Leviticus Chapter 25

39And if your brother becomes destitute with you, and is sold to you, do not work him with slave labor.   לטוְכִֽי־יָמ֥וּךְ אָחִ֛יךָ עִמָּ֖ךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָ֑ךְ לֹא־תַֽעֲבֹ֥ד בּ֖וֹ עֲבֹ֥דַת עָֽבֶד:
slave labor: Degrading work, through which he is made to look like a slave (עֶבֶד), e.g., he must not carry his clothes after him to the bathhouse, or put on his shoes for him. — [Torath Kohanim 25:80]   עבדת עבד: עבודה של גנאי, שיהא ניכר בה כעבד, שלא יוליך כליו אחריו לבית המרחץ ולא ינעול לו מנעליו:
40As an employee or a [hired] resident, he shall be with you; until the Jubilee year he shall work with you.   מכְּשָׂכִ֥יר כְּתוֹשָׁ֖ב יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֑ךְ עַד־שְׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַֽעֲבֹ֥ד עִמָּֽךְ:
As an employee or a [hired] resident: [Give him dignified jobs, e.g.,] work in agriculture and craftsmanship; treat him like other employees.   כשכיר כתושב: עבודת קרקע ומלאכת אומנות כשאר שכירים התנהג בו:
until the Jubilee year: i.e., if the Jubilee year occurs before the six years [of his servitude have elapsed (see Exod. 21:2)], the Jubilee [immediately] takes him out [of servitude].   עד שנת היבל: אם פגע בו יובל לפני שש שנים, היובל מוציאו:
41Then, he shall leave you he, and his children with him, and he shall return to his family and resume the status of his fathers.   מאוְיָצָא֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ ה֖וּא וּבָנָ֣יו עִמּ֑וֹ וְשָׁב֙ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּ֔וֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּ֥ת אֲבֹתָ֖יו יָשֽׁוּב:
he, and his children with him: Says Rabbi Simeon: If he was sold, who sold his children [that Scripture states that his children go free with him]? However, from here, [we learn] that his master is obligated to provide food for his children [and, in this sense, they are released with their father]. — [Kid. 22a]   הוא ובניו עמו: אמר רבי שמעון אם הוא נמכר בניו מי מכרן, אלא מכאן שרבו חייב במזונות בניו:
the status of his fathers: To his fathers’ [former] honor, and he must not be degraded for it [i.e., for having been a servant]. - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there] [Thus,] אֲחֻזַּת - [means here:] “The status of.” - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there]   ואל אחזת אבתיו: אל כבוד אבותיו, ואין לזלזלו בכך:
42For they are My servants, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt they shall not be sold as a slave is sold.   מבכִּֽי־עֲבָדַ֣י הֵ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לֹ֥א יִמָּֽכְר֖וּ מִמְכֶּ֥רֶת עָֽבֶד:
For they are My servants: My contract came first. - [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   כי עבדי הם: שטרי קודם:
They shall not be sold in the way a slave is sold: namely, by public announcement, saying: “Here is a slave for sale!” Neither may they stand him up on an auctioning block [for public sale]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   לא ימכרו ממכרת עבד: בהכרזה כאן יש עבד למכור, ולא יעמידנו על אבן הלקח:
43You shall not work him with rigor, and you shall fear your God.   מגלֹֽא־תִרְדֶּ֥ה ב֖וֹ בְּפָ֑רֶךְ וְיָרֵ֖אתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
You shall not enslave him through rigor: Unnecessary jobs, for the purpose of tormenting him. E.g., do not say to him: “Warm up this drink for me,” when you do not need it; or “Hoe under this vine until I come back” [and you may never come back there (Sifthei Chachamim on verse 53)]. Perhaps you will say, “No one really knows whether it is necessary or not, and I say that it is necessary!” This matter is held [secretly] in a man’s heart [for no one knows his true intentions]. Therefore, Scripture states, “and you shall fear [your God” for He is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [Torath Kohanim 25: 86]   לא תרדה בו בפרך: מלאכה שלא לצורך, כדי לענותו. אל תאמר לו החם לי את הכוס הזה, והוא אינו צריך, עדור תחת הגפן עד שאבוא. שמא תאמר אין מכיר בדבר אם לצורך אם לאו, ואומר אני לו שהוא לצורך, הרי הדבר הזה מסור ללב, לכך נאמר ויראת:
44Your male slave or female slave whom you may have from the nations that are around you, from them you may acquire a male slave or a female slave.   מדוְעַבְדְּךָ֥ וַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽהְיוּ־לָ֑ךְ מֵאֵ֣ת הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם מֵהֶ֥ם תִּקְנ֖וּ עֶ֥בֶד וְאָמָֽה:
Your male slave or female slave that you have: If you say, “If so [that I may give my Jewish servant only skilled labor to do,] by whom shall I be served? Over my [Jewish] servants I do not have real power [as I must treat them like hired employees (see verse 40 above)]. Of the seven nations I am not allowed to possess [a slave], for You have warned me, ‘you shall not allow any soul to live’ (Deut. 20:16), So who will serve me [as a slave]?” [To this, God answers:]   ועבדך ואמתך אשר יהיו לך: אם תאמר אם כן במה אשתמש. בעבדי איני מושל, באומות איני נוחל, שהרי הזהרתני (דברים כ טז) לא תחיה כל נשמה, אלא מי ישמשני:
from the nations: They will be slaves for you.   מאת הגוים: הם יהיו לך לעבדים:
that are around you: But not from those [seven Canaanite nations] that are within the borders of your land, for indeed, regarding them, I said, “you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16).   אשר סביבתיכם: ולא שבתוך גבול ארצכם, שהרי בהם אמרתי לא תחיה כל נשמה:
45And also from the children of the residents that live among you, from them you may acquire [slaves] and from their family that is with you whom they begot in your land, and they shall become your inheritance.   מהוְ֠גַ֠ם מִבְּנֵ֨י הַתּֽוֹשָׁבִ֜ים הַגָּרִ֤ים עִמָּכֶם֙ מֵהֶ֣ם תִּקְנ֔וּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמָּכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוֹלִ֖ידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶ֑ם וְהָי֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם לַֽאֲחֻזָּֽה:
And also from the children of the residents: who came from surrounding lands to marry women in your land, who subsequently bore children to them. [In these cases,] the [lineage of the] child follows the father and thus, does not fall under [the commandment of], “ you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16). But, you are permitted to acquire him as a slave. — [Kid. 67b]   וגם מבני התושבים: שבאו מסביבותיכם לישא נשים בארצכם וילדו להם, הבן הולך אחר האב, ואינו בכלל לא תחיה, אלא אתה מותר לקנותו כעבד:
from them you may acquire: [This might mean that we may acquire slaves by buying from their slaves. However, the true meaning is:] You may acquire them [i.e., the residents’ children, as slaves]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 25:87]   מהם תקנו: אותם תקנו:
46You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you, as acquired property, and may thus have them serve you forever. But as for your brethren, the children of Israel, a man shall not work his brother with rigor.   מווְהִתְנַֽחַלְתֶּ֨ם אֹתָ֜ם לִבְנֵיכֶ֤ם אַֽחֲרֵיכֶם֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֲחֻזָּ֔ה לְעֹלָ֖ם בָּהֶ֣ם תַּֽעֲבֹ֑דוּ וּבְאַ֨חֵיכֶ֤ם בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אִ֣ישׁ בְּאָחִ֔יו לֹֽא־תִרְדֶּ֥ה ב֖וֹ בְּפָֽרֶךְ:
You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children: You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you.“ But it would be incorrect to explain וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם as ”Bequeath them to your children“ [interpreting וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם as a causative,] for if so, then Scripture would have had to write וְהִנְחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם [Instead, Scripture writes:] וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם - [with the verb in the reflexive conjugation,] just like [the word] וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם [and similarly, just as וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם (in Num. 13:20) is an intransitive verb, so too, here, our verb וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם must be considered not to be causative but rather, reflexive (see preceding Rashi) and means ”You should keep them as an inheritance"]. — [Sefer Hazikkaron]   והתנחלתם אתם לבניכם: החזיקו בהם לנחלה לצורך בניכם אחריכם. ולא יתכן לפרש הנחילום לבניכם, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב והנחלתם אותם לבניכם. והתנחלתם כמו והתחזקתם:
[But as for… children of Israel,] a man [shall not work] his brother [with rigor]: [But has this prohibition regarding a Jewish servant not already been stated in verse 43 above?- [Mizrachi] It is repeated here,] to include [in the prohibition] a leader over his people and a king over his attendants, i.e., that these [rulers] must not work with rigor. — see Be’er Basadeh]   איש באחיו: להביא נשיא בעמיו ומלך במשרתיו שלא לרדות בפרך:
47If a resident non Jew gains wealth with you, and your brother becomes destitute with him and is sold to a resident non Jew among you or to an idol of the family of a non Jew.   מזוְכִ֣י תַשִּׂ֗יג יַ֣ד גֵּ֤ר וְתוֹשָׁב֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ וּמָ֥ךְ אָחִ֖יךָ עִמּ֑וֹ וְנִמְכַּ֗ר לְגֵ֤ר תּוֹשָׁב֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ א֥וֹ לְעֵ֖קֶר מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת גֵּֽר:
a resident non-Jew: Heb. גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב. A stranger (גֵּר) who is a resident (תּוֹשָׁב),“ [stranger here meaning non-Jew,] just as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עֲרַל תּוֹתָב, an uncircumcised resident. And the end [of the verse] proves [that it is one person, when it continues:] וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב [without a "vav"].   יד גר ותושב: גר והוא תושב, כתרגומו ערל תותב, וסופו מוכיח ונמכר לגר תושב:
If a resident non-Jew gains wealth with you: What caused him to become wealthy? His connection with you. [He gained wealth through the blessing of the Jewish people]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   וכי תשיג יד גר ותושב עמך: מי גרם לו שיעשיר, דבוקו עמך:
and your brother becomes destitute with him: What caused his destitution? His connection with him, because he learned from his deeds. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   ומך אחיך עמו: מי גרם לו שימוך, דבוקו עמו, על ידי שלמד ממעשיו:
the family of a non-Jew: [Without the word לְעֵקֶר,] this [expression] means [the Jew is sold to] an idolater; but when Scripture says לְעֵקֶר [literally “to uproot,” making it לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר], it refers to [a Jew] who is sold to the idol itself [לְעֵקֶר meaning “that which is to be uprooted”] - i.e., he becomes an attendant to it. He does not worship it as a deity, but to chop wood and draw water. — [Torath Kohanim 25:94]   משפחת גר: זהו הגוי. כשהוא אומר לעקר זה הנמכר לעבודה זרה עצמה להיות לה שמש, ולא לאלהות, אלא לחטוב עצים ולשאוב מים:
48After he is sold, he shall have redemption; one of his brothers shall redeem him.   מחאַֽחֲרֵ֣י נִמְכַּ֔ר גְּאֻלָּ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֑וֹ אֶחָ֥ד מֵֽאֶחָ֖יו יִגְאָלֶֽנּוּ:
he shall have redemption: immediately. Do not allow him to become assimilated [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:95] until the Jubilee year. For the purchaser’s sole purpose here was to acquire this man so that he would serve him until the Jubilee, for [the servant] goes free in the Jubilee, as is stated below, “[And if he has not been redeemed…] he shall go out in the Jubilee year” (verse 54). [Obviously], Scripture is speaking of a non-Jew who is under the jurisdiction of Israel [and therefore obeys the law to free his slave in the Jubilee year]. Nevertheless, you shall not cheat him, because [this may cause] a desecration of God’s Name, but, when [the servant] is to be redeemed, he must be meticulous in his calculation, according to what is due for each year, and the non-Jew should then deduct this amount from his price. If there were twenty years since he was sold, until the Jubilee, and he had purchased him for twenty manehs -it turns out that the non-Jew had purchased each year’s work for a maneh . Now, if this [Jewish servant] had already spent five years with him, and he comes to be redeemed, he [the non-Jew] must deduct five manehs, and the servant must give him fifteen manehs. This, then, is the meaning of: “then, the purchase price shall be divided by the number of years” [in order to determine the annual hiring rate, as above]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:103; B.K. 113b]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד, אל תניחהו שיטמע עד שנת היובל, שהרי כל עצמו לא קנאו אלא לעובדו עד היובל, שהרי ביובל יצא, כמו שנאמר למטה (פסוק נד) ויצא בשנת היובל. ובגוי שתחת ידך הכתוב מדבר ואף על פי כן לא תבא עליו בעקיפין, מפני חלול השם, אלא כשבא ליגאל ידקדק בחשבון לפי המגיע בכל שנה ושנה ינכה לו הגוי מן דמיו, אם היו עשרים שנה משנמכר עד היובל וקנאו בעשרים מנה, נמצא שקנה הגוי עבודת שנה במנה, ואם שהה זה אצלו חמש שנים ובא ליגאל, ינכה לו חמשה מנים ויתן לו העבד ט"ו מנים, וזהו והיה כסף ממכרו במספר שנים:
49Or his uncle or his cousin shall redeem him, or the closest [other] relative from his family shall redeem him; or, if he becomes able to afford it, he can be redeemed [on his own].   מטאֽוֹ־דֹד֞וֹ א֤וֹ בֶן־דֹּדוֹ֙ יִגְאָלֶ֔נּוּ אֽוֹ־מִשְּׁאֵ֧ר בְּשָׂר֛וֹ מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ יִגְאָלֶ֑נּוּ אֽוֹ־הִשִּׂ֥יגָה יָד֖וֹ וְנִגְאָֽל:
50He shall calculate with his purchaser [the number of years] from the year of his being sold to him until the Jubilee year; then, the purchase price shall be [divided] by the number of years; as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him.   נוְחִשַּׁב֙ עִם־קֹנֵ֔הוּ מִשְּׁנַת֙ הִמָּ֣כְרוֹ ל֔וֹ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְהָיָ֞ה כֶּ֤סֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ֙ בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שָׁנִ֔ים כִּימֵ֥י שָׂכִ֖יר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמּֽוֹ:
as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him: He shall calculate the amount [of money] resulting for each year, “as if he had been employed by him for a maneh annually,” and he [the non-Jew] should then deduct it for him, [as explained in the preceding Rashi].   כימי שכיר יהיה עמו: חשבון המגיע לכל שנה ושנה יחשב כאלו נשכר עמו כל שנה במנה וינכה לו:
51If there are still many years, according to them, he shall return his redemption [money] out of the money for which he was purchased.   נאאִם־ע֥וֹד רַבּ֖וֹת בַּשָּׁנִ֑ים לְפִיהֶן֙ יָשִׁ֣יב גְּאֻלָּת֔וֹ מִכֶּ֖סֶף מִקְנָתֽוֹ:
If there are still many years: until the Jubilee.   אם עוד רבות בשנים: עד היובל:
according to them: Everything as I have explained.   לפיהן: הכל כמו שפירשתי:
52But if only a few years remain until the Jubilee year, he shall make the [same] calculation; according to his years [that remain until Jubilee], he shall return the redemption [money]._   נבוְאִם־מְעַ֞ט נִשְׁאַ֧ר בַּשָּׁנִ֛ים עַד־שְׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל וְחִשַּׁב־ל֑וֹ כְּפִ֣י שָׁנָ֔יו יָשִׁ֖יב אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
53He shall be with him as an employee hired year by year; he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight.   נגכִּשְׂכִ֥יר שָׁנָ֛ה בְּשָׁנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמּ֑וֹ לֹֽא־יִרְדֶּ֥נּוּ בְּפֶ֖רֶךְ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ:
he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight: That is to say, while you see this [i.e., a Jew must not see a non-Jew forcing this type of labor upon his Jewish servant without doing anything, but this is not a warning to the non-Jew (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:101]   לא ירדנו בפרך לעיניך: כלומר ואתה רואה:
54And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways], he shall go out in the Jubilee year he and his children with him.   נדוְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל בְּאֵ֑לֶּה וְיָצָא֙ בִּשְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֔ל ה֖וּא וּבָנָ֥יו עִמּֽוֹ:
And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways]: This [Jewish servant of a non-Jew] may be redeemed [only] through “these ways” [described in the verses here], but he may not be redeemed [i.e., released] through six [years]. — [see Exod. 21:2; Kid. 15b]   ואם לא יגאל באלה: באלה הוא נגאל, ואינו נגאל בשש:
he, and his children with him: [But are his children also sold, that Scripture finds it necessary to state here that his children go free together with him? However, we learn from here that just like a Jewish master, so too], the non-Jewish [master] is obligated to provide food for the [servant’s] children, just as an Israelite is obligated [and in this sense, they are released, along with their father]. — [Kid. 22a; see Rashi verse 41 above]   הוא ובניו עמו: הנכרי חייב במזונות בניו כישראל:
55For the children of Israel are servants to Me; they are My servants, whom I took out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   נהכִּי־לִ֤י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ עֲבָדִ֔ים עֲבָדַ֣י הֵ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אוֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
For the children of Israel are servants to Me: “My contract came before.” [And thus, when the Jubilee arrives, the servant must be released and revert to being God’s servant rather than man’s.]- [Torath Kohanim 25:85; see Rashi verse 42 above]   כי לי בני ישראל עבדים: שטרי קודם:
I am the Lord, your God: Whoever subjugates them below [on this earth,] is as if he subjugates [them] above [in heaven, for as long as a Jew is enslaved to another human being, he is not free to do the holy service of God Above (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:104]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כל המשעבדן מלמטה כאלו משעבדן מלמעלה:

Leviticus Chapter 26

1You shall not make idols for yourselves, nor shall you set up a statue or a monument for yourselves. And in your land you shall not place a pavement stone on which to prostrate yourselves, for I am the Lord, your God.   אלֹא־תַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ לָכֶ֜ם אֱלִילִ֗ם וּפֶ֤סֶל וּמַצֵּבָה֙ לֹֽא־תָקִ֣ימוּ לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶ֣בֶן מַשְׂכִּ֗ית לֹ֤א תִתְּנוּ֙ בְּאַרְצְכֶ֔ם לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֹ֖ת עָלֶ֑יהָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
You shall not make idols for yourselves: [This] is addressed to the one who has been sold [as a servant] to a non-Jew, that he should not say, “Since my master has illicit relations, I will also be like him! Since my master worships idols, I will also be like him! Since my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!” This is why these verses are stated here. - [Torath Kohanim 25:106]. Also, the passages [in this whole section (namely, from the beginning of Chapter 25 until the end of Behar),] are written in a meaningful order, [as follows]: At first, Scripture admonishes us to observe [the laws of] Shemittah [and Jubilee (25: 124)]; then, if one covets money and becomes suspect of [unlawfully doing business with produce of] Shemittah (Nachalath Ya’akov), he will eventually [become destitute and] have to sell his personal belongingstherefore, Scripture juxtaposes to it, “And when you make a sale [to your fellow-Jew]” (25:14) (What is written therein? “or make a purchase from the hand…,” something that is transferred from hand to hand). If he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his ineritance (25:25). If he even then does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his home, and if even then, he does not repent, he will eventually have to borrow money with interest (verses 25:35-38). Now, the later the scenario in this passage, the more severe it is [i.e., first he sells his belongings, then his property, then his home and then even borrowing with interest which is more severe than selling one’s property; (Nachalath Ya’akov) thus, the passage continues accordingly, for] if he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell himself [to his fellow Jew as a servant] (verses 25:39-46); and [finally,] if he has still not repented, not enough that he had to be sold to his fellow Jew - but he will [be forced to sell himself] even to a non-Jew!- [25:47-55; Kidd. 20a]   לא תעשו לכם אלילם: כנגד זה הנמכר לגוי, שלא יאמר הואיל ורבי מגלה עריות אף אני כמותו, הואיל ורבי עובד עבודה זרה אף אני כמותו, הואיל ורבי מחלל שבת אף אני כמותו, לכך נאמרו מקראות הללו. ואף הפרשיות הללו נאמרו על הסדר בתחלה הזהיר על השביעית, ואם חמד ממון ונחשד על השביעית סופו למכור מטלטליו, לכך סמך לה וכי תמכרו ממכר (ויק' כה יד), מה כתיב ביה או קנה מיד עמיתך (שם), דבר הנקנה מיד ליד. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר אחוזתו. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר את ביתו. לא חזר בו, סוף לוה ברבית. כל אלו האחרונות קשות מן הראשונות. לא חזר בו, סוף מוכר את עצמו. לא חזר בו, לא דיו לישראל אלא אפילו לגוי:
a pavement stone: אֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית, an expression denoting a covering, as in “And I shall cover (וְשַׂכֹּתִי) [you with] My hand.” (Exod. 33:22). [And the meaning of “covering” is relevant here,] as people use a stone floor to make a covering over the ground.   ואבן משכית: לשון כסוי, כמו (שמות לג כב) ושכותי כפי, שמכסין הקרקע ברצפת אבנים:
on which to prostrate yourselves: even to Heaven, for the expression הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה, prostration, denotes stretching one’s hands and feet out [on the ground], and the Torah prohibits one to do this outside the Holy Temple [where prostration on a stone floor is permitted]. — [Meg. 22b and see Rashi there]   להשתחות עליה: אפילו לשמים, לפי שהשתחואה בפשוט ידים ורגלים היא, ואסרה תורה לעשות כן חוץ מן המקדש:
2You shall keep My Sabbaths and fear My Sanctuary. I am the Lord.   באֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמֹ֔רוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁ֖י תִּירָ֑אוּ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
I am the Lord: Who is faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah].   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
3If you follow My statutes and observe My commandments and perform them,   גאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֖י תֵּלֵ֑כוּ וְאֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמְר֔וּ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָֽם:
If you follow My statutes: I might think that this refers to the fulfillment of the commandments. However, when Scripture says, “and observe My commandments,” the fulfillment of the commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “If you follow My statutes”? It means that you must toil in the study of Torah [for the word for “follow” here, תֵּלֵכוּ, literally means “walk,” which is a strenuous activity (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   אם בחקתי תלכו: יכול זה קיום המצות, כשהוא אומר ואת מצותי תשמרו, הרי קיום המצות אמור, הא מה אני מקיים אם בחקתי תלכו, שתהיו עמלים בתורה:
and observe My commandments: You shall toil in the study of Torah in order to observe and fulfill [the commandments (Torath Kohanim 26:2). This is similar to, “[Hear, O Israel, the statutes and ordinances…] and learn them, and keep in mind to do them” (Deut. 5:1) [i.e., learn the Torah in order to keep them in your heart and perform them]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   ואת מצותי תשמרו: הוו עמלים בתורה על מנת לשמור ולקיים, כמו שנאמר (דברים ה א) ולמדתם אותם ושמרתם לעשותם:
4I will give your rains in their time, the Land will yield its produce, and the tree of the field will give forth its fruit.   דוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י גִשְׁמֵיכֶ֖ם בְּעִתָּ֑ם וְנָֽתְנָ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה יִתֵּ֥ן פִּרְיֽוֹ:
[I will give your rains] in their time: at a time when people do not usually go out, for example, on Sabbath Eve. — [Ta’anith 23a]   בעתם: בשעה שאין דרך בני אדם לצאת, כגון בלילי שבתות ובלילי ימים טובים:
the tree of the field: This refers to trees [planted in the field, as opposed to the orchard,] that do not bear fruit, but are destined to bear fruit in the future. — [Torath Kohanim 26:5]   ועץ השדה: הן אילני סרק, ועתידין לעשות פירות:
5Your threshing will last until the vintage, and the vintage will last until the sowing; you will eat your food to satiety, and you will live in security in your land.   הוְהִשִּׂ֨יג לָכֶ֥ם דַּ֨יִשׁ֙ אֶת־בָּצִ֔יר וּבָצִ֖יר יַשִּׂ֣יג אֶת־זָ֑רַע וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם לַחְמְכֶם֙ לָשׂ֔בַע וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לָבֶ֖טַח בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם:
Your threshing will last until the vintage [and the vintage will last until the sowing]: For the threshing will be so plentiful that you will be occupied with it until the vintage, and you will be occupied with the vintage until the sowing season. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   והשיג לכם דיש את בציר: שיהא הדיש מרובה ואתם עסוקים בו עד הבציר, ובבציר תעסקו עד שעת הזרע:
you will eat your food to satiety: One will eat only a little [food], but it will become blessed in one’s innards. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   ואכלתם לחמכם לשבע: אוכל קמעא והוא מתברך במעיו:
6And I will grant peace in the Land, and you will lie down with no one to frighten [you]; I will remove wild beasts from the Land, and no army will pass through your land;   ווְנָֽתַתִּ֤י שָׁלוֹם֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין מַֽחֲרִ֑יד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּ֞י חַיָּ֤ה רָעָה֙ מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְחֶ֖רֶב לֹא־תַֽעֲבֹ֥ר בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם:
And I will grant peace: You might say, “Here is food, and here is drink, but if there is no peace, there is nothing!” Scripture, therefore, states, after all this [blessing], “I will grant peace in the Land.” From here, [we learn] that peace is equal to everything else. And so, [this is illustrated in our morning prayers,] when we say: “[Blessed are You, O Lord…] Who… makes peace and creates everything” [a paraphrase of the verse] (Isaiah 45:7). - [see Ber. 11b; Torath Kohanim 26:7]   ונתתי שלום: שמא תאמרו הרי מאכל והרי משתה, אם אין שלום אין כלום, תלמוד לומר אחר כל זאת ונתתי שלום בארץ, מכאן שהשלום שקול כנגד הכל. וכן הוא אומר עושה שלום ובורא את הכל:
and no army will pass through your land: It is unnecessary to state that they will not come to wage war, but [they will not come] even to pass through your land from one country to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   וחרב לא תעבר בארצכם: אין צריך לומר שלא יבאו למלחמה, אלא אפילו לעבור דרך ארצכם ממדינה למדינה:
7You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall by the sword before you;   זוּרְדַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְנָֽפְל֥וּ לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב:
[And they will fall] by the sword before you: each man [falling] by the sword of his fellow. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   לפניכם לחרב: איש בחרב רעהו:
8Five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand, and your enemies will fall by the sword before you.   חוְרָֽדְפ֨וּ מִכֶּ֤ם חֲמִשָּׁה֙ מֵאָ֔ה וּמֵאָ֥ה מִכֶּ֖ם רְבָבָ֣ה יִרְדֹּ֑פוּ וְנָֽפְל֧וּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֛ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב:
of you will pursue: [It will require only five] of your weakest [to pursue a hundred enemies], and not of your strongest [i.e., מִכֶּם means “the weakest (מָ) of you.”]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:10]   ורדפו מכם: מן החלשים שבכם, ולא מן הגבורים שבכם:
Five… will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand: But is this calculation correct? [Since five will pursue a hundred, this means that each Jew will pursue twenty enemies;] therefore, should Scripture not have written here: “and a hundred of you will pursue two thousand”? But, [the Torah teaches us that] there is no comparison between a few who fulfill the Torah and many who fulfill the Torah [and thus, here, the larger the group of pursuers, the higher proportionately is the number pursued]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:10]   חמשה מאה ומאה מכם רבבה: וכי כך הוא החשבון, והלא לא היה צריך לומר אלא מאה מכם שני אלפים ירדופו, אלא אינו דומה מועטין העושין את התורה למרובין העושין את התורה:
and your enemies will fall [by the sword before you]: [This promise, already stated in verse 7, is repeated here to teach us (Torath Kohanim 26:10)] that the enemy will fall before you, not in the usual manner [i.e., that many of them will fall by the hand of only a few. — [Rash MiShantz ad loc.]   ונפלו איביכם וגו': שיהיו נופלין לפניכם שלא כדרך הארץ:
9I will turn towards you, and I will make you fruitful and increase you, and I will set up My covenant with you.   טוּפָנִ֣יתִי אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהִפְרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֖י אֶתְכֶ֑ם וַֽהֲקִֽימֹתִ֥י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתְּכֶֽם:
I will turn towards you: “I will turn away (אֶפְנֶה) from all My affairs to pay your reward.” To what may this be compared? To a king who hired some workers [only one of whom worked for him for a long time, while all the others did not. When they presented themselves to receive payment, the king quickly paid the others a small amount, while to the one who had worked long, he said, “They worked merely a little for me, but with you, I must now turn my attention to calculate the substantial amount that I owe you.” Likewise, God will quickly pay the nations the small amount He owes them for their little good deeds, and then He will turn His attention, as it were, to the Jewish people, to calculate their great reward,] as is taught in Torath Kohanim 26:11.]   ופניתי אליכם: אפנה מכל עסקי לשלם שכרכם, משל למה הדבר דומה, למלך ששכר פועלים וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים:
and I will make you fruitful: [Unlike the usual expression of פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה in Scripture, here, the two parts of this expression are separated by the word אֶתְכֶם (Sifthei Chachamim quoting Maharai). The first part, וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם, refers to the blessing of] being fruitful and multiplying. — [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והפריתי אתכם: בפריה ורביה:
and increase you: [while the second part,] וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם [refers to the blessing of having] dignity of stature [(הִתְרַבְרְבוּת) i.e., being able to hold one’s head up high due to dignity]. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והרביתי אתכם: בקומה זקופה:
and I will set up My covenant with you: a new covenant, not like the first covenant, which you broke, but a new covenant, which will not be broken, as it is said, “I will form a new covenant with the House of Israel and with the House of Judah-not like the covenant [that I formed with their forefathers… that they broke]” (Jer. 31:30-31). - [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   והקימתי את בריתי אתכם: ברית חדשה, לא כברית הראשונה שהפרתם אותה, אלא ברית חדשה שלא תופר, שנאמר (ירמיה לא ל) וכרתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה ברית חדשה לא כברית הראשונה: