The Alter Rebbe has thus established7 that each of these two souls has its own, separate abode and way of functioning. Lest we erroneously conclude that each soul goes about its own affairs, not interfering or concerning itself with those of the other, the Alter Rebbe continues:

It is written, however: “One nation shall prevail over the other nation.”8

אַךְ הִנֵּה כְּתִיב: "וּלְאוֹם מִלְאוֹם יֶאֱמָץ",

The verse refers to Jacob and Esau. In terms of a Jew’s spiritual life, it is understood as an allusion to the divine soul and the animal soul, respectively, who are constantly warring with each other.

For the body is called a “small city.”9 The two souls, in relation to one’s body, are just as two kings who wage war over a city, which each wishes to capture and dominate even against its will and to rule with the consent of the populace;

כִּי הַגּוּף נִקְרָא "עִיר קְטַנָּה", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵי מְלָכִים נִלְחָמִים עַל עִיר אַחַת, שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד רוֹצֶה לְכָבְשָׁהּ וְלִמְלוֹךְ עָלֶיהָ,

that is to say, each king wishes to direct its inhabitants according to his will so that they obey him in all that he decrees upon them.

דְּהַיְינוּ, לְהַנְהִיג יוֹשְׁבֶיהָ כִּרְצוֹנוֹ וְשֶׁיִּהְיוּ סָרִים לְמִשְׁמַעְתּוֹ בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר יִגְזוֹר עֲלֵיהֶם,

So, too, do the two souls—the divine soul and the vitalizing animal soul, which originates from kelipah and is therefore the very antithesis of the divine soul—wage war against each other over the body and all its organs, the body being analogous to the city and the organs to its inhabitants.

כָּךְ שְׁתֵּי הַנְּפָשׁוֹת, הָאֱלֹהִית וְהַחִיּוּנִית הַבַּהֲמִית שֶׁמֵּהַקְּלִיפָּה, נִלְחָמוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ עַל הַגּוּף וְכָל אֵבָרָיו,

Here, too, each soul wishes to direct the city’s inhabitants according to its will, as follows:

The divine soul’s will and desire is that she alone rule over the person and direct him,

שֶׁהָאֱלֹהִית – חֶפְצָהּ וּרְצוֹנָהּ שֶׁתְּהֵא הִיא לְבַדָּהּ הַמּוֹשֶׁלֶת עָלָיו וּמַנְהִיגָתוֹ,

so that all the organs be subject to her discipline, following and obeying her dictates, and furthermore that they surrender themselves completely to her, i.e., that they not only obey her but also surrender their will to her,

וְכָל הָאֵבָרִים יִהְיוּ סָרִים לְמִשְׁמַעְתָּהּ וּבְטֵלִים אֶצְלָהּ לְגַמְרֵי,

and she desires further still that all the organs become a “chariot” for her.

וּמֶרְכָּבָה אֵלֶיהָ,

The divine soul desires that the organs not only surrender their will to it, implying that they do indeed have a will of their own, though it is surrendered to the soul, but rather, it desires also that they have no will other than its own—similar to a chariot, which has no independent will, but is merely an instrument of its driver.

Moreover, the divine soul desires that [the organs] be also a garment, an instrument of expression, for her ten faculties and three garments of thought, speech, and action mentioned above,10 all of which should clothe the limbs of the body,

וְיִהְיוּ לְבוּשׁ לְעֶשֶׂר בְּחִינוֹתֶיהָ וְג' לְבוּשֶׁיהָ הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל, שֶׁיִּתְלַבְּשׁוּ כוּלָּם בְּאֵבְרֵי הַגּוּף,

and the entire body should be permeated with them alone.

וְיִהְיֶה הַגּוּף כּוּלּוֹ מָלֵא מֵהֶם לְבַדָּם,

The body’s being harnessed in service of the divine soul might not preclude its serving the animal soul, too, on occasion. The Alter Rebbe therefore adds the phrase: “the entire body should be permeated [by the divine soul] alone,” emphasizing the divine soul’s desire to have exclusive use of the body as an instrument of expression, leaving no place for the faculties and garments of the animal soul.

No alien would then [so much as] pass through [the organs], G-d forbid, i.e., the animal soul would exert no influence whatsoever on the body.

וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר זָר בְּתוֹכָם חַס וְשָׁלוֹם,

The above forms a general description of the divine soul’s desire to pervade the whole body. The Alter Rebbe now turns to specifics: which organs would give expression to each particular faculty or garment of the divine soul.

That is to say, [specifically:] the three brains—the three sections of the brain, which correspond to the three intellectual faculties: chochmah, binah, daat—would be permeated with the ChaBaD of the divine soul,

דְּהַיְינוּ, תְּלַת מוֹחִין שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ יִהְיוּ מְמוּלָּאִים מֵחָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת שֶׁבַּנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹהִית,

namely, [in] discerning G-d and understanding Him, i.e., applying the faculties of chochmah and binah to the understanding of G-dliness,

שֶׁהִיא חָכְמַת ה' וּבִינָתוֹ,

by pondering His unfathomable and infinite greatness with these two faculties;

לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בִּגְדוּלָּתוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַד אֵין חֵקֶר וְאֵין סוֹף,

through applying to this meditation the faculty of daat (knowledge) [as well], i.e., through immersing oneself in the subject of G-d’s greatness with the depth typical of daat so that one not only understands this greatness but actually feels it, they i.e., his aforementioned faculties of chochmah and binah engaged in pondering G-d’s greatness will give birth to an awe [of G-d] in his mind and dread of G-d in his heart.11

וּלְהוֹלִיד מֵהֶן – עַל יְדֵי הַדַּעַת, הַיִּרְאָה בְּמוֹחוֹ וּפַחַד ה' בְּלִבּוֹ,

Thus, not only his mind but also his heart will be permeated with the faculties of the divine soul: the mind—with the divine soul’s ChaBaD faculties pondering G-d’s greatness, and the heart—with the divine soul’s emotions (the fear just mentioned and the love soon to be discussed) arising from this contemplation.

There will also be born of this contemplation a love of G-d, burning in his heart like a flame, like fiery flashes.

וְאַהֲבַת ה' כְּאֵשׁ בּוֹעֲרָה בְּלִבּוֹ כְּרִשְׁפֵּי שַׁלְהֶבֶת,

His soul will thirst and pine with desire and longing to cleave to the blessed Ein Sof with all his heart, soul, and might—as it is written, “And you shall love G-d, your L-rd, with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might.”12

לִהְיוֹת נִכְסְפָה וְגַם כָּלְתָה נַפְשׁוֹ בַּחֲשִׁיקָה וַחֲפִיצָה לְדָבְקָה בוֹ בְּאֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא בְּכָל לֵב וְנֶפֶשׁ וּמְאֹד

“With all your heart” means that the heart is filled with the love of G-d; “with all your soul” implies that the love spills over beyond the heart to affect all the organs of the body—the feet, for example, will move with alacrity to do a mitzvah; “with all your might” means loving G-d to the point where one will sacrifice his life for Him.

This love will rise from the depths of the heart, that is, from the right ventricle—the seat of the divine soul’s emotional faculties, as mentioned above.

מֵעוּמְקָא דְלִבָּא שֶׁבֶּחָלָל הַיְמָנִי,

The kind of love that the divine soul desires entails that [the heart] be inlaid with love from within,13 and furthermore, not only would the love be (as it were) on the “surface” of the heart, but the heart would also be full, with the love occupying its entire space, as it were, and furthermore, it would be, indeed, filled to overflowing—i.e., the love would overflow into the left part of the heart to affect the emotional faculties of the animal soul which reside there, as the Alter Rebbe continues:

שֶׁיִּהְיֶה תּוֹכוֹ רָצוּף אַהֲבָה מָלֵא וְגָדוּשׁ

[The love] would thus inundate the left part [of the heart] as well to crush the sitra achara; specifically, the element of evil Water in it—in the animal soul,

עַד שֶׁתִּתְפַּשֵּׁט גַּם לֶחָלָל הַשְּׂמָאלִי לְאַכְפָּיָא לְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא יְסוֹד הַמַּיִם הָרָעִים שֶׁבָּהּ,

meaning the lust emanating from kelipat nogah.

שֶׁהִיא הַתַּאֲוָה שֶׁמִּקְּלִיפַּת נוֹגַהּ,

As mentioned in ch. 1, the animal soul’s element of Water gives rise to lust for physical pleasures derived from kelipat nogah. Now, the animal soul’s spirit of lust is the kelipah counterpart of the divine soul’s spirit of love (for G-d). Thus, the divine soul’s intense love of G-d has the power to crush the animal soul’s lust for physical pleasures.

The effect of the divine soul on the animal soul’s element of Water would be to change and transform it from [a lust for] mundane pleasures to a love of G-d,

לְשַׁנּוֹתָהּ וּלְהַפְּכָהּ מִתַּעֲנוּגֵי עוֹלָם הַזֶּה לְאַהֲבַת ה',

as it is written, [“You shall love G-d]…with all your heart”14which our Sages interpret (basing themselves on the use of the dual form of the word—לְבָבְךָ instead of לִבְּךָ, which allows the verse to imply “with all your hearts”): “With both your natures, with your good inclination and also with your evil inclination.”

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ" – "בִּשְׁנֵי יְצָרֶיךָ".

Accordingly, the evil inclination (i.e., the lust of the animal soul) must also come to love G-d, and this, too, is part of the divine soul’s battle plan.

The Alter Rebbe now describes the specific level of love of G-d that accomplishes this:

This transformation of the animal soul’s lust to a love of G-d entails rising to attain to the level of ahavah rabbah (“abundant love”), a love surpassing even the level of the “powerful love, like fiery flashes” that was mentioned earlier.

וְהַיְינוּ, שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה וְיָבֹא וְיַגִּיעַ לְמַדְרֵגַת אַהֲבָה רַבָּה וְחִיבָּה יְתֵרָה מִמַּדְרֵגַת אַהֲבָה עַזָּה כְּרִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ,