander: [The verb הִתְעוּ is] in the plural. But do not wonder at this, because in many places, words denoting Godliness and words denoting authority are expressed in the plural, (e.g.,) (II Sam. 7:23): “whom God went (הָלְכוּ) (to redeem)”; (Deut. 5:23): “the living (חַיִּים) God”; (Josh. 24:19): “a holy (קְדֹשִים) God.” And all references to Godliness or to authority are in the plural, as for example (below 39:20): “And Joseph’s master (אֲדוֹנֵי) took”; (Deut. 10:17): “the Lord of (אֲדוֹנֵי) lords”; (below 42:33): “the lord of (אֲדוֹנֵי) the land,” and so (Exod. 22:14): “if its master (בְּעָלָיו) is with it”; (ibid 21:29): “and if its master was warned (בִּבְעָלָיו).” Now if you ask, why is the expression הִתְעוּ used here? [The answer is that] anyone who is exiled from his place and is not settled is תּוֹעֶה, as in (below 21:14): “and she walked and she wandered” (וַתֵּתַע); (Ps. 119:176): “I wandered (תָּעִיתִי) like a lost sheep”; (Job 38:41): “they wander (יִתְעוּ) for lack of food,” meaning that they go forth and wander to seek their food.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר הִתְעוּ: לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ, כִּי הַרְבֵּה מְקוֹמוֹת לְשׁוֹן אֱלֹהוּת וּלְשׁוֹן מָרוּת קָרוּי בִּלְשׁוֹן רַבִּים, אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אֱלֹהִים (שמואל ב ז'), אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים (דברים ה'), אֱלֹהִים קְדֹשִׁים (יהושע כ"ד), וְכָל לְשׁוֹן אַדְנוּת לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים; וְכֵן וַיִּקַּח אֲדֹנֵי יוֹסֵף (בראשית ל"ט), וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים (דברים י'), אֲדֹנֵי הָאָרֶץ (בראשית מ"ב), וְכֵן בְּעָלָיו עִמּוֹ (שמות כ"ב), וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו (שם כ"א). וְאִם תֹּאמַר מַהוּ לְשׁוֹן הִתְעוּ? כָּל הַגּוֹלֶה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְיֻשָּׁב קָרוּי תּוֹעֶה, כְּמוֹ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתֵּתַע (בראשית כ"א), תָּעִיתִי כְּשֶׂה אֹבֵד (תהילים קי"ט), יִתְעוּ לִבְלִי אֹכֶל (איוב ל"ח) – יֵצְאוּ וְיִתְעוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אָכְלָם:
say about me: [The meaning of לִי is] “about me.” Similarly (below 26:7): “And the people of the place asked לְאִשְׁתּוֹ,” meaning “about his wife.” Similarly (Exod. 14:3): “And Pharaoh will say לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל,” meaning “about the Children of Israel”; (Jud. 9:54): “Lest they say of me (לִי): a woman killed him.”   אִמְרִי־לִי: עָלַי, וְכֵן וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם לְאִשְׁתּוֹ (בראשית כ"ו), עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְכֵן וְאָמַר פַּרְעֹה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (שמות י"ד), כְּמוֹ עַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל; פֶּן יֹאמְרוּ לִי אִשָּׁה הֲרָגָתְהוּ (שופטים ט'):
14And Abimelech took flocks and cattle and menservants and maidservants, and he gave [them] to Abraham, and he restored to him his wife Sarah.   ידוַיִּקַּ֨ח אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ צֹ֣אן וּבָקָ֗ר וַֽעֲבָדִים֙ וּשְׁפָחֹ֔ת וַיִּתֵּ֖ן לְאַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיָּ֣שֶׁב ל֔וֹ אֵ֖ת שָׂרָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ:
and he gave [them] to Abraham: in order to appease him so that he would pray for him.   וַיִּתֵּן לְאַבְרָהָם: כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְפַּיֵּס וְיִתְפַּלֵּל עָלָיו:
15And Abimelech said, "Here is my land before you; wherever it pleases you, you may dwell."   טווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ הִנֵּ֥ה אַרְצִ֖י לְפָנֶ֑יךָ בַּטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ שֵֽׁב:
Here is my land before you: But Pharaoh said to him (above 12:19): “And now, here is your wife; take [her] and go,” because he was afraid, because the Egyptians were immersed in lewdness.   הִנֵּה אַרְצִי לְפָנֶיךָ: אֲבָל פַּרְעֹה אָמַר לוֹ הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ, לְפִי שֶׁנִּתְיָרֵא, שֶׁהַמִּצְרִיִּים שְׁטוּפֵי זִמָּה:
16And to Sarah he said, "Behold I have given a thousand pieces of silver to your brother; behold it is to you a covering of the eyes for all who are with you, and with all you shall contend."   טזוּלְשָׂרָ֣ה אָמַ֗ר הִנֵּ֨ה נָתַ֜תִּי אֶ֤לֶף כֶּ֨סֶף֙ לְאָחִ֔יךְ הִנֵּ֤ה הוּא־לָךְ֙ כְּס֣וּת עֵינַ֔יִם לְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתָּ֑ךְ וְאֵ֥ת כֹּ֖ל וְנֹכָֽחַת:
And to Sarah he said: Abimelech [said] in her honor in order to appease her, “Behold I have bestowed upon you this honor; I have given money to your brother, about whom you said, He is my brother. Behold this money and this honor are to you a covering of the eyes.”   וּלְשָׂרָה אָמַר: אֲבִימֶלֶךְ לִכְבוֹדָהּ כְּדֵי לְפַיְּסָהּ, הִנֵּה עָשִׂיתִי לָךְ כָּבוֹד זֶה, נָתַתִּי מָמוֹן לְאָחִיךְ שֶׁאָמַרְתְּ עָלָיו אָחִי הוּא, הִנֵּה הַמָּמוֹן וְהַכָּבוֹד הַזֶּה לך כסות עינים:
for all who are with you: They will cover their eyes, so that they will not denigrate you, for had I returned you empty-handed, they could say, “After he violated her, he returned her.” Now that I had to spend much money and to appease you, they will know that against my will I returned you, and through a miracle. —   לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אִתָּךְ: יְכַסּוּ עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא יְקִלּוּךְ, שֶׁאִלּוּ הֲשִׁיבוֹתִיךְ רֵיקָנִית, יֵשׁ לָהֶם לוֹמַר לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְעַלַּל בָּהּ הֶחֱזִירָהּ; עַכְשָׁו שֶׁהֻצְרַכְתִּי לְבַזְבֵּז מָמוֹן וּלְפַיְּסֵךְ, יוֹדְעִים יִהְיוּ שֶׁעַל כָּרְחִי הֲשִׁיבוֹתִיךְ וְעַל יְדֵי נֵס:
and with all: And with all the people in the world. —   וְאֵת כֹּל: וְעִם כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם:
you shall contend: You shall have the opportunity to contend and to show these evident facts. Wherever the word הוֹכָחָה appears, it refers to the clarification of matters, and in Old French, esprover, to prove, clarify. (That is aprover below 31:37, to clarify, decide, define.) Onkelos translated it in a different manner, and the language of the verse fits in with the Targum in the following manner: “Behold it will be for you a covering of honor on account of my eyes, which gazed upon you and upon all who are with you.” Therefore, he translated it:“And I saw you and all who are with you.” There is a Midrashic interpretation, but I have explained what fits the language of the verse.   וְנֹכָֽחַת: יְהִי לָךְ פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לְהִתְוַכֵּחַ וּלְהַרְאוֹת דְבָרִים נִכָּרִים הַלָּלוּ; וּלְשׁוֹן הוֹכָחָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם בֵּרוּר דְּבָרִים ובלע"ז אשפרו"ביר, וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם בְּפָנִים אֲחֵרִים, וּלְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא כָּךְ הוּא נוֹפֵל עַל הַתַּרְגּוּם, הִנֵּה לָךְ כְּסוּת שֶׁל כָּבוֹד עַל הָעֵינַיִם שֶׁלִּי שֶׁשָּׁלְטוּ בָּךְ וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אִתָּךְ, וְעַל כֵּן תִּרְגְּמוֹ וַחֲזֵית יָתִיךְ וְיַת כָּל דְּעִמָּךְ. וְיֵשׁ מִקְרָא אַחֵר אֲבָל יִשּׁוּב לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא פֵּרַשְׁתִּי:
17And Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech and his wife and his handmaids, and they gave birth.   יזוַיִּתְפַּלֵּ֥ל אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיִּרְפָּ֨א אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֧לֶךְ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּ֛וֹ וְאַמְהֹתָ֖יו וַיֵּלֵֽדוּ:
and they gave birth: As the Targum renders: and they were relieved. Their orifices were opened, and they expelled that which needed to be expelled, and that is their birth.   וַיֵּלֵֽדוּ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְאִתְרְוָחוּ, נִפְתְּחוּ נִקְבֵיהֶם וְהוֹצִיאוּ, וְהִיא לֵדָה שֶׁלָּהֶם:
18For the Lord had shut every womb of Abimelech's household, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife.   יחכִּֽי־עָצֹ֤ר עָצַר֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּעַ֥ד כָּל־רֶ֖חֶם לְבֵ֣ית אֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ עַל־דְּבַ֥ר שָׂרָ֖ה אֵ֥שֶׁת אַבְרָהָֽם:
every womb: Every [bodily] opening.   בְּעַד כָּל־רֶחֶם: כְּנֶגֶד כָּל פֶּתַח:
because of Sarah: Heb. עַל דְּבַר, lit., by the word of Sarah. Through the words of Sarah. — [from Gen. Rabbah 52:13]   עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרָה: עַל פִּי דִּבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 21

1And the Lord remembered Sarah as He had said, and the Lord did to Sarah as He had spoken.   אוַֽיהֹוָ֛ה פָּקַ֥ד אֶת־שָׂרָ֖ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמָ֑ר וַיַּ֧עַשׂ יְהֹוָ֛ה לְשָׂרָ֖ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽר:
And the Lord remembered Sarah, etc.: (B.K 92a) This section was placed next to [the preceding section] to teach you that whoever begs for mercy for his friend, when he needs the same thing, he is answered first, for it is said (verse 17) “And Abraham prayed, etc.,” and immediately following it, “And the Lord remembered Sarah,” i.e., He had already remembered her before He healed Abimelech. —   וה' פָּקַד אֶת־שָׂרָה וגו': סָמַך פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ לְלַמֶּדְךָ, שֶׁכָּל הַמְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל חֲבֵרוֹ וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לְאוֹתוֹ דָבָר, הוּא נַעֲנֶה תְחִלָּה (בבא קמא צ"ב), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל וְגוֹ', וּסְמִיךְ לֵיהּ וה' פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה, שֶׁפְּקָדָהּ כְּבָר קֹדֶם שֶׁרִפֵּא אֶת אֲבִימֶלֶךְ:
remembered Sarah as He had said: Concerning [the promise of] conception. —   פָּקַד אֶת־שָׂרָה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר אָמָר: בְּהֵרָיוֹן:
as He had spoken: Concerning [the promise of] birth. Now where is [the expression] “saying” and where is [the expression] “speaking” ? “Saying” (אִמִירה) is mentioned (above 17:19): “And God said (וַיֹאמֶר): Indeed, your wife Sarah, etc…” “Speaking” (דִבוּר) [is mentioned] (above 15:1): “The word of (דְבַר) the Lord came to Abram,” in the Covenant Between the Parts, where it is stated (ibid. 4): “This one [Eliezer] will not inherit you, etc.” and He brought forth the heir from Sarah.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּֽר: בְּלֵדָה. וְהֵיכָן הִיא אֲמִירָה, וְהֵיכָן הוּא דִּבּוּר? אֲמִירָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֲבָל שָׂרָה אִשְׁתְּךָ וְגוֹ '(בראשית י"ז), דִּבּוּר הָיָה דְבַר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם בִּבְרִית בֵּין הַבְּתָרִים, וְשָׁם נֶאֱמַר לֹא יִירָשְׁךָ זֶה וְגוֹ' (שם ט"ו), וְהֵבִיא הַיּוֹרֵשׁ מִשָּׂרָה:
and the Lord did to Sarah as He had spoken: to Abraham.   וַיַּעַשׂ ה' לְשָׂרָה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּֽר: לְאַבְרָהָם:
2And Sarah conceived and bore a son to Abraham in his old age, at the time of which God had spoken to him.   בוַתַּ֩הַר֩ וַתֵּ֨לֶד שָׂרָ֧ה לְאַבְרָהָ֛ם בֵּ֖ן לִזְקֻנָ֑יו לַמּוֹעֵ֕ד אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אֹת֖וֹ אֱלֹהִֽים:
at the time of which [He] had spoken: Rabbi Yudan and Rabbi Chama dispute. Rabbi Yudan says: This teaches us that he was born after nine months, so that it should not be said that he was [conceived] in Abimelech’s household, and Rabbi Chama says: After seven months. — [from Gen. Rabbah 53:6]   למועד אשר דבר אתו: רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי חָמָא. רַבִּי יוּדָן אוֹמֵר: מְלַמֵד שֶׁנוֹלַד לְט' חָדָשִׁים, שֶׁלֹא יֹאמְרוּ: מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אַבִימֶלֶךְ הוּא, רַבִּי חָמָא אוֹמֵר: לְז' חָדָשִׁים:
at the time of which God had spoken: Heb. אֹתוֹ. [Onkelos and Jonathan render:] דְמַלֵיל יָתֵי, i.e., the time that He had spoken and fixed, when he [the angel] said to him (18:14): “At the appointed time, I will return to you.” He made a scratch on the wall, and said to him,“ When the sun reaches this scratch next year, she will give birth.” - [from Tan. Buber, Vayera 36]   לַמּוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֹתוֹ: דִּי מַלִּיל יָתֵהּ, אֶת הַמּוֹעֵד דִּבֵּר וְקָבַע כְּשֶׁאָמַר לוֹ לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ (שם י"ח), שָׂרַט לוֹ שְׂרִיטָה בַּכֹּתֶל, אָמַר לוֹ כְּשֶׁתַּגִּיעַ חַמָּה לִשְׂרִיטָה זוֹ בַּשָּׁנָה הָאַחֶרֶת, תֵּלֵד:
in his old age: לִזְקֻנָיו means that his [Isaac’s] facial features were like his. — [from Gen. Rabbah 53:6]   לזקוניו: שהיה זיו אקונין שלו דומה לו:
3And Abraham named his son who had been born to him, whom Sarah had borne to him, Isaac.   גוַיִּקְרָ֨א אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־שֶׁם־בְּנ֧וֹ הַנּֽוֹלַד־ל֛וֹ אֲשֶׁר־יָֽלְדָה־לּ֥וֹ שָׂרָ֖ה יִצְחָֽק:
4And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.   דוַיָּ֤מָל אַבְרָהָם֙ אֶת־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֔וֹ בֶּן־שְׁמֹנַ֖ת יָמִ֑ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה אֹת֖וֹ אֱלֹהִֽים: