In describing earlier the fear a Jew should possess for G-d, the Alter Rebbe said that it should be similar to the fear felt “when one stands before a king,” for G-d is omnipresent and observes all man’s actions.

A question arises: When one stands before a king, he is not only being seen by the king, but he is also looking at him, and this helps him to stand in fear of him. In the analogue, however, this is not the case: though G-d, the King, sees him, he fails to see G-d.

The Alter Rebbe will now respond to this question by saying that there is yet another means by which an individual may awaken within himself the fear of G-d—by being able to “see” the King. For by observing heaven and earth and all the created beings that inhabit them and realizing that they all derive their life from G-d, he will have fear of Him.

In addition to this, one should remember that, as in the case of a mortal king, the fear of him relates mainly to his inner essence and vitality and not to his body—for when he is asleep, though his body does not change, there is no fear of him,

וְעוֹד זֹאת יִזְכּוֹר, כִּי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁבְּמֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם עִיקַּר הַיִּרְאָה הִיא מִפְּנִימִיּוּתוֹ וְחַיּוּתוֹ וְלֹא מִגּוּפוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁיָּשֵׁן – אֵין שׁוּם יִרְאָה מִמֶּנּוּ,

This is because while he sleeps, his inner essence and vitality are in a state of concealment. Clearly, then, they are the main reason for fearing a king while he is awake.

and, surely, his inner essence and vitality are not perceived by physical eyes but only by the mind’s eye,

וְהִנֵּה, פְּנִימִיּוּתוֹ וְחַיּוּתוֹ, אֵין נִרְאֶה לְעֵינֵי בָשָׂר, רַק בְּעֵינֵי הַשֵּׂכֶל –

through the physical eyes’ beholding his body and garments and knowing that his vitality is clothed in them.

עַל יְדֵי רְאִיַּית עֵינֵי בָשָׂר בְּגוּפוֹ וּלְבוּשָׁיו, שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁחַיּוּתוֹ מְלוּבָּשׁ בְּתוֹכָם,

This, in turn, leads the beholder to fear him.

And if this is so, then surely in the analogue as well: not only is the king seeing him, but he is seeing the king as well, and this causes him to fear G-d. Moreover,

וְאִם כֵּן,

he must truly likewise fear G-d when gazing with his physical eyes at the heavens and earth and all their hosts, wherein is clothed the [infinite] light of the blessed Ein Sof that animates them.

כָּכָה מַמָּשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ לִירֹא אֶת ה', עַל יְדֵי רְאִיַּית עֵינֵי בָשָׂר בַּשָּׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ וְכָל צְבָאָם, אֲשֶׁר אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מְלוּבָּשׁ בָּהֶם לְהַחֲיוֹתָם.

The Alter Rebbe will now say that by looking at heaven and earth, one not only becomes aware of their G-dly vitalizing force but also perceives how the world and all its inhabitants are truly nullified to the divine life-force.

This can be perceived by observing the stars and planets, all of which travel in a westerly direction. In doing so, they express their nullification to the Shechinah, the Divine Presence, which is in the west.

And it is also seen with a glance of the eye that they are nullified to His blessed light by the fact that they “prostrate” themselves every day toward the west at the time of their setting. As the Rabbis, of blessed memory, commented on the verse: “…and the hosts of the heavens bow before You,”28 that the Shechinah abides in the west,

וְגַם נִרְאֶה בִּרְאִיַּית הָﬠַיִן, שֶׁהֵם בְּטֵלִים לְאוֹרוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ בְּהִשְׁתַּחֲוָואָתָם כָּל יוֹם כְּלַפֵּי מַﬠֲרָב בִּשְׁקִיﬠָתָם, – כְּמַאֲמַר רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה ﬠַל פָּסוּק: "וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים" – שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה בַּמַּﬠֲרָב,

hence, not only do the heavenly hosts show their self-abnegation when they set in the west, but their daily orbit westward is a kind of prostration and self-nullification.

וְנִמְצָא – הִילּוּכָם כָּל הַיּוֹם כְּלַפֵּי מַﬠֲרָב הוּא דֶּרֶךְ הִשְׁתַּחֲוָואָה וּבִיטּוּל.

We find it written that if the sun, moon, and planets were to follow their natural characteristics, they would travel in an easterly, rather than in a westerly, direction. That they do not do so testifies to their constant self-nullification to the Divine Presence, which is found in the west. For the four points of the compass are rooted in the supernal sefirot, and malchut—the level of the Shechinah—is in the west. Thus, even man’s eye observes the self-nullification of creation to the divine life-force.

Even he who has never seen the king and does not recognize him at all, nevertheless, when he enters the royal court,

וְהִנֵּה, גַּם מִי שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ מֵעוֹלָם, וְאֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ כְּלָל, אַף־ﬠַל־פִּי־כֵן כְּשֶּׁנִכְנָס לַחֲצַר הַמֶּלֶךְ

“There, the king is not revealed at all: it is not the place of his royal throne and the like. (In the analogue, this refers to the physical world, in which various proofs are necessary in order to bring about self-nullification to the King.)”—Note by the Rebbe.

and sees many eminent nobles prostrating themselves before one man,

וְרוֹאֶה שָׂרִים רַבִּים וְנִכְבָּדִים מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לְאִישׁ אֶחָד –

“The person who enters and looks superficially is unable to detect a difference between him and the other men present.”—Note by the Rebbe.

there falls on him a dread and awe.

תִּפּוֹל ﬠָלָיו אֵימָה וָפַחַד:

So, too, the self-nullification before G-d shown by the awesome creatures, such as the heavenly bodies, enables one to be in fear and awe of Him.

However, the question may be asked: When one gazes at the body of a physical king, he sees before him beyond a shadow of a doubt the king himself. He therefore can extrapolate intellectually about the inner essence and vitality of the king and come to fear him. This is not so, however, with regard to physical creatures. The divine life-force is so concealed within them through so many garbs of concealment that it is quite possible for one to gaze at them and fail to be aware that their bodies are but garments to the divine life-force they contain.

The Alter Rebbe now goes on to say that it is therefore important for a person who observes physical created beings to cultivate the habit of immediately recalling that within the concealment of their external trappings and garments, there is to be found the G-dliness that animates them. By doing so, one is then able to perceive the divine life-force found within the world.

And although many garments are involved in this vestiture so that when one gazes at created beings, one does not perceive that they are but garments to their divine life-force,

וְאַף שֶׁהוּא עַל יְדֵי הִתְלַבְּשׁוּת בִּלְבוּשִׁים רַבִּים,

there is no difference or distinction at all in the fear of a mortal king, whether he be naked29 or clothed in one or many garments.

הֲרֵי אֵין הֶבְדֵּל וְהֶפְרֵשׁ כְּלָל בְּיִרְאַת מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא עָרוֹם, וּבֵין שֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ לְבוּשׁ אֶחָד, וּבֵין שֶׁהוּא לָבוּשׁ בִּלְבוּשִׁים רַבִּים.

It is the realization that the king is found within the garments that creates the fear of him. And the same, the Alter Rebbe will conclude, is true here. When a person becomes accustomed to remember that when he gazes upon created beings, he is in reality gazing upon the King’s garments, he will then come to fear Him.

The essential thing, however, is the training to habituate one’s mind and thought continuously so that it always remain imprinted in his heart and mind,

אֶלָּא הָעִיקָּר הוּא הַהֶרְגֵּל, לְהַרְגִּיל דַּעְתּוֹ וּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ תָּמִיד, לִהְיוֹת קָבוּעַ בְּלִבּוֹ וּמוֹחוֹ תָּמִיד,

that everything one sees with his eyes—the heavens and earth and all they contain—constitutes the outer garments of the king, the Holy One, blessed be He.

אֲשֶׁר כָּל מַה שֶּׁרוֹאֶה בְּעֵינָיו, הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ, הַכֹּל הֵם לְבוּשִׁים הַחִיצוֹנִים שֶׁל הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

In this way, he will constantly remember their inwardness and vitality, which is G-dliness. This will create within him a fear of G-d.

וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה – יִזְכּוֹר תָּמִיד עַל פְּנִימִיּוּתָם וְחַיּוּתָם.

The Rebbe explains that what now follows answers a question: How can we possibly say here that the nullification of the world to G-d is a concept that can be perceived intellectually, when in ch. 33, the Alter Rebbe explained that this was a matter of faith? In this chapter, too, we have learned that it is a matter of faith—“that all Jews are believers, descendants of believers,” and so on. Faith and intellect are not only distinct entities, they are antithetical; for example, when something is understood, faith is not necessary.

The Alter Rebbe therefore now goes on to explain that this intellectual perception is also implicit in the word emunah (“faith”). For this word is etymologically rooted in the word uman (“artisan”). In order for an artisan with a talent for painting, creating vessels, or whatever to be successful, he must habituate and train his hands; only then will they reveal the latent talents of the artistry found in his soul.

The same is true here: The soul of every Jew possesses the abovementioned faith. However, in order for this faith to be actualized so that one’s actions will be in consonance with it, one must habituate and train himself to realize that all he sees—heaven and earth and all of creation—are but G-d’s external garments. By constantly remembering that their inwardness is G-dliness, the soul’s essential faith will be revealed and will affect one’s actions. His bodily organs will then follow the dictates of his faith.

This is also implicit in the word emunah (“faith”), which is a term indicating “training” to which a person habituates himself, like a craftsman who trains his hands and so forth.

וְזֶה נִכְלָל גַּם כֵּן בִּלְשׁוֹן "אֱמוּנָה", שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן רְגִילוּת, שֶׁמַּרְגִּיל הָאָדָם אֶת עַצְמוֹ, כְּמוֹ אוּמָן הַמְאַמֵּן יָדָיו וְכוּ'.

The Rebbe notes that “who trains his hands” means: “He is cognizant of the craft in his soul; he has a natural talent for it but needs only to train his hands so that it will find tangible expression in his actions (be it through art, or fashioning vessels, or the like).”

Thus, the analogue contains both aspects: The king sees the individual, and he sees the king, as it were, by looking at created beings and perceiving through them the divine life-force that vitalizes them.

The Rebbe notes that the reason the Alter Rebbe now goes on to say “There should also be…” is that until now, it has been explained how a Jew generates the fear of heaven through intellectual contemplation. The degree of fear he arouses will correspond exactly to the extent of his contemplation; the deeper the contemplation, the greater his fear. It also depends on how much each individual is governed by his intellect. Furthermore, it is too much to expect that all people constantly achieve a state of intellectual awareness—yet all people are obliged to stand in constant fear of heaven. The Alter Rebbe therefore now goes on to elaborate on a frame of mind which can and must exist constantly—“acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven.” This is not attained through contemplation. Rather, it comes as a result of faith alone—and this state can exist constantly in all individuals.

There should also be a constant remembrance (it is constant because it does not depend on prior contemplation but rather on pure faith) of the dictum of the Sages, of blessed memory, “acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven,” which parallels the injunction, “You shall appoint a king (i.e., G-d) over you,”30

וְגַם לִהְיוֹת לְזִכָּרוֹן תָּמִיד – לְשׁוֹן חֲכָמֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה, "קַבָּלַת עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם", שֶׁהוּא כְּעִנְיַן "שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ",

as has been explained elsewhere, and so on.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר וְכוּ',

This is also what the Alter Rebbe says earlier in the Tanya (beginning of ch. 41): “Even though after all this [meditation], no fear or dread descends upon him in a manifest manner in his heart,” still, he should accept upon himself G-d as his king and accept upon himself the yoke of the heavenly Kingdom. As the Alter Rebbe explains there, this attribute is found within every Jew in a sincere manner because of the nature of Jewish souls not to rebel against G-d, the King of kings. This level of fear can therefore always be present.

For G-d, blessed be He, forgoes the creatures of the higher and lower worlds, i.e., they are not the ultimate intent of creation, and uniquely bestows His kingdom upon us…and we accept [the heavenly yoke].

כִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מַנִּיחַ אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, וּמְיַיחֵד מַלְכוּתוֹ עָלֵינוּ וְכוּ', וַאֲנַחְנוּ מְקַבְּלִים וְכוּ',

And this is the significance of the obeisances in the prayer of the Eighteen Benedictions following the verbal acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven in the Reading of Shema, when we say, “…the L-rd is our G-d, the L-rd is one,” and so on,

וְזֶהוּ עִנְיַן הַהִשְׁתַּחֲוָואוֹת שֶׁבִּתְפִלַּת י"ח, אַחַר קַבָּלַת עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם בְּדִבּוּר בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע,

whereby one accepts it once again in actual deed and so on (for by bowing in the course of the prayer of the Amidah, one shows one’s acceptance in actual deed of one’s self-nullification to G-d), as is explained elsewhere.

לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַבֵּל בְּפוֹעַל מַמָּשׁ, בְּמַעֲשֶׂה וְכוּ', כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר: