The heading written by the Alter Rebbe reads as follows:

likkutei amarim(“A Compilation of Teachings”)

לִקּוּטֵי אֲמָרִים

part two

חֵלֶק שֵׁנִי

[whose introduction hereunder is] entitled chinuch katan1 (“The Education of the Child”)

הַנִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "חִינּוּךְ קָטָן"

Compiled from sacred books and from teachers of heavenly saintliness, whose souls are in Eden,

מְלוּקָּט מִפִּי סְפָרִים וּמִפִּי סוֹפְרִים קְדוֹשֵׁי עֶלְיוֹן נִשְׁמָתָם־עֵדֶן,

This mention of his sources echoes the words of the Alter Rebbe in the title page to Part One of the Tanya. Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, notes in one of his talks that “books” here traditionally refers to the works of the Maharal and the Shaloh, and “teachers” to the Baal Shem Tov and the Maggid of Mezritch.

based on the first paragraph2 of the recitation of the Shema:3

מְיוּסָּד עַל פָּרָשָׁה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל קְרִיאַת־שְׁמַע:

This first paragraph contains both the verse beginning Shema Yisrael4 and the sentence beginning Baruch shem.5 As explained in the Zohar,6 these quotations refer respectively to yichuda ilaah (the higher level of perception of G-d’s Unity) and yichuda tataah (the lower level of perception of G-d’s Unity). It is around this theme that Part Two of the Tanya revolves.

“Educate the child according to his way: even as he grows old, he will not depart from it.”7

"חֲנוֹךְ לַנַּעַר עַל פִּי דַּרְכּוֹ, גַּם כִּי יַזְקִין לֹא יָסוּר מִמֶּנָּה".

Since the verse writes “according to his way,” this implies that it is not the path of perfect truth but merely a path to be followed by the child;

הִנֵּה, מִדִּכְתִיב: "עַל פִּי דַּרְכּוֹ", מַשְׁמַע, שֶׁאֵינָהּ דֶּרֶךְ הָאֱמֶת לַאֲמִיתּוֹ,

hence, of what merit is it that “even as he grows old, he will not depart from it”?

וְאִם כֵּן, מַאי מַעַלְיוּתָא שֶׁ"גַּם כִּי יַזְקִין לֹא יָסוּר מִמֶּנָּה"?

Indeed, it would seem that the very opposite should be the case: when the child matures, he should forsake his childish path in favor of the path of truth. What possible merit could there be in not departing from it?

Now it is well known that the awe (lit., “fear”) and the love of G-d are the roots and foundations8 of divine service.

אַךְ הִנֵּה מוּדַעַת זֹאת, כִּי שָׁרְשֵׁי עֲבוֹדַת ה' וִיסוֹדוֹתֶיהָ, הֵן דְּחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ,

The performance of Torah study and mitzvot in thought, speech, and deed is rooted in and founded upon one’s love and fear of G-d. The awe of G-d enables the Jew to properly observe the prohibitive commandments while the love of Him makes it possible for the Jew to perform the positive commandments with inner feeling,9 as the Alter Rebbe now goes on to explain.

Awe is the root and fundament of [what constrains one to] “refrain from evil,”10 ensuring that one will not transgress the prohibitive commandments,11

הַיִּרְאָה – שֹׁרֶשׁ וִיסוֹד לְ"סוּר מֵרָע",

and the love of G-d [is the root and fundament] of [what motivates one to] “do good”12 and to observe all the positive commandments of the Torah and the Sages,

וְהָאַהֲבָה – לְ"וַעֲשֵׂה טוֹב" וְקִיּוּם כָּל מִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא וּדְרַבָּנָן,

as will be explained in their proper place.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמָן.

“As will be explained in their proper place” refers to chs. 4 and 41 in the first part of the Tanya. This reference, as the Rebbe points out, corroborates the tradition handed down by chassidim that the Alter Rebbe originally intended to reverse the current order, with this second part of the Tanya appearing first, as Part I, and the fifty-three chapters of the first part becoming Part II.

(13The commandment of educating [a child] includes also [training in the performance of] positive precepts, as is stated in Orach Chaim, Section 343.)

(וּמִצְוַת הַחִינּוּךְ הִיא גַּם כֵּן בְּמִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּאוֹרַח חַיִּים סִימָן שמ"ג):

Since a child is to be educated to observe both prohibitive and positive commandments, it follows that his love of G-d, as the root and fundament of all positive commands,14 must be such that it serves as the springboard for all the positive commandments that are performed as a result of education. We must therefore say that there exists an inferior and transient degree of love that serves as the root and foundation for those mitzvot that are performed as a result of education, a degree of love distinct from the superior level that motivates an adult. Nevertheless, as shall soon be explained, this lower level of love, too—a love which is “according to the child’s way”—possesses certain permanent qualities that make it desirable that “even as he grows old, he will not (and indeed should not) depart from it.”

Concerning the love [of G-d], it is written at the end of the portion of Eikev, “…which I command you to do—to love G-d….”15

וְהִנֵּה, בְּאַהֲבָה כְּתִיב בְּסוֹף פָּרָשַׁת עֵקֶב: "אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ, לְאַהֲבָה אֶת ה' וְגוֹ'".

It is necessary to understand how an expression of “doing” can be applied to love, which is [an emotion] in the heart.

וְצָרִיךְ לְהָבִין, אֵיךְ שַׁיָּיךְ לְשׁוֹן "עֲשִׂיָּיה" גַּבֵּי אַהֲבָה שֶׁבַּלֵּב?

The Alter Rebbe now proceeds to resolve this seeming anomaly. (First, however, he describes the superior degree of love that cannot be created: one can merely provide the conditions for its revelation.) As to the above anomaly, he now explains that there exists a manner of love that is indeed created—by meditating upon those concepts that arouse it. An active verb such as “doing” suits this manner of love since it is experienced as a result of one’s own doing.

The explanation, however, is that there are two kinds of love of G-d:

אַךְ הָעִנְיָן הוּא, דְּיֵשׁ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אַהֲבַת ה'.

One is the natural, yearning love of the soul to its Creator.

הָאַחַת, הִיא כְּלוֹת הַנֶּפֶשׁ בְּטִבְעָהּ אֶל בּוֹרְאָהּ,

Since this love is intrinsic to the soul, which is “truly a part of G-d above,” this love need not—and indeed cannot—be created at all. It merely needs to be revealed. But how can such a passionate yearning become revealed in one’s corporeal, fleshly heart?

When the rational soul prevails over the grossness [of the body] and subdues and subjugates it,

כַּאֲשֶׁר תִּתְגַּבֵּר נֶפֶשׁ הַשִּׂכְלִית עַל הַחוֹמֶר וְתַשְׁפִּילֵהוּ וְתַכְנִיעֵהוּ תַּחְתֶּיהָ,

Here, the Divinely appointed task of the G-dly soul comes to the fore: to rectify the animal soul and refine the body by means of the rational soul’s comprehension of G-dliness. For the G-dly soul’s own intellect and comprehension are too lofty to affect the body. The rational soul, however, embodies man’s natural quality of intellect and as such is close to the physical body. The rational soul comprehends G-dliness in such a manner that it is able to cause Form to master Matter—to overmaster the body and harness its corporeality. When it actually does so:

then [the soul] will flare and blaze with a flame that ascends of its own accord,

אֲזַי תִּתְלַהֵב וְתִתְלַהֵט בְּשַׁלְהֶבֶת הָעוֹלָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ,

It will be aflame not with a love created through contemplation but with a natural love whose revelation was barred by the grossness of the body. Now, with the mastery and refinement of the body, the soul’s innate love for G-d can at last be revealed.

and [the soul] will rejoice and exult both inwardly and outwardly in G-d, its Maker, and will delight in Him with wondrous bliss.

וְתָגֵל וְתִשְׂמַח בַּה' עוֹשֶׂהָ, וְתִתְעַנֵּג עַל ה' תַּעֲנוּג נִפְלָא.

In this instance, the delight is part of the love and the divine service itself rather than a reward for the divine service, as is sometimes the case.

It is those who merit the [joyous] state of this great love who are called tzaddikim,

וְהַזּוֹכִים לְמַעֲלַת אַהֲבָה רַבָּה זוֹ – הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים צַדִּיקִים,

as it is written, “Rejoice in G-d, you tzaddikim.”16

כְּדִכְתִיב: "שִׂמְחוּ צַדִּיקִים בַּה'".

To serve G-d with delight of this order is the privilege of tzaddikim alone. For though the above-described love emanates from the G-dly soul which is possessed by every single Jew, for which reason one would expect everyone to be able to feel it, it is nevertheless not experienced by all. The reason for this—as the Alter Rebbe goes on to explain—is that one’s physical grossness impedes its revelation. And clearing this hurdle demands prodigious effort.

Yet, not everyone is privileged to attain this state of love which characterizes tzaddikim,

אַךְ לֹא כָּל אָדָם זוֹכֶה לָזֶה,

for it requires an intense refinement of one’s physical grossness and, in addition, a great deal of Torah study and good deeds

כִּי לָזֶה צָרִיךְ זִיכּוּךְ הַחוֹמֶר בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד, וְגַם תּוֹרָה וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים הַרְבֵּה,

in order to merit a lofty [soul-level of] neshamah,

לִזְכּוֹת לִנְשָׁמָה עֶלְיוֹנָה

This is the soul-level whose divine service is intellective; as the verse states, “The Divine neshamah shall provide discernment.”17 Only this manner of divine service can subjugate and refine man’s gross corporeality so that he is able to delight in G-d with wondrous bliss.

which is superior to the level of ruach (the soul-level at which one’s divine service focuses on one’s emotional attributes) and nefesh (the soul-level at which one fulfills the mitzvot out of an acceptance of the Heavenly Yoke),

שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמַּדְרֵגַת רוּחַ וָנֶפֶשׁ,

as explained in Reishit Chochmah, Shaar HaAhavah.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּרֵאשִׁית חָכְמָה שַׁעַר הָאַהֲבָה.

There, the author explains how the above level of love is specifically related to the soul-level of neshamah.

In sum, it is clear that this love cannot be “created” by man. He can only enable it to be revealed within him by refining himself—but to such an extraordinary degree that it is not attainable by all.

The second [level] is a love which every man can attain when he meditates earnestly so that its echo resounds in the depths of his heart,

וְהַשֵּׁנִית, הִיא אַהֲבָה שֶׁכָּל אָדָם יוּכַל לְהַגִּיעַ אֵלֶיהָ, כְּשֶׁיִּתְבּוֹנֵן הֵיטֵב בְּעוּמְקָא דְלִבָּא

on matters that arouse the love of G-d in the heart of every Jew,

בִּדְּבָרִים הַמְּעוֹרְרִים אֶת הָאַהֲבָה לַה' בְּלֵב כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל.

whether [he meditates] in a general way—how He is our very life18—and just as one loves his soul and his life, so will he love G-d when he meditates and reflects in his heart that G-d is his true soul and actual life,

הֵן דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל – כִּי הוּא חַיֵּינוּ מַמָּשׁ, וְכַאֲשֶׁר הָאָדָם אוֹהֵב אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְחַיָּיו – כֵּן יֶאֱהַב אֶת ה', כַּאֲשֶׁר יִתְבּוֹנֵן וְיָשִׂים אֶל לִבּוֹ כִּי ה' הוּא נַפְשׁוֹ הָאֲמִיתִּית וְחַיָּיו מַמָּשׁ,

as the Zohar19 comments on the verse, “[You are] my soul: I desire you,”20

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּזֹּהַר עַל פָּסוּק: "נַפְשִׁי אִוִּיתִיךָ וְגוֹ'".

The Zohar explains that since G-d is the Jew’s soul and thus his true life, the Jew loves and desires Him.21

or whether [he meditates] in a particular way,22 when he will understand and comprehend in detail the greatness of the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He,

וְהֵן דֶּרֶךְ פְּרָט – שֶׁכְּשֶׁיָּבִין וְיַשְׂכִּיל בִּגְדוּלָּתוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא דֶּרֶךְ פְּרָטִית,

For example, he may reflect on the manner in which G-d fills all worlds and encompasses all worlds and on how all creatures are as naught before Him.

to the extent that his intellect can grasp and even beyond.

כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּכַל שְׂאֵת בְּשִׂכְלוֹ וּמַה שֶּׁלְּמַעְלָה מִשִּׂכְלוֹ.

These two phrases refer respectively to concepts that are within the reach of “positive knowledge” and to truths that lie beyond it and are perceptible only through “negative knowledge”; i.e., though one may not understand such a thing itself, he may understand how it is not subject to the restrictions of a lesser order.

In terms of comprehending G-dliness, this means to say that one will at least understand that those levels of G-dliness that are beyond the range of his intellect are not subject to the limitations inherent within created and emanated worlds and beings. This “negative knowledge”—in the Alter Rebbe’s words, “even beyond”—is also considered to be a quasi state of comprehension.

Then, following his meditation “in a particular way,” he will contemplate G-d’s great and wondrous love to us, a love that led Him—

וְאַחַר כָּךְ, יִתְבּוֹנֵן בְּאַהֲבַת ה' הַגְּדוֹלָה וְנִפְלָאָה אֵלֵינוּ,

to descend even to Egypt, the “obscenity of the earth,”23 to bring our souls out of the “iron crucible”24 into which the Jewish people had then descended, which is the sitra achara (may the All-Merciful spare us),

לֵירֵד לְמִצְרַיִם "עֶרְוַת הָאָרֶץ", לְהוֹצִיא נִשְׁמוֹתֵינוּ מִ"כּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל", שֶׁהוּא הַ"סִּטְרָא אָחֳרָא" רַחֲמָנָא לִצְּלָן,

to bring us close to Him and to bind us to His very Name—and He and His Name are One so that by being bound to His Name, we were bound to G-d Himself;

לְקָרְבֵנוּ אֵלָיו וּלְדַבְּקֵנוּ בִּשְׁמוֹ מַמָּשׁ, וְהוּא וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד,

that is to say, He elevated us from the nadir of degradation and defilement to the acme of holiness and to His infinite and boundless greatness.25

דְּהַיְינוּ, שֶׁרוֹמְמָנוּ מִתַּכְלִית הַשִּׁפְלוּת וְהַטּוּמְאָה – לְתַכְלִית הַקְּדוּשָּׁה, וּגְדוּלָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ שֶׁאֵין לָהּ קֵץ וְתַכְלִית,

When one has meditated in detail upon G-d’s greatness and His tremendous love for the Jewish people:

Then, “As in water, face reflects face, [so does the heart of man to man,]”26

אֲזַי "כַּמַּיִם הַפָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים" –

Just as one person’s love for another awakens a loving response in the other’s heart, so, too, our contemplation of the ways in which G-d has manifested His love toward us will inspire within us a love for Him,

and love will be aroused in the heart of everyone who contemplates and meditates upon this matter in the depths of his heart,

תִּתְעוֹרֵר הָאַהֲבָה בְּלֵב כָּל מַשְׂכִּיל וּמִתְבּוֹנֵן בְּעִנְיָן זֶה בְּעוּמְקָא דְלִבָּא,

to love G-d with an intense love and to cleave unto Him, heart and soul, as will be explained at length in its place.27

לֶאֱהוֹב אֶת ה' אַהֲבָה עַזָּה, וּלְדָבְקָה בוֹ בְּלֵב וָנֶפֶשׁ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמָהּ בַּאֲרִיכוּת.