Now although above, in the lofty worlds of infinitude, this illumination shines and extends itself in unlimited and infinite fashion,

וְהִנֵּה, הֶאָרָה זוֹ, אַף שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה הִיא מְאִירָה וּמִתְפַּשֶּׁטֶת בִּבְחִינַת בְּלִי גְבוּל וְתַכְלִית,

to animate worlds that are infinitely concealed,

לְהַחֲיוֹת עוֹלָמוֹת נֶעְלָמִים לְאֵין קֵץ וְתַכְלִית,

I.e., there are infinite kinds of worlds, each of which is of infinite degree,

as is written in the Idra Rabba;11

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּאִדְרָא רַבָּא,

nevertheless, as [this radiance] descends by means of numerous contractions,

אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן, בְּרִדְתָּהּ לְמַטָּה עַל־יְדֵי צִמְצוּמִים רַבִּים

to animate the beings that have been created, formed, and made,

לְהַחֲיוֹת הַנִּבְרָאִים וְהַיְצוּרִים וְהַנַּעֲשִׂים,

In their Hebrew original, these three verbs allude respectively to the beings that inhabit the Worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah. Accordingly, we understand that previously, reference was being made to the World of Atzilut and to those infinite worlds that are “higher” than Atzilut.

it is divided primarily into 613 [rays], corresponding to the 613 commandments of the Torah.

הִיא נֶחְלֶקֶת דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לְמִסְפַּר תַּרְיַ"ג, כְּנֶגֶד תַּרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת הַתּוֹרָה,

These [commandments] are in fact 613 kinds of conduits which transmit this radiance from the [infinite] Ein Sof-light,

שֶׁהֵן הֵן תַּרְיַ"ג מִינֵי הַמְשָׁכוֹת הֶאָרָה זוֹ מֵאוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

[whose function is] to illumine man’s soul, which comprises 248 “organs” and 365 “sinews,” totaling 613 elements,

לְהָאִיר לְנִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם הַכְּלוּלָה מֵרַמַ"ח אֵבָרִים וְשַׁסַ"ה גִידִים,

for it was mainly for the sake of [man’s soul] that this radiance was caused to flow down below,

אֲשֶׁר בַּעֲבוּרָהּ הוּא עִיקַּר תַּכְלִית יְרִידַת וְהַמְשָׁכַת הֶאָרָה זוֹ לְמַטָּה

to all those beings which have been created, formed, and made, their respective locations in the Worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah being “below” the loftier worlds of infinite degree,

לְכָל הַנִּבְרָאִים וְהַיְצוּרִים וְהַנַּעֲשִׂים,

since the ultimate purpose of all these [beings], as is known, is man.

שֶׁתַּכְלִית כּוּלָּן הוּא הָאָדָם, כַּנּוֹדָע:

Thus, G-d’s Being is indeed utterly uncompounded so that there cannot possibly be any division into “parts.” Nevertheless, with regard to the radiance that descends below, (whose main purpose is that it permeate the Jewish soul,) the concept of “parts” does apply.

The abovementioned rays are the 613 basic “parts” into which the radiance is diffused. More specifically, as the Alter Rebbe now goes on to say, each of these general “parts” subdivides into an infinite number of smaller “parts.”

Now, this number—i.e., the above division of the Divine radiance into 613 “parts,” corresponding to the 613 commandments—is the primary, basic division.

וְהִנֵּה, מִסְפָּר זֶה הוּא בְּדֶרֶךְ כְּלָל,

More specifically, however, every single commandment subdivides into infinite details.

אֲבָל בְּדֶרֶךְ פְּרָט, הִנֵּה כָּל מִצְוָה וּמִצְוָה מִתְחַלֶּקֶת לִפְרָטִים רַבִּים לְאֵין קֵץ וְתַכְלִית,

These are the essentials of the detailed rulings of every commandment, which are without number,

וְהֵן הֵן גּוּפֵי הֲלָכוֹת פְּרָטִיּוֹת שֶׁבְּכָל מִצְוָה – שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם מִסְפָּר,

as it is written, “Sixty are the queens,”12 which [as our Sages comment13] alludes to the sixty tractates….

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְלָכוֹת" הֵן ס' מַסֶּכְתּוֹת כוּ',

[The same verse continues:] “…and maidens without number,” which [as our Sages comment] alludes to the innumerable rulings of the individual laws,

"וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר" הֵן הַהֲלָכוֹת כוּ',

for they are a downward flow from the supreme will…, which is infinite.

שֶׁהֵן הַמְשָׁכַת רָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן כוּ'.

The Alter Rebbe now goes on to say that just as the soul is made up of 248 “organs” and 365 “sinews” so that it may absorb the luminosity of the 613 general rays, so, too, are souls further divisible so that they may absorb the infinite degrees of the more differentiated rays.

It is precisely so with man’s soul, which has the means to absorb the innumerable details of the downward flow of Divine radiance,

וְכֵן הוּא מַמָּשׁ בְּנִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם,

for all the souls in the world were comprised in Adam.14

כִּי הִנֵּה, כָּל הַנְּשָׁמוֹת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הָיוּ כְּלוּלוֹת בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן,

Basically, his soul was divisible into 613 elements, consisting of 248 “organs” and 365 “sinews.”

וְדֶרֶךְ כְּלָל, הָיְתָה נִשְׁמָתוֹ נֶחְלֶקֶת לְמִסְפַּר תַּרְיַ"ג: רַמַ"ח אֵבָרִים וְשַׁסַ"ה גִידִים,

More specifically, however, his soul was divisible into innumerable sparks,

אַךְ דֶּרֶךְ פְּרָט, נֶחְלֶקֶת לְנִיצוֹצוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר,

which are the souls of all of Israel from the days of the Patriarchs and the [founders of the Twelve] Tribes, up to and including the time of the coming of Mashiach,

שֶׁהֵן נִשְׁמוֹת כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִימוֹת הָאָבוֹת וְהַשְּׁבָטִים עַד בִּיאַת הַמָּשִׁיחַ וְעַד בִּכְלָל,

when [the promise of] Scripture will be fulfilled: “And the number of the Children of Israel will be like the sand of the sea, that cannot be measured nor counted,”15 “because of its great quantity.”16

שֶׁיְּקוּיַּם אָז מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב: "וְהָיָה מִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּחוֹל הַיָּם, אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִמַּד וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר" מֵרוֹב.

We understand from the above that Adam’s soul (which comprised the innumerable sparks of individual souls) was capable of receiving the infinitely numerous detailed emanations from the radiance of the supreme will, which ultimately animates all of the individual Jewish souls.