To explain:

וּבֵיאוּר הָעִנְיָן,

What characteristics of the soul also characterize Havayah, the Four-Letter Name of G-d, and thus indicate that the soul is indeed a part of that Name? In answer to this question, the Alter Rebbe now explains that just as the ten sefirot are included within the Tetragrammaton, so, too, there are ten corresponding faculties that are intrinsic to the soul.

There is a well-known statement of Eliyahu, in the passage entitled Patach Eliyahu, in the introduction to Tikkunei Zohar: “You are He Who elicited the ten tikkunim (lit., ‘garments’), which we call the ten sefirot, by which to conduct the concealed worlds…[and the revealed worlds…].28

כַּנּוֹדָע מִמַּאֲמַר אֵלִיָּהוּ: "אַנְתְּ הוּא דְאַפִּיקַת עֲשַׂר תִּיקּוּנִין, וְקָרִינָן לְהוֹן עֲשַׂר סְפִירָן, לְאַנְהָגָא בְהוֹן עָלְמִין סְתִימִין וְכוּ',

You are wise but not with a knowable attribute of wisdom;

אַנְתְּ חַכִּים וְלָא בְחָכְמָה יְדִיעָא,

You understand but not with a knowable attribute of understanding; and so on”—with regard to the remaining sefirot.

אַנְתְּ מֵבִין וְלָא בְּבִינָה יְדִיעָא וְכוּ'".

All the ten sefirot are included and represented in their source, the Tetragrammaton.

וְכָל הַי' סְפִירוֹת נִכְלָלוֹת וְנִרְמָזוֹת בְּשֵׁם הַוָיָ' בָּרוּךְ־הוּא.

The Alter Rebbe now shows how the various sefirot find expression in the four letters that comprise this Divine Name, Havayah.

The yud, which is a simple point, extending in neither length nor breadth, indicates G-d’s wisdom, the sefirah of chochmah,

כִּי הַיּוּ"ד, שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת נְקוּדָּה לְבַד, מְרַמֶּזֶת לְחָכְמָתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

which is the state of concealment and obscurity before it develops into a state of expansion and revelation in comprehension and understanding.

שֶׁהִיא בִּבְחִינַת הֶעְלֵם וְהֶסְתֵּר קוֹדֶם שֶׁבָּאָה לִבְחִינַת הִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת וְגִילּוּי הַהַשָּׂגָה וְהַהֲבָנָה

(29The “thorn” above30 the yud indicates the supreme will, this being the level of keter, which transcends by far the level of chochmah ila’ah, supernal wisdom, as is known.)

(וְהַקּוֹץ שֶׁעַל הַיּוּ"ד רוֹמֵז לִבְחִינַת רָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה מִמַּדְרֵגַת בְּחִינַת חָכְמָה עִילָּאָה, כַּנּוֹדָע).

When [the seminal “point” of chochmah] is eventually amplified and revealed as something comprehensible to the concealed worlds, i.e., when it descends to the level and sefirah of binah,

וְאַחַר שֶׁבָּאָה לִבְחִינַת הִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת וְגִילּוּי הַהַשָּׂגָה וְהַהֲבָנָה לְעָלְמִין סְתִימִין

it is then contained and represented in the letter hey of the Tetragrammaton. This letter extends in breadth, implying a breadth of explanation and understanding, which is the function of binah.

נִכְלֶלֶת וְנִרְמֶזֶת בְּאוֹת הֵ"א, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בְּחִינַת הִתְפַּשְּׁטוּת לָרוֹחַב, הַמּוֹרֶה וּמְרַמֵּז עַל הַרְחָבַת הַבֵּיאוּר וְהַהֲבָנָה,

[The letter hey] also extends in length to indicate extension and flow downward into the concealed worlds.

וְגַם לָאוֹרֶךְ, הַמּוֹרֶה עַל בְּחִינַת הַהַמְשָׁכָה וְהַהַשְׁפָּעָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה לְעָלְמִין סְתִימִין.

The hidden worlds are nourished from the level of binah so that they may have an understanding of G-dliness.

In the next stage, when this extension and flow are drawn still lower into the revealed worlds,

וְאַחַר כָּךְ, כְּשֶׁנִּמְשֶׁכֶת הַמְשָׁכָה וְהַשְׁפָּעָה זוֹ יוֹתֵר לְמַטָּה לְעָלְמִין דְּאִתְגַּלְיָין,

which may be compared, by way of analogy, to one who wishes31 to reveal his thoughts to another through his speech,

וּכְמוֹ הָאָדָם שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְגַלּוֹת חָכְמָתוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים עַל־יְדֵי דִיבּוּרוֹ עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל –

this extension is contained and represented in the [final] letters vav and hey [of the Tetragrammaton],

נִכְלֶלֶת וְנִרְמֶזֶת הַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ בְּאוֹתִיּוֹת ו"ה,

for the letter vav, which is shaped like a vertical line, indicates downward extension.

כִּי הַוָּי"ו מוֹרָה עַל הַהַמְשָׁכָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה.

There is another connection between this stage and the letter vav:

Also, this downward flow into the revealed worlds is effected through the Divine traits of benevolence and goodness and [G-d’s] other holy traits, included in general terms in the six attributes, the numerical equivalent of vav, in the verse, “Yours, O G-d, is greatness…”32 until “Yours, O G-d, is sovereignty…,” but not including it.

וְגַם הַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ הִיא עַל־יְדֵי מִדַּת חַסְדּוֹ וְטוּבוֹ וּשְׁאָר מִדּוֹתָיו הַקְּדוֹשׁוֹת, הַנִּכְלָלוֹת בְּדֶרֶךְ כְּלָל בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁשׁ, שֶׁבַּפָּסוּק: לְךָ ה' הַגְּדוּלָּה וְכוּ'" עַד "לְךָ ה' הַמַּמְלָכָה וְכוּ'", וְלֹא "עַד" בִּכְלָל.

For His attribute of sovereignty is called the “Word of G-d” (and speech is not one of the middot, the spiritual emotive attributes),

כִּי מִדַּת מַלְכוּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ נִקְרֵאת בְּשֵׁם "דְּבַר ה'",

as in the verse, “Wherever the word of the king holds sway.”33

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "בַּאֲשֶׁר דְּבַר מֶלֶךְ שִׁלְטוֹן",

Supernal speech, then, is related to malchut, G-d’s sovereignty.

This [attribute of sovereignty] is contained and represented in the final hey of the Tetragrammaton, in the following manner:

וְנִכְלֶלֶת וְנִרְמֶזֶת בְּאוֹת הֵ"א אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁל שֵׁם הַוָיָ',

The internal aspect and the source of speech is the breath that rises from the heart, then is particularized into the five oral articulations (five being the numerical equivalent of the letter hey). [One of these produces the bracket of letters] alef, chet, hey, and ayin from the throat, another produces the bracket of letters beit, vav, mem, and pey from the lips, and so on.

כִּי פְּנִימִיּוּת וּמְקוֹר הַדִּיבּוּר, הוּא הַהֶבֶל הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַלֵּב וּמִתְחַלֵּק לְה' מוֹצָאוֹת הַפֶּה: אחה"ע מֵהַגָּרוֹן וְכוּ',

At any rate, the internal aspect of speech is breath.

In particular, the enunciation of the letter hey is solely unvocalized breath,

וְגַם הֲבָרַת הַהֵ"א הִיא בְּחִינַת הֶבֶל לְבַד,

as in the phrase, “A light letter without substance.”34

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּקְרֵאת: "אָתָא קַלִּילָא דְּלֵית בָּהּ מְשָׁשָׁא".

Emanating, as it does, solely from the breath, it alludes to the level of malchut and speech, whose internal aspect is “breath.”

Now “He has no corporeal form,” G-d forbid.

וְאַף שֶׁאֵין לוֹ דְמוּת הַגּוּף חַס וְשָׁלוֹם,

How, then, can one differentiate Above between those letters that possess substance and those that do not?

Nevertheless, “the Torah speaks as in the language of men.”

אַךְ דִּבְּרָה תוֹרָה כִּלְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם,

Since on the mortal plane, this differentiation exists, it is also applied to the Divine plane, for spiritually, too, there exists a corresponding difference between the letter hey and the other letters.

Moreover (i.e., there is yet another reason why this analogy is apt, notwithstanding the fact that G-d has no corporeal form):


for G-d’s speech as well consists, as it were, of twenty-two letters that separate into the five articulations that produce the Divine speech from which all beings were created.

שֶׁגַּם "דְּבַר ה'" – כ"ב אוֹתִיּוֹת, הַמִּתְחַלְּקוֹת לְה' חֶלְקֵי הַמּוֹצָאוֹת, וּבָהֶן נִבְרָא כָּל הַיְצוּר

(35For a discussion of these letters and their significance, see Likkutei Amarim, Part II, ch. 11.)

(וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּלִקּוּטֵי־אֲמָרִים חֵלֶק ב׳ פֶּרֶק י"א, בֵּיאוּר עִנְיַן אוֹתִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ).

We thus see that all the ten sefirot are included and represented within the Tetragrammaton. The Alter Rebbe now goes on to explain that likewise within the soul, which is part of the Tetragrammaton, there exist ten corresponding levels or faculties.

Analogously, exactly the same applies to the soul of man, again keeping in mind the infinite separation between the Creator and the created soul,

וְכָכָה מַמָּשׁ עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, הַמַּבְדִּיל הַבְדָּלוֹת לְאֵין קֵץ, בְּנִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם,

which is the divine soul which “He blew from within Himself.”

שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת נֶפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹקִית – דְּמִתּוֹכֵיהּ נָפַח,

Since the soul derives from the internal aspect of G-dliness, the Tetragrammaton, which comprises the ten sefirot, the soul likewise comprises the following characteristics:

There is [the initial state of chochmah,] the hidden concept alluded to by the letter yud,

יֵשׁ בָּהּ בְּחִינַת שֵׂכֶל הַנֶּעְלָם, הַמְרוּמָּז בְּאוֹת יוּ"ד,

Just as the letter yud lacks length and breadth and is but a simple point, so, too, is chochmah a faculty that lacks intellectual length and breadth, merely—

possessing the potential of being revealed and thereby understanding and conceiving G-d’s true existence and greatness,

שֶׁבְּכֹחוֹ לָצֵאת אֶל הַגִּילּוּי, לְהָבִין וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ וּבִגְדוּלָּתוֹ וְכוּ',

in each person according to his measure, according to the breadth of his intellect and understanding.

כָּל חַד וְחַד לְפוּם שִׁיעוּרָא דִּילֵיהּ, לְפִי רוֹחַב שִׂכְלוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ.

While the degree of one’s comprehension of G-dliness depends on the breadth of one’s intellect, a Jew’s essential ability to find G-d’s true being and greatness securely integrated in his mind stems from the soul’s attribute of chochmah, alluded to in the letter yud.

As a man deepens his intelligence, as he broadens his mind and comprehension to contemplate G-d’s greatness,

וּכְפִי אֲשֶׁר מַעֲמִיק שִׂכְלוֹ וּמַרְחִיב דַּעְתּוֹ וּבִינָתוֹ לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בִּגְדוּלָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

his now developed understanding, the faculty of binah, is alluded to by the letter hey, that has breadth, indicating the breadth of his understanding.

אֲזַי – מְרוּמֶּזֶת בִּינָתוֹ בְּאוֹת הֵ"א, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ רוֹחַב,

[The hey] also has length, to indicate downward extension,

וְגַם אוֹרֶךְ, הַמּוֹרֶה עַל הַהַמְשָׁכָה מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה,

so that from his understanding and contemplation of G-d’s greatness, he arouses love and fear and their offspring, i.e., the other emotive attributes, which are termed the offspring or branches of love and fear,

לְהוֹלִיד מִבִּינָתוֹ וְהִתְבּוֹנְנוּתוֹ בִּגְדוּלַּת ה' אַהֲבָה וְיִרְאָה וְתוֹלְדוֹתֵיהֶן

in his mind and in the recesses of his heart,

בְּמוֹחוֹ וְתַעֲלוּמוֹת לִבּוֹ,

At this early stage in the generation of the spiritual emotions of love and fear, and so on, they are not yet manifest.

until ultimately, they find overt expression in his heart.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ – בִּבְחִינַת הִתְגַּלּוּת לִבּוֹ.

The downward progression of intellect into the realm of emotions is thus indicated by the vertical length of the letter hey.

These [spiritual emotions] lead to the true service of G-d, in Torah study and mitzvah observance, with voice and speech or with deed.

וּמִזֶּה נִמְשְׁכָה עֲבוֹדָה הָאֲמִיתִּית בְּעֵסֶק הַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוֹת, בְּקוֹל וְדִבּוּר אוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה,

True divine service is that which is motivated by the love and awe of G-d, as explained above in Part I, ch. 4.

This is the import of the [final] letters vav and hey [of the Four-Letter Name, Havayah]…, for vav alludes to voice and speech while hey alludes to action.

הֵן אוֹתִיּוֹת וָא"ו הֵ"א וְכוּ'.

Furthermore, contemplation that endeavors to understand and conceive of G-d’s true being also derives from the Torah,

וְגַם הַהִתְבּוֹנְנוּת לְהָבִין וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתָּתוֹ וּגְדוּלָּתוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, נִמְשְׁכָה גַם כֵּן מֵהַתּוֹרָה,

I.e., such contemplation must necessarily be preceded by the study of the Torah,

for “Torah proceeds from chochmah,”36 which is the yud of the Tetragrammaton.

דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא מֵחָכְמָה נָפְקָא, הִיא בְּחִינַת יוּ"ד שֶׁל שֵׁם הַוָיָ' וְכוּ':