Numbers Chapter 17

25The Lord said to Moses: Put Aaron's staff back in front of the Testimony as a keepsake [and] a sign for rebellious ones. Then their complaints against Me will end and they will not die.   כהוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה הָשֵׁ֞ב אֶת־מַטֵּ֤ה אַֽהֲרֹן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָֽעֵד֔וּת לְמִשְׁמֶ֥רֶת לְא֖וֹת לִבְנֵי־מֶ֑רִי וּתְכַ֧ל תְּלֽוּנֹּתָ֛ם מֵֽעָלַ֖י וְלֹ֥א יָמֻֽתוּ:
Then their complaints will end: [The word] וּתְכַל is equivalent to וְתִכְלֶה. The term תְּלוּנֹּתָם is a singular feminine verbal noun, similar to תְּלוּנָּתָם (their complaint), in French, murmures, murmurings. There is a distinction between תְּלוּנָּתָם and תְּלוּנּוֹתָם, the former being a single complaint and the latter a singular noun [collective], even when there are many complaints. (FOOTNOTE: The word וּתְכַל can possibly be used as a transitive verb in the second person singular, masculine gender [you shall end], or as an intransitive verb in the third person singular, feminine gender [she/it shall end]. Therefore, Rashi first establishes that וּתְכַל is equivalent to וְתִכְלֶה, intransitive, here meaning, it [the complaint] shall end, for if it were transitive, referring to Moses [and you, Moses, shall end] it would be vowelized as וּתְכַלֶּה uthechaleh. Having clarified that point, Rashi now explains that it should have said וְתִכְלֶינֶה [in the plural] rather than וּתְכַל, equivalent to וְתִכְלֶה [in the singular], since it refers to תְּלוּנּוֹת, which is plural, and therefore the verb וּתְכַל should conform with it and likewise be in the plural. Rashi therefore explains that תְּלוּנֹּתָם is a collective singular noun and thus a singular verb may precede it.)   ותכל תלונתם: כמו ותכלה תלונתם, לשון שם מפעל יחיד לנקבה כמו תלונתם מורמורי"ץ בלע"ז [תלונות] ויש חילוק בין תלונותם לתלונתם, תלונתם תלונה אחת, תלונותם שם דבר בלשון יחיד, ואפילו הם תלונות הרבה:
as a keepsake and a sign: As a remembrance that I have chosen Aaron to be kohen, so they will no longer complain about the kehunah.   למשמרת לאות: לזכרון שבחרתי באהרן הכהן ולא ילונו עוד על הכהונה:
26Moses did so. He did just as the Lord had commanded him.   כווַיַּ֖עַשׂ משֶׁ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֹת֖וֹ כֵּ֥ן עָשָֽׂה:
27The children of Israel spoke to Moses saying, "Behold, we are dying, we will perish, we are all lost!   כזוַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶל־משֶׁ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר הֵ֥ן גָּוַ֛עְנוּ אָבַ֖דְנוּ כֻּלָּ֥נוּ אָבָֽדְנוּ:
28Whoever comes the closest to the Mishkan of the Lord dies! Have we been consigned to die?   כחכֹּ֣ל הַקָּרֵ֧ב | הַקָּרֵ֛ב אֶל־מִשְׁכַּ֥ן יְהֹוָ֖ה יָמ֑וּת הַאִ֥ם תַּ֖מְנוּ לִגְוֹֽעַ:
Whoever comes the closest: We cannot be careful of that. We are all permitted to enter the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting, but one who goes closer than his fellow and proceeds into the Tent of Meeting will die.   כל הקרב הקרב וגו': אין אנו יכולין להיות זהירין בכך, כולנו רשאין להכנס לחצר אהל מועד ואחד שיקריב עצמו יותר מחברו ויכנס לתוך אהל מועד ימות:
Have we been consigned to die: Have we been abandoned for death?   האם תמנו לגוע: שמא הופקרנו למיתה:

Numbers Chapter 18

1The Lord said to Aaron: You, your sons and your father's house shall bear the iniquity associated with the Sanctuary, and you and your sons with you shall bear the iniquity associated with your kehunah.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אַתָּ֗ה וּבָנֶ֤יךָ וּבֵית־אָבִ֨יךָ֙ אִתָּ֔ךְ תִּשְׂא֖וּ אֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן הַמִּקְדָּ֑שׁ וְאַתָּה֙ וּבָנֶי֣ךָ אִתָּ֔ךְ תִּשְׂא֖וּ אֶת־עֲוֹ֥ן כְּהֻנַּתְכֶֽם:
The Lord said to Aaron: [God did not say directly to Aaron but] He said [this] to Moses to say to Aaron (Sifrei Korach 17) and caution him regarding regulations for the [benefit of the] Israelites, that they should not enter the Sanctuary.   ויאמר ה' אל אהרן: למשה אמר שיאמר לאהרן להזהירו על תקנת ישראל שלא יכנסו למקדש:
You, your sons and your father’s house: They are the sons of Kohath, who was Amram’s father. — [Midrash Aggadah]   אתה ובניך ובית אביך: הם בני קהת אבי עמרם:
Shall bear the iniquity associated with the Sanctuary: I impose upon you the punishment of the outsiders who sin regarding the sacred objects entrusted to you; the Tent, the ark, the table, and the sacred vessels. You shall sit and warn any unauthorized person who attempts to touch [the sacred objects].   תשאו את עון המקדש: עליכם אני מטיל עונש הזרים שיחטאו בעסקי הדברים המקודשים המסורים לכם הוא האהל והארון והשלחן וכלי הקדש אתם תשבו ותזהירו על כל זר הבא ליגע:
and you and your sons: The kohanim .   ואתה ובניך: הכהנים:
shall bear the sin associated with your kehunah: For it is not given over to the Levites. You shall warn the Levites who might inadvertently err, that they may not touch you during your [performance of the] service.   תשאו את עון כהונתכם: שאינה מסורה ללוים ותזהירו הלוים השוגגים שלא יגעו אליכם בעבודתכם:
2Also your brethren, the tribe of Levi, your father's tribe, draw close to you, and they shall join you and minister to you, and you and your sons with you, before the Tent of Testimony.   בוְגַ֣ם אֶת־אַחֶ֩יךָ֩ מַטֵּ֨ה לֵוִ֜י שֵׁ֤בֶט אָבִ֨יךָ֙ הַקְרֵ֣ב אִתָּ֔ךְ וְיִלָּו֥וּ עָלֶ֖יךָ וִישָֽׁרְת֑וּךָ וְאַתָּה֙ וּבָנֶ֣יךָ אִתָּ֔ךְ לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֥הֶל הָֽעֵדֻֽת:
Also… your brethren: The sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari. — [Midrash Aggadah]   וגם את אחיך: בני גרשון ובני מררי:
and they shall join you: They shall join you to warn any outsiders not to approach them.   וילוו: ויתחברו אליכם להזהיר גם את הזרים מלקרב אליהם:
and they shall minister to you: By watching the gates and serving as treasurers and supervisors.   וישרתוך: בשמירת השערים ולמנות מהם גזברין ואמרכלין:
3They shall keep your charge and the charge of the Tent, and they shall not approach the holy vessels or the altar, so that neither they nor you will die.   גוְשָֽׁמְרוּ֙ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ֔ וּמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת כָּל־הָאֹ֑הֶל אַךְ֩ אֶל־כְּלֵ֨י הַקֹּ֤דֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ לֹ֣א יִקְרָ֔בוּ וְלֹֽא־יָמֻ֥תוּ גַם־הֵ֖ם גַּם־אַתֶּֽם:
4They shall join you, and they shall keep the charge of the Tent of Meeting for all the service of the Tent, and no outsider shall come near you.   דוְנִלְו֣וּ עָלֶ֔יךָ וְשָֽׁמְר֗וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֨רֶת֙ אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד לְכֹ֖ל עֲבֹדַ֣ת הָאֹ֑הֶל וְזָ֖ר לֹֽא־יִקְרַ֥ב אֲלֵיכֶֽם:
and no outsider shall approach you: You I am cautioning about this.   וזר לא יקרב אליכם: אתכם אני מזהיר על כך:
5They shall keep the charge of the Sanctuary and the charge of the altar, so that there be no more wrath against the children of Israel.   הוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֗ם אֵ֚ת מִשְׁמֶ֣רֶת הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ וְאֵ֖ת מִשְׁמֶ֣רֶת הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ע֛וֹד קֶ֖צֶף עַל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
that there be no more wrath: As there had been previously, as it says, “for wrath is gone forth” (17: 11). - [Sifrei Korach 11]   ולא יהיה עוד קצף: כמו שהיה כבר, שנאמר (במדבר יז, יא) כי יצא הקצף:
6I have therefore taken your brethren, the Levites, from among the children of Israel; they are given to you as a gift, and given over to the Lord to perform the service in the Tent of Meeting.   ווַֽאֲנִ֗י הִנֵּ֤ה לָקַ֨חְתִּי֙ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶ֣ם הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם מִתּ֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לָכֶ֞ם מַתָּנָ֤ה נְתֻנִים֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לַֽעֲבֹ֕ד אֶת־עֲבֹדַ֖ת אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
They are given to you as a gift: I might think [that they are given to you] for your mundane work. Therefore, it says, “to the Lord” as explained above, to be responsible for the posts of treasurers and administrators. — [Sifrei Korach 12]   לכם מתנה נתנים: יכול לעבודתכם של הדיוט, תלמוד לומר לה', כמו שמפורש למעלה, לשמור משמרת גזברין ואמרכלין:
7And you and your sons shall keep your kehunah in all matters concerning the altar, and concerning what is within the dividing screen, and you shall serve; the service as a gift I have given your kehunah, and any outsider [non-kohen] who approaches shall die.   זוְאַתָּ֣ה וּבָנֶ֣יךָ אִ֠תְּךָ֠ תִּשְׁמְר֨וּ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶ֜ם לְכָל־דְּבַ֧ר הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ וּלְמִבֵּ֥ית לַפָּרֹ֖כֶת וַֽעֲבַדְתֶּ֑ם עֲבֹדַ֣ת מַתָּנָ֗ה אֶתֵּן֙ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶ֔ם וְהַזָּ֥ר הַקָּרֵ֖ב יוּמָֽת:
the service as a gift: I have given it to you as a gift.   עבדת מתנה: במתנה נתתיה לכם:
8The Lord told Aaron: Behold I have given you the charge of My gift [offerings]. I have thus given you all the holy things of the children of Israel for distinction, and as an eternal portion for your sons.   חוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָה֘ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן֒ וַֽאֲנִי֙ הִנֵּ֣ה נָתַ֣תִּי לְךָ֔ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת תְּרֽוּמֹתָ֑י לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֠ל לְךָ֙ נְתַתִּ֧ים לְמָשְׁחָ֛ה וּלְבָנֶ֖יךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָֽם:
Behold I have given you: with joy. It [the word “behold”] is an expression of joy, as in “Behold, he is coming forth toward you, and when he sees you, he will rejoice in his heart” (Exod. 4:14). This may be compared to a king who gave a field to his friend but did not write nor sign [a deed], and did not record it in court. A person came and contested [his ownership] of the field. The king said to him: [It seems that] anyone may come and contest your rights. Behold, I will write and sign [a deed] for you, and record it in court. Here, too, since Korah came and made a claim against Aaron regarding the kehunah , Scripture comes and gives him twenty-four ‘gifts’ of kehunah as an everlasting covenant of salt. This is why this section is placed here [after the rebellion of Korah]. — [Sifrei Korach 18, 19]   ואני הנה נתתי לך: בשמחה. לשון שמחה הוא זה, כמו (שמות ד, יד) הנה הוא יוצא לקראתך וראך ושמח בלבו, משל למלך שנתן שדה לאוהבו ולא כתב ולא חתם ולא העלה בערכאין. בא אחד וערער על השדה. א"ל המלך כל מי שירצה יבא ויערער לנגדך, הריני כותב וחותם לך ומעלה בערכאין, אף כאן לפי שבא קרח וערער כנגד אהרן על הכהונה, בא הכתוב ונתן לו כ"ד מתנות כהונה בברית מלח עולם, ולכך נסמכה פרשה זו לכאן:
the charge of My gift [offerings]: That you must keep them in a state of purity. - [Bech. 34a]   משמרת תרומתי: שאתה צריך לשמרן בטהרה:
for distinction: Heb. לְמָשְׁחָה, for greatness. — [Sifrei Korach 20, Chul. 132b]   למשחה: לגדולה:
9These shall be yours from the holiest of holies, from the fire: all their offerings, their meal-offerings, their sin-offerings, their guilt-offerings, [and] what they return to Me; they shall be holy of holies to you and to your sons.   טזֶ֣ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ מִקֹּ֥דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים מִן־הָאֵ֑שׁ כָּל־קָ֠רְבָּנָ֠ם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָ֞ם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָ֗ם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָשִׁ֣יבוּ לִ֔י קֹ֣דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים לְךָ֛ ה֖וּא וּלְבָנֶֽיךָ:
from the fire: After the burning of the sacrificial parts.   מן האש: לאחר הקטרת האשים:
All their offerings: The communal peace-offerings.   כל קרבנם: כגון זבחי שלמי צבור:
Their meal-offerings, their sin-offerings, their guilt-offerings: As the literal meaning indicates.[Sifrei Korach 21]   מנחתם חטאתם ואשמם: כמשמעו:
what they return to Me: This refers to stolen property of a proselyte. — [Sifrei Korach 21, Zev. 44b. See Rashi on Num. 5:8]   אשר ישיבו לי: זה גזל הגר:
10You shall eat it in the holiest of places. Any male may eat of it; it shall be holy to you.   יבְּקֹ֥דֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ כָּל־זָכָר֙ יֹאכַ֣ל אֹת֔וֹ קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּֽךְ:
You shall eat it in the holiest of places…: This teaches us that [sacrifices] of the highest degree of holiness are to be eaten only in the courtyard and [only] by the male kohanim . — [Sifrei Korach 22]   בקדש הקדשים תאכלנו וגו': למד על קדשי קדשים שאין נאכלין אלא בעזרה ולזכרי כהונה:
11This shall be yours what is set aside for their gifts from all the wavings of the children of Israel; I have given them to you, and to your sons and to your daughters with you, as an eternal portion. Any [ritually] clean member of your household may eat it.   יאוְזֶה־לְּךָ֞ תְּרוּמַ֣ת מַתָּנָ֗ם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת֘ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ לְךָ֣ נְתַתִּ֗ים וּלְבָנֶ֧יךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶ֛יךָ אִתְּךָ֖ לְחָק־עוֹלָ֑ם כָּל־טָה֥וֹר בְּבֵֽיתְךָ֖ יֹאכַ֥ל אֹתֽוֹ:
what is set aside for their gifts: That is separated from the thanksgiving offering and from the peace-offering and from the Nazirite ram. - [Sifrei Korach 24]   תרומת מתנם: המורם מן התודה ומהשלמים ואיל נזיר:
All the wavings: Since these require waving. - [Sifrei Korach 25]   לכל תנופת: שהרי אלו טעונין תנופה:
Any [ritually] clean: And not those who are ritually unclean (Sifrei Korach 25). Another interpretation: Anyone ritually clean, including his [the kohen’s] wife. — - [Sifrei Korach 29]   כל טהור: ולא טמאים. דבר אחר כל טהור לרבות אשתו:
12The choice of the oil and the choice of the wine and grain, the first of which they give to the Lord, to you I have given them.   יבכֹּ֚ל חֵ֣לֶב יִצְהָ֔ר וְכָל־חֵ֖לֶב תִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְדָגָ֑ן רֵֽאשִׁיתָ֛ם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנ֥וּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְךָ֥ נְתַתִּֽים:
the first: This refers to terumah gedolah [the kohen’s portion of the produce separated by Israelites].   ראשיתם: היא תרומה גדולה:
13The first fruit of all that grows in their land, which they shall bring to the Lord shall be yours; any [ritually] clean member of your household may eat of it.   יגבִּכּוּרֵ֞י כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּאַרְצָ֛ם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִ֥יאוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְךָ֣ יִֽהְיֶ֑ה כָּל־טָה֥וֹר בְּבֵֽיתְךָ֖ יֹֽאכְלֶֽנּוּ:
14Any devoted thing in Israel shall be yours.   ידכָּל־חֵ֥רֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְךָ֥ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
15Every first issue of the womb of any creature, which they present to the Lord, whether of man or beast, shall be yours. However, you shall redeem the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of unclean animals you shall redeem.   טוכָּל־פֶּ֣טֶר רֶ֠חֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִ֧יבוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֛ה בָּֽאָדָ֥ם וּבַבְּהֵמָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑ךְ אַ֣ךְ | פָּדֹ֣ה תִפְדֶּ֗ה אֵ֚ת בְּכ֣וֹר הָֽאָדָ֔ם וְאֵ֛ת בְּכֽוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָ֥ה הַטְּמֵאָ֖ה תִּפְדֶּֽה:
16Its redemption [shall be performed] from the age of a month, according to the valuation, five shekels of silver, according to the holy shekel, which is twenty gerahs.   טזוּפְדוּיָו֙ מִבֶּן־חֹ֣דֶשׁ תִּפְדֶּ֔ה בְּעֶ֨רְכְּךָ֔ כֶּ֛סֶף חֲמֵ֥שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה הֽוּא:
17However, a firstborn ox or a firstborn sheep or a firstborn goat shall not be redeemed, for they are holy; their blood shall be sprinkled on the altar, and their fats shall be burned as a fire-offering, as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יזאַ֣ךְ בְּכֽוֹר־שׁ֡וֹר אֽוֹ־בְכ֨וֹר כֶּ֜שֶׂב אֽוֹ־בְכ֥וֹר עֵ֛ז לֹ֥א תִפְדֶּ֖ה קֹ֣דֶשׁ הֵ֑ם אֶת־דָּמָ֞ם תִּזְרֹ֤ק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּ֣ם תַּקְטִ֔יר אִשֶּׁ֛ה לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
18Their flesh shall be yours; like the breast of the waving and the right thigh, it shall be yours.   יחוּבְשָׂרָ֖ם יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑ךְ כַּֽחֲזֵ֧ה הַתְּנוּפָ֛ה וּכְשׁ֥וֹק הַיָּמִ֖ין לְךָ֥ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
like the breast of the waving and the right thigh: Of the peace-offering which is eaten by the kohanim, their wives, their children and their slaves for two days and one night. So may the firstborn [animal] be eaten for two days and one night. — [Zev. 57a, Sifrei Korach 42]   כחזה התנופה וכשוק הימין: של שלמים שנאכלים לכהנים לנשיהם ולבניהם ולעבדיהם לשני ימים ולילה אחד, אף הבכור נאכל לשני ימים ולילה אחד:
it shall be yours: R. Akiva taught: [By repeating the words“shall be yours”] Scripture adds another ‘being,’ so that you should not say [that it is] like the breast and thigh of the thanksgiving offering, which is eaten only for [one] day and [one] night. — [Zev. 57a]   לך יהיה: בא רבי עקיבא ולמד הוסיף לך הכתוב הויה אחרת, שלא תאמר כחזה ושוק של תודה, שאינו נאכל אלא ליום ולילה:
19All the gifts of the holy [offerings] which are set aside by the children of Israel for the Lord I have given to you, and to your sons and daughters with you, as an eternal portion; it is like an eternal covenant of salt before the Lord, for you and your descendants with you.   יטכֹּ֣ל | תְּרוּמֹ֣ת הַקֳּדָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרִ֥ימוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לַֽיהֹוָה֒ נָתַ֣תִּי לְךָ֗ וּלְבָנֶ֧יךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶ֛יךָ אִתְּךָ֖ לְחָק־עוֹלָ֑ם בְּרִית֩ מֶ֨לַח עוֹלָ֥ם הִוא֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְךָ֖ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֥ אִתָּֽךְ:
All the gifts of the holy [offerings]: Because this passage is so cherished, it is generalized at the beginning, generalized at the end, and detailed in the middle. — [Sifrei Korach 43]   כל תרומת הקדשים: מחיבתה של פרשה זו כללה בתחלה וכללה בסוף ופרט באמצע:
An eternal covenant of salt: He enacted a covenant with Aaron, with an object that is wholesome and lasting, and keeps other foodstuffs wholesome. — [Sifrei Korach 43]   ברית מלח עולם: כרת ברית עם אהרן בדבר הבריא ומתקיים ומבריא את אחרים:
covenant of salt: Like a covenant made with salt, that it should never spoil.   ברית מלח: כברית הכרותה למלח שאינו מסריח לעולם:
20The Lord said to Aaron, You shall not inherit in their land, and you shall have no portion among them. I am your inheritance and portion among the children of Israel.   כוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן בְּאַרְצָם֙ לֹ֣א תִנְחָ֔ל וְחֵ֕לֶק לֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ בְּתוֹכָ֑ם אֲנִ֤י חֶלְקְךָ֙ וְנַֽחֲלָ֣תְךָ֔ בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and you shall have no portion among them: Even in the spoils of war. — [Sifrei Korach 45]   וחלק לא יהיה לך בתוכם: אף בביזה: