he will also rejoice doubly in the joy and pleasure which his faith brings to G-d.

עוֹד זֹאת יִשְׂמַח בְּכִפְלַיִים בְּשִׂמְחַת ה' וְגוֹדֶל נַחַת רוּחַ לְפָנָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ בֶּאֱמוּנָה זוֹ,

For thereby, through one’s faith in G-d’s unity, the sitra achara is truly subdued, and darkness is transformed to light,

דְּאִתְכַּפְיָא סִטְרָא אָחֳרָא מַמָּשׁ וְאִתְהַפֵּךְ חֲשׁוֹכָא לִנְהוֹרָא,

meaning the darkness of the kelipot of this corporeal world, which obscure and conceal G-d’s light

שֶׁהוּא חֹשֶׁךְ הַקְּלִיפּוֹת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַחוּמְרִי הַמַּחֲשִׁיכִים וּמְכַסִּים עַל אוֹרוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ

until the End of Days, as it is written, “He sets an end to darkness.”8

עַד עֵת קֵץ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "קֵץ שָׂם לַחֹשֶׁךְ"

(The Biblical phrase, “the End of Days,” is written קֵץ הַיָּמִין; since יָמִין (Aram.) means “days” and יְמִין (Heb.) means “right,” the phrase thus intimates that “in the End of Days, G-d will reveal His right hand”—a reference to His attribute of revelation, when He will banish the spirit of impurity from the earth, and “G-d’s glory, the G-dliness within every created being, will be revealed, and all flesh together will behold [it].”9 That is to say, not only the mind but even the very flesh of man will perceive G-dliness, as will be explained further.10)

[דְּהַיְינוּ, "קֵץ הַיָּמִין", שֶׁיַּעֲבִיר רוּחַ הַטּוּמְאָה מִן הָאָרֶץ, "וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד ה', וְרָאוּ כָל בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּיו", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן].

This banishment of the sitra achara will take place only at “the End of Days,” during the Messianic era. Until then, however, while the darkness of kelipah still reigns over the earth, one affords G-d gratification by crushing the sitra achara and transforming its darkness into light by means of his faith, and man’s realization of this fact intensifies his own joy in his faith.

This is especially so in the Diaspora, where the atmosphere is unclean and is filled with kelipot and sitra achara.

וּבִפְרָט בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁאֲוִיר אֶרֶץ הָעַמִּים טָמֵא וּמָלֵא קְלִיפּוֹת וְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא,

There is no greater joy for G-d than the light and joy caused by transforming darkness into light when the light has the superior quality acquired by coming out of the very darkness.

וְאֵין שִׂמְחָה לְפָנָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ כְּאוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה בְּיִתְרוֹן אוֹר הַבָּא מִן הַחֹשֶׁךְ דַּיְיקָא.

Thus, when a Jew in the Diaspora is pervaded with an awareness of G-d’s unity, His joy is all the greater. It follows too that the more lowly one’s spiritual position, the greater the Divine joy when he acquires an awareness of G-d’s unity.

We have seen so far, then, that one’s faith in G-d’s unity leads him to a twofold joy: joy in his closeness to G-d and joy in the knowledge that his faith brings joy to G-d.

This is the meaning of the verse, “Let Israel rejoice in its Maker”11 (note the expression “Maker,” not “Creator” or the like):

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "יִשְׂמַח יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעוֹשָׂיו",

Whoever is of the seed of Israel ought to rejoice in the joy of G-d, Who is happy and joyous with His abode among the creatures of the lower spheres, who are on the level of actual physical Asiyah.

פֵּירוּשׁ, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מִזֶּרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל – יֵשׁ לוֹ לִשְׂמוֹחַ בְּשִׂמְחַת ה', אֲשֶׁר שָׂשׂ וְשָׂמֵחַ בְּדִירָתוֹ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנִים, שֶׁהֵם בְּחִינַת עֲשִׂיָּה גַשְׁמִיִּית מַמָּשׁ.

The word translated “in its Maker” (בְּעוֹשָׂיו) shares a common root with עֲשִׂיָּה, the lowest level of creation. With this abode in particular ought Israel rejoice, knowing that G-d’s joy is especially great when the creations in Asiyah, the very lowest world, become an abode for Him.

For this reason, the plural form—בְּעוֹשָׂיו—is used.

וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתוּב "בְּעוֹשָׂיו" – לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים,

The literal meaning of the verse is: “Let Israel rejoice in its Makers.” Why the use of a plural expression in reference to G-d?

The Alter Rebbe explains that since G-d is spoken of here as the “Maker” of the world of Asiyah, the domain of kelipot, whose nature is arrogance and therefore separation and self-centeredness, the Divine creative power is referred to in the plural, for it is fragmented, so to speak. There is a multitude of created beings, each separate from the other, each animated by the Divine creative power, hence a plurality of “Makers,” so to speak.

But this fault becomes a cause for still greater Divine joy when these separate beings at the level of Asiyah unite in G-d’s unity. This unification of creation is another achievement of man’s faith in G-d’s unity, for this faith subdues the sitra achara, which causes disunity.

As stated above, it is the earlier darkness which enhances the light that replaces it. Thus, the greater the darkness, the more superior the subsequent light.

In the Alter Rebbe’s words:

This plural expression—“Makers”—refers to our physical world that is filled with kelipot and sitra achara, which are called “a public domain,” i.e., a domain of multiplicity, and “mountains of separation,” in that they are arrogant and separate from one another.

שֶׁהוּא עוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַגַּשְׁמִי הַמָּלֵא קְלִיפּוֹת וְסִטְרָא אָחֳרָא, שֶׁנִּקְרָא "רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים" וְ"טוּרֵי דִפְרוּדָא",

G-d’s joy in the fusion of this plurality is aroused when, through this faith in G-d’s unity, they (the kelipot) are transformed into light, and they become a “private domain”—i.e., a unified realm—for G-d’s unity.

וְאִתְהַפְּכָן לִנְהוֹרָא, וְנַעֲשִׂים "רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד" לְיִחוּדוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, בֶּאֱמוּנָה זוֹ: