Now, all this—the abovementioned effect of the emotive traits upon the resultant teaching or influence—is only by way of allegory and does not provide a completely true picture of the sefirot as they exist within man’s soul,

וְהִנֵּה, כָּל זֶה הוּא רַק עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל לְבַד,

for all this applies to the rational soul, which is the lower one in man, and derives from kelipat nogah.

כִּי כָּל זֶה הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ הַשִּׂכְלִית הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה שֶׁבָּאָדָם, הַבָּאָה מִקְּלִיפַּת נוֹגַהּ.

This “lower soul” naturally inclines to “lower” (i.e., corporeal) matters so that even its intellect goes only as far as understanding the composition, and so on, of mundane things. For although the kelipah, which is the source of this soul, is kelipat nogah, a kelipah whose darkness is relieved by a ray of good, nevertheless, it is wholly bound up with mundanity.

But in true fact, with regard to [the sefirot in] the higher, Divine soul, which is a “part of G-d above,”50

אַךְ בֶּאֱמֶת לַאֲמִיתּוֹ, בַּנֶּפֶשׁ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה הָאֱלֹהִית, שֶׁהִיא "חֵלֶק אֱלוֹהַּ מִמַּעַל",

all the internal and external attributes are [directed] to G-d alone: the Divine soul is concerned with spiritual things alone so that both its (internal) love and (external) chesed are concentrated purely on G-dliness.

כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת, פְּנִימִיּוֹת וְחִיצוֹנִיּוֹת, הֵן לַה' לְבַדּוֹ.

For because of one’s love of G-d and because of one’s great desire to cleave unto Him,

כִּי מֵחֲמַת אַהֲבַת ה' וּמֵרוֹב חֶפְצוֹ לְדָבְקָה בוֹ,

he desires with all his being [to practice] chesed in order to cleave to His attributes.

הוּא חָפֵץ חֶסֶד כְּדֵי לִידָּבֵק בְּמִדּוֹתָיו,

This accords with the teaching of our Sages, of blessed memory, on the verse, “And to cleave unto Him”51: “Cleave unto His attributes.”52

כְּמַאֲמַר רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה עַל פָּסוּק "וּלְדָבְקָה בוֹ": "הִדָּבֵק בְּמִדּוֹתָיו".

Just as G-d is compassionate, so should mortal man be compassionate; just as G-d has an innate desire to practice kindness, so should a person’s inner desire to practice kindness be motivated by a desire to cleave to G-d.

As to the attribute of chesed, then, both its internal aspect (love) and its external aspect (kindness) are directed purely to G-dly things.

It is likewise with the attribute of gevurah, whose internal aspect is fear; it, too, is experienced only for G-dly causes:

וְכֵן בְּמִדַּת הַגְּבוּרָה –

for example, to punish and chastise the wicked with the punishments of the Torah,

לְהִפָּרַע מִן הָרְשָׁעִים וּלְעָנְשָׁם בְּעוֹנְשֵׁי הַתּוֹרָה,

and also to prevail over one’s [evil] inclination and to sanctify himself in that which is permitted to him,53

וְכֵן, לְהִתְגַּבֵּר עַל יִצְרוֹ וּלְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַּמּוּתָּר לוֹ,

and to put up a fence and a hedge around the Torah,54

וְלַעֲשׂוֹת גָּדֵר וּסְיָיג לַתּוֹרָה,

because of the dread and fear of G-d, lest he might come to sin, heaven forfend.

מִפְּנֵי פַּחַד ה' וְיִרְאָתוֹ, פֶּן יָבֹא לִידֵי חֵטְא חַס וְשָׁלוֹם.

In order to ensure that he will not come to sin, a person may thus choose to sanctify himself and refrain from “one hundred portals of the permissible so as not to transgress in one portal of the prohibited.”55

To summarize the above conclusions regarding the first two of the seven middot, or spiritual emotions: Not only is a man’s attribute of chesed directed to G-dly matters, but so, too, is his attribute of gevurah—both in its internal aspect, viz., the fear of G-d, and in its external manifestations in his rigorous observance of the Torah and its mitzvot.

Likewise, by exercising the attribute of tiferet (lit., “beauty”), [a man seeks] to glorify G-d and His Torah in all ways possible, such as by possessing a beautiful sefer Torah, beautiful tefillin, and the like,

וְכֵן לְפָאֵר אֶת ה' וְתוֹרָתוֹ בְּכָל מִינֵי פְּאֵר,

and to cleave to His praises [by praising G-d] with all the faculties of his soul:

וּלְדָבְקָה בִּשְׁבָחָיו בְּכָל בְּחִינוֹת נַפְשׁוֹ,

that is, by intellectual and thoughtful meditation on the greatness of G-d, which blossoms into the singing of His praises,

דְּהַיְינוּ בְּהִתְבּוֹנְנוּת שִׂכְלוֹ וּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ,

and likewise, when he speaks, his praises are not empty words but grow out of his preparatory meditation.

גַּם בְּדִיבּוּרוֹ.

“[Praising G-d] with all the faculties of his soul” thus means that the worshipper utilizes his intellect and emotions as well as all three “garments” of his soul (i.e., the soul’s media of self-expression), viz., thought, speech, and action (for speech constitutes mini-action56). Alternatively, “[praising G-d] with all the faculties of his soul” may mean: all those aspects of the soul that relate to praise, i.e., intellect, thought, and speech.

Likewise, by exercising the attribute of netzach, [a man seeks] to prevail triumphantly against anything that would restrain [him] from the service of G-d and from cleaving unto Him,

וְכֵן לַעֲמוֹד בְּנִצָּחוֹן נֶגֶד כָּל מוֹנֵעַ מֵעֲבוֹדַת ה' וּמִלְּדָבְקָה בוֹ,

and against anything that would restrain [the state of revelation in which]57 the entire earth is filled with the glory of G-d,

וְנֶגֶד כָּל מוֹנֵעַ מִלִּהְיוֹת כְּבוֹד ה' מָלֵא אֶת כָּל הָאָרֶץ,

like the wars for G-d fought by King David, peace to him, which derived from his attribute of netzach.

כְּמִלְחֲמוֹת ה' אֲשֶׁר נִלְחַם דָּוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ עָלָיו־הַשָּׁלוֹם.

Likewise, by exercising the attribute of hod,58 which implies self-abnegation, and acknowledging the transcendence of that which defies his mortal understanding, [a man seeks] to prostrate himself and to [self-effacingly] praise G-d,

וְכֵן לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת וּלְהוֹדוֹת לַה',

Who animates and creates everything and before Whom everything is essentially nonexistent and esteemed as truly nothing and null.

אֲשֶׁר מְחַיֶּה וּמְהַוֶּה אֶת הַכֹּל, וְהַכֹּל בָּטֵל בִּמְצִיאוּת אֶצְלוֹ, וְכוּלָּא קַמֵּיהּ כְּלָא חֲשִׁיב, וּכְאַיִן וָאֶפֶס מַמָּשׁ.

Though we cannot apprehend just how everything is truly as null before Him,

וְאַף שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מַשִּׂיגִים אֵיךְ הוּא הַכֹּל אֶפֶס מַמָּשׁ קַמֵּיהּ,

nevertheless, we acknowledge and genuinely concede that in absolute truth, such is the case.

אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן, מוֹדִים אֲנַחְנוּ בְּהוֹדָאָה אֲמִיתִּית שֶׁכֵּן הוּא בֶּאֱמֶת לַאֲמִיתּוֹ.

From the very depths of his soul, the Jew acknowledges that G-d’s “supernal daat” and knowledge that everything is essentially nonexistent before Him is true and that the mortal understanding of our “inferior daat”—that creation does indeed exist, except that it is nullified to Him—results from the limited compass of our earthbound perspective.59 This acknowledgment results from the self-abnegation expressed by the attribute of hod.

This [attribute] also includes the expression of gratitude60 to G-d for all the favors that He has bestowed upon us,

וּבִכְלָל זֶה גַּם כֵּן, לְהוֹדוֹת לַה' עַל כָּל הַטּוֹבוֹת אֲשֶׁר גְּמָלָנוּ,

so that [we] should not be ungrateful, G-d forbid.

וְלֹא לִהְיוֹת כְּפוּי טוֹבָה חַס וְשָׁלוֹם.

This [attribute of hod] also includes the offering of thanks to G-d for all His praiseworthy [deeds], and His attributes and His workings in the emanation and creation of the upper and lower worlds,

וּבִכְלָל זֶה, לְהוֹדוֹת עַל כָּל שְׁבָחָיו וּמִדּוֹתָיו וּפְעוּלּוֹתָיו בַּאֲצִילוּת וּבְרִיאַת עֶלְיוֹנִים וְתַחְתּוֹנִים,

for they are praiseworthy to no end,61

שֶׁהֵם מְשׁוּבָּחִים עַד אֵין תַּכְלִית [נוסח אחר: חֵקֶר],

and are becoming and befitting Him, blessed and exalted be He.

וְנָאִים וּרְאוּיִם אֵלָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ וְיִתְעַלֶּה,

The term [hod is here to be understood] as in the phrase hod vehadar (“majesty and splendor”62).

וְהוּא מִלְּשׁוֹן "הוֹד וְהָדָר".

And likewise [engaged in one’s Divine service is] the attribute of [yesod (lit., “foundation”), as in the phrase], “The tzaddik is the foundation of the world,”63

וְכֵן בְּמִדַּת "צַדִּיק יְסוֹד עוֹלָם",

In the above analogy, it was by means of the attribute of yesod that the father communicated with his son and disciple through bonds of desire and pleasure. So, too, in the realm of Divine service, the attribute of yesod involves cleaving to G-d with intense desire and pleasure,

so that one’s soul is bound up with G-d, the Fountainhead of Life,

לִהְיוֹת נַפְשׁוֹ קְשׁוּרָה בַּה' חַיֵּי הַחַיִּים,

cleaving to Him with an attachment and a desire, out of a wondrous love and delight, all of which are expressions of the attribute of yesod.

וּלְדָבְקָה בוֹ בִּדְבִיקָה וַחֲשִׁיקָה, בְּחֵשֶׁק וְתַעֲנוּג נִפְלָא.

And as for the [Divine soul’s] attribute of malchut, [the worshipper seeks thereby] to accept upon himself the yoke of G-d’s sovereignty and of His service,

וּבְמִדַּת מַלְכוּת, לְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עוֹל מַלְכוּתוֹ וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ

like the service of any servant to his master, i.e., out of awe and fear.

כַּעֲבוֹדַת כָּל עֶבֶד לַאֲדוֹנוֹ בְּאֵימָה וּבְיִרְאָה.

Up to this point, the Alter Rebbe has explained how the seven middot exist within the Jew’s G-dly soul. These emotive attributes are activated by the three intellective faculties—the sefirot of ChaBaD (chochmah, binah, and daat), which are now to be explained.

Now, the source and root of all the attributes are in the ChaBaD.

וּמְקוֹר וְשׁוֹרֶשׁ כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הֵן מֵחָכְמָה־בִּינָה־דַּעַת,

That is: chochmah is the source of the intellect which apprehends G-d and His wisdom, His greatness, and the holy attributes wherewith He conducts and animates all the higher and lower worlds;

דְּהַיְינוּ: הַחָכְמָה – הִיא מְקוֹר הַשֵּׂכֶל הַמַּשִּׂיג אֶת ה' וְחָכְמָתוֹ וּגְדוּלָּתוֹ וּמִדּוֹתָיו הַקְּדוֹשׁוֹת שֶׁמַּנְהִיג וּמְחַיֶּה בָּהֶן כָּל הָעוֹלָמוֹת עֶלְיוֹנִים וְתַחְתּוֹנִים,

binah is the contemplation of this apprehension of G-d’s greatness and His holy attributes

וּבִינָה – הִיא הַהִתְבּוֹנְנוּת בְּהַשָּׂגָה זוֹ

in the length, breadth, and depth of one’s understanding,

בְּאוֹרֶךְ וְרוֹחַב וְעוֹמֶק בִּינָתוֹ,

The “length” of a particular concept—in this case, the greatness of the Creator—entails drawing it down from its lofty abstraction (by way of a parable, for example) to a level of intelligibility. The “breadth” of the concept refers to the multitudinous components and ramifications that await one’s mastery. Its “depth” refers to the challenge of plumbing its seemingly limitless profundity.

in order64 “to understand (or deduce) one matter out of another,”65

לְהָבִין דָּבָר מִתּוֹךְ דָּבָר,

and from this apprehension to beget its offspring,

וּלְהוֹלִיד מֵהַשָּׂגָה זוֹ – תּוֹלְדוֹתֶיהָ,

which are the attributes of love and awe,

שֶׁהֵן מִדּוֹת אַהֲבָה וְיִרְאָה

The thinker’s understanding of the greatness of G-d gives birth to emotions—a love and a fear of Him.

and the other attributes born in the Divine soul, which contemplates and meditates upon G-d’s greatness as to how “His greatness is unfathomable.”66

וּשְׁאָרֵי מִדּוֹת הַנּוֹלָדוֹת בַּנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹהִית, הַמַּשְׂכֶּלֶת וּמִתְבּוֹנֶנֶת בִּגְדוּלַּת ה'. כִּי, "לִגְדוּלָּתוֹ אֵין חֵקֶר",

One aspect of G-d’s greatness is such that the Divine soul, when contemplating it, is overwhelmed by fear and dread.

וְיֵשׁ בְּחִינַת גְּדוּלַּת ה', שֶׁעַל־יְדֵי הִתְבּוֹנְנוּת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹהִית בָּהּ – תִּפּוֹל עָלֶיהָ אֵימָתָה וָפַחַד

This is yirah tataah (“the lower level of fear”), which is an aspect of malchut.

שֶׁהִיא יִרְאָה תַּתָּאָה, שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת מַלְכוּת,

There is another aspect of the greatness of G-d from [the contemplation of] which derives yirah ilaah (“the superior level of fear”), in which one is awed out of bashfulness.

וְיֵשׁ בְּחִינַת גְּדוּלַּת ה' – שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה בָּאָה יִרְאָה עִילָּאָה, יִרְאָה בּוֹשֶׁת,

There is also an aspect [of G-d’s greatness] from [the contemplation of] which derives ahavah rabbah (“the great love”),

וְיֵשׁ בְּחִינָה שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה בָּאָה – אַהֲבָה רַבָּה,

and still another aspect [of G-d’s greatness] from [the contemplation of] which derives ahavah zutta (“the lesser love”).

וְיֵשׁ בְּחִינָה שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה בָּאָה – אַהֲבָה זוּטָא.

All these levels of ahavah and yirah are internal emotive attributes that are fathered by ChaBaD.

The same applies to the external attributes, i.e., chesed and so on; they, too, emanate from ChaBaD.

וְכֵן בַּמִּדּוֹת הַחִיצוֹנִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵן חֶסֶד כוּ'.

Now, the faculty of daat must be vested within all these [emotive attributes],

וּבְכוּלָּן צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת מְלוּבָּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּחִינַת הַדַּעַת,

for it represents the bond with which the soul is bound and embedded in this apprehension

שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת הִתְקַשְּׁרוּת הַנֶּפֶשׁ, הַקְּשׁוּרָה וּתְקוּעָה בְּהַשָּׂגָה זוֹ

as it apprehends some aspect of G-d’s greatness, from which one of these attributes is born within it.

שֶׁמַּשֶּׂגֶת אֵיזֶה עִנְיָן מִגְּדוּלַּת ה', שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה נוֹלְדָה בָּהּ אֵיזֶה מִדָּה מֵהַמִּדּוֹת,

Once the soul has apprehended some aspect of G-d’s greatness, it must bind itself to this comprehension through the faculty of daat.

For by a momentary removal of daat from this apprehension,

כִּי בְּהֶיסַּח הַדַּעַת כְּרֶגַע מֵהַשָּׂגָה זוֹ –

the emotion born of it is also withdrawn

מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת גַּם כֵּן הַמִּדָּה הַנּוֹלְדָה מִמֶּנָּה,

from its [prior] state of manifestation in the soul [back] into concealment [within the soul],

מֵהַגִּילּוּי בַּנֶּפֶשׁ אֶל הַהֶעְלֵם,

to exist there in potentia but not in actuality.

לִהְיוֹת בָּהּ בְּכֹחַ וְלֹא בְּפוֹעַל.

It is the faculty of daat—a prolonged and constant involvement in the subject being contemplated—that reveals and actualizes the emotive experience of love or fear.

That is why the term daat is applied to coition,67 for it signifies a bond that results in issue, just as out of daat are born the emotions.

וְלָכֵן נִקְרָא הַזִּיוּוּג בִּלְשׁוֹן "דַּעַת", מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הִתְקַשְּׁרוּת.

This is the faculty of daat tachton, the lower level of daat, which extends into the attributes and vests itself in them to animate and sustain them.

וְזֶהוּ בְּחִינַת דַּעַת תַּחְתּוֹן [נוסח אחר: הַדַּעַת הַתַּחְתּוֹן], הַמִּתְפַּשֵּׁט בַּמִּדּוֹת וּמִתְלַבֵּשׁ בָּהֶן לְהַחֲיוֹתָן וּלְקַיְּימָן.

There is also a faculty of daat elyon, a superior level of daat, through which the source of the intellect that apprehends the profundity of a concept is bound and connected [to it]—

וְיֵשׁ בְּחִינַת דַּעַת הָעֶלְיוֹן, שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת הִתְקַשְּׁרוּת וְחִיבּוּר מְקוֹר הַשֵּׂכֶל הַמַּשִּׂיג עוֹמֶק הַמּוּשָּׂג,

like a point or a flash of lightning that flashes over one’s mind—

שֶׁהוּא כִּנְקוּדָּה וּכְבָרָק הַמַּבְרִיק עַל שִׂכְלוֹ,

so that [the concept] will extend downward.

שֶׁיִּתְפַּשֵּׁט לְמַטָּה

The profundity of the apprehended concept will thereby come to be understood

וְיָבֹא עוֹמֶק הַמּוּשָּׂג לִידֵי הֲבָנָה,

with extensive clarification, in length and breadth,

בְּהַרְחָבַת הַבֵּיאוּר בְּאוֹרֶךְ וְרוֹחַב,

this stage being the function of the faculty of binah, which is known as rechovot hanahar (lit., “the expanses of the river”), as will be explained in its place.68

שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת בִּינָה, הַנִּקְרֵאת "רְחוֹבוֹת הַנָּהָר", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

The faculty of daat elyon unifies chochmah with binah. For chochmah is the intuitive flash of illumination that would vanish as quickly as it appeared, if it were not anchored by daat in the comprehension of binah, whereby this seminal point assumes length and breadth. Chochmah is thus likened to a wellspring whose waters issue forth drop by drop while binah is likened to a broad and deep river. It is the function of daat elyon to draw the wellsprings of chochmah into the river of binah.

The function of daat tachton, by contrast, is that of binding the intellective faculties of ChaBaD with their resultant emotions so that one’s intellectual activity will illuminate them and provide them with vitality and continuity.

In summary, this discourse demonstrates how all the ten faculties of the Divine soul engage in an ongoing relationship with their G-dly source. Indeed, to recall the Alter Rebbe’s opening lines, an understanding of this dynamic within oneself enables one to experience the truth of the verse, “From my flesh shall I behold G-d,’’ and to gain some measure of understanding of the supernal sefirot.