But in the case of prayer [recited] with kavanah and Torah [studied] with kavanah lishmah,

אֲבָל בִּתְפִלָּה בְּכַוָּונָה וְתוֹרָה בְּכַוָּונָה לִשְׁמָהּ,

the kavanah is clothed in (i.e., permeates) the letters of speech, since it is their source and root,

הֲרֵי הַכַּוָּונָה מִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בְּאוֹתִיּוֹת הַדִּבּוּר, הוֹאִיל וְהִיא מָקוֹר וְשֹׁרֶשׁ לָהֶן,

for he speaks these words for, and because of, this kavanah.

שֶׁמֵּחֲמָתָהּ וּבְסִיבָּתָהּ הוּא מְדַבֵּר אוֹתִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ,

Therefore, the kavanah elevates the words to its own level,

לָכֵן הִיא מַעֲלָה אוֹתָן עַד מְקוֹמָהּ

meaning to the ten sefirot of either Yetzirah or Beriah,

בְּי' סְפִירוֹת דִּיצִירָה אוֹ דִבְרִיאָה,

depending on the type of kavanah—whether a kavanah of intellectual fear and love, in which case they ascend to Beriah, or natural fear and love, which elevates them to Yetzirah, as explained above.

לְפִי מַה שֶּׁהִיא הַכַּוָּונָה בִּדְחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ שִׂכְלִיִּים אוֹ טִבְעִיִּים כוּ', כַּנִּכְתָּב לְעֵיל.

At any rate, the kavanah which is spiritual elevates the material words to the sefirot of Yetzirah or Beriah.

There, in the sefirot, the Ein Sof-light shines forth and is revealed,

וְשָׁם מֵאִיר וּמִתְגַלֶּה אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

meaning the blessed Divine will vested in the letters and in the kavanah of the Torah that one studies or the Divine will in prayer and in its kavanah or in a mitzvah and in its kavanah.

שֶׁהוּא רָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, הַמְלוּבָּשׁ בְּאוֹתִיּוֹת הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁלּוֹמֵד וּבְכַוָּונָתָן, אוֹ בִּתְפִלָּה וּבְכַוָּונָתָהּ, אוֹ בְּמִצְוָה וּבְכַוָּונָתָהּ,

One’s kavanah, too, expresses the Divine will, for G-d desires that man cleave to Him with love and fear.

This Ein Sof-light of the Divine will radiates in the sefirot with an infinitely great brightness that can by no means shine forth and be revealed while the letters of Torah and prayer and the mitzvah are still in this physical world.

בְּהֶאָרָה גְדוֹלָה לְאֵין קֵץ, מַה שֶּׁלֹּא יָכוֹל לְהָאִיר וּלְהִתְגַלּוֹת כְּלָל בְּעוֹד הָאוֹתִיּוֹת וְהַמִּצְוָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַגַּשְׁמִי,

The Torah and the mitzvot contain the radiance of Divine will even as they are in this physical world. But this radiance is altogether incomparable to the radiance of Divine will that Torah and mitzvot contain when they ascend to the sefirot of Yetzirah or Beriah, for

neither the radiance itself that shines forth in the sefirot nor any part of it can be revealed in this physical world.

לֹא מִינָּהּ וְלֹא מִקְצָתָהּ,

This disparity between the respective levels of radiance of the Divine will in the sefirot and in this world will remain until the era of the End of Days, when the world will rise out of its materiality, and “The glory of G-d will be revealed…for all flesh to behold,9 as explained above10 at length.

עַד עֵת קֵץ הַיָּמִין, שֶׁיִּתְעַלֶּה הָעוֹלָם מִגַּשְׁמִיּוּתוֹ, "וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד ה' וְגוֹ'", כַּנִּכְתָּב לְעֵיל בַּאֲרִיכוּת.

At that time, the Divine will contained in the Torah and mitzvot of this world will shine forth in all its splendor. Until then, however, this radiance is incomparable to that of the Divine will contained in the Torah and mitzvot insofar as they ascend to the sefirot.

In the following note, the Alter Rebbe states that the revelation of Divine will in a particular World, caused by the ascent of Torah and mitzvot thereto—a revelation which he describes as “an hour of ‘(Divine) will’ or ‘(Divine) Favor’”—produces a reaction in the middot of that World: With the revelation of Divine will, the middot fuse, and the attributes of severity are “sweetened,” or tempered, with kindness. This, in turn, results in an increased flow of Divine kindness into our world.

This effect of the mitzvot is felt primarily in the fusion of the middot of Atzilut.

There, in the higher Worlds, there also shines forth and is revealed the supernal union effected by every mitzvah and by Torah study,

וְשָׁם מֵאִיר וּמִתְגַּלֶּה גַּם כֵּן הַיִּחוּד הָﬠֶלְיוֹן הַנַּﬠֲשֶׂה בְּכָל מִצְוָה וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה,

namely, the union of G-d’s middot.

שֶׁהוּא יִחוּד מִדּוֹתָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

These middot fuse with each other, and the Gevurot (the attributes of “severity”) are “sweetened” by Chasadim (the attributes of “kindness”)

שֶׁנִּכְלָלוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ, וְנִמְתָּקוֹת הַגְּבוּרוֹת בַּחֲסָדִים,

through the “Hour of will (favor) of the blessed Ein Sof, ” i.e., the revelation of the will of the Ein Sof, which shines forth and reveals itself in abundant and intense revelation,

ﬠַל יְדֵי ﬠֵת רָצוֹן הָﬠֶלְיוֹן אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, הַמֵּאִיר וּמִתְגַּלֶּה בִּבְחִינַת גִּילּוּי רַב וְﬠָצוּם,

by reason of the “arousal (of man) below,” consisting of the performance of a mitzvah or occupation in Torah in which the supernal will of the blessed Ein Sof is clothed.

בְּאִתְﬠָרוּתָא דִלְתַתָּא הִיא ﬠֲשִׂיַּית הַמִּצְוָה אוֹ ﬠֵסֶק הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁבָּהֶן מְלוּבָּשׁ רָצוֹן הָﬠֶלְיוֹן אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא.

The revelation of Divine will (i.e., the will clothed in Torah and mitzvot) produces a fusion of the middot and a “sweetening” of Gevurot in whatever World the Torah and mitzvot ascend to.

But the main unity caused by Torah and mitzvot takes place far higher, in the World of Atzilut,

אַךְ ﬠִיקַּר הַיִּחוּד הוּא לְמַﬠְלָה מַּﬠְלָה בְּעוֹלַם הָאֲצִילוּת,

where the core and essence of G-d’s middot are united with their Emanator, the Ein Sof, blessed be He,

שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא מַהוּת וְﬠַצְמוּת מִדּוֹתָיו יִתְבָּרֵךְ, מְיוּחָדוֹת בְּמַאֲצִילָן אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

and there is found the core and essence of the supernal will of the blessed Ein Sof,

וְשָׁם הוּא מַהוּת וְﬠַצְמוּת רָצוֹן הָﬠֶלְיוֹן אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא,

of which a mere glimmer radiates in Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah—in each of these Worlds according to its rank.

וְהֶאָרָתָן לְבַד הִיא מְאִירָה בִּבְרִיאָה יְצִירָה ﬠֲשִׂיָּה, בְּכָל עוֹלָם מֵהֶן לְפִי מַﬠֲלָתוֹ.

Now, although the soul of the person engaging in this Torah study or mitzvah does not stem from Atzilut,

וְאַף שֶׁנֶּפֶשׁ הָאָדָם הָעוֹסֵק בְּתוֹרָה וּמִצְוָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ מֵאֲצִילוּת,

nevertheless, He is able to effect unity in the middot of Atzilut because the supernal will, which is clothed in this mitzvah, and in the case of Torah, it is not merely “clothed” in it, but furthermore—it is indeed the very Halachah and Torah that he is studying—

מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי רָצוֹן הָﬠֶלְיוֹן הַמְלוּבָּשׁ בְּמִצְוָה זוֹ, וְהוּא הוּא ﬠַצְמוֹ הַדְּבַר הֲלָכָה וְהַתּוֹרָה שֶׁעוֹסֵק בָּהּ,

this supernal will is G-dliness and is the Ein Sof-light of the Emanator [of the sefirot of Atzilut], since He and His will are one,

הוּא אֱלֹהוּת וְאוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף הַמַּאֲצִיל בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, שֶׁהוּא וּרְצוֹנוֹ אֶחָד,

and this supernal will is actually the source of the middot since it was by His will that He emanated His middot, which are united with Himself.

וּבִרְצוֹנוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ הֶאֱצִיל מִדּוֹתָיו הַמְיוּחָדוֹת בּוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

Therefore, by means of the revelation of His will caused by one’s engaging in Torah or in a particular mitzvah, the middot fuse with each other,

וְﬠַל יְדֵי גִּילּוּי רְצוֹנוֹ הַמִּתְגַּלֶּה ﬠַל יְדֵי ﬠֵסֶק תּוֹרָה וּמִצְוָה זוֹ, הֵן נִכְלָלוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ

and the Gevurot are sweetened by Chasadim at this “hour of revealed, favorable will.’’

וְנִמְתָּקוֹת הַגְּבוּרוֹת בַּחֲסָדִים, בְּﬠֵת רָצוֹן זוֹ:

Having stated that love and fear of G-d elevate one’s Torah and mitzvot on high, the Alter Rebbe continues:

This explains clearly why fear and love are figuratively called “wings,” as it is written: “And with two wings he flies,”11 alluding to the two middot of love and fear

וּבָזֶה יוּבַן הֵיטֵב, הָא דִּדְחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ נִקְרָאִין "גַּדְפִין" דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, כְּדִכְתִיב: "וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף"

(12as Rabbi Chaim Vital, of blessed memory, stated in Shaar Hayichudim,13 ch. 11), that wings are for a bird what arms are for a man; just as it is written, “chesed (corresponding to love) is the right arm and gevurah (fear) the left arm,” similarly, the “wings” represent these two middot.

[וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב הָרַב חַיִּים וִיטַאל זִכְרוֹנוֹ לִבְרָכָה בְּשַׁעַר הַיִּחוּדִים פֶּרֶק י"א], שֶׁהַכְּנָפַיִם בָּעוֹף הֵן זְרוֹעוֹת הָאָדָם כוּ';

It is also explained in Tikkunei Zohar, that those who engage in Torah and mitzvot out of fear and love are called “children”;

וּבַתִּיקּוּנִים פֵּירְשׁוּ, שֶׁהָעוֹסְקִים בְּתוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת בִּדְחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ – נִקְרָאִים "בָּנִים",

otherwise (i.e., if their Torah and mitzvot lack the fear and love of G-d), they are called “fledglings” who cannot fly.

וְאִם לָאו – נִקְרָאִים "אֶפְרוֹחִים", דְּלָא יָכְלִין לְפָרְחָא.

In this note, the Alter Rebbe elaborates on the correspondence of “wings” to fear and love. He quotes Tikkunei Zohar, where the subject is treated extensively.

In Tikkun 45, it is written that [the figure of] a bird represents the archangel Metatron.

וּבְתִיקּוּן מ"ה, דְּעוֹפָא הוּא מט"ט,

His head is the letter yud of the Divine Name (yud-hey-vav-hey), the yud representing chochmah; his body is the vav, the six middot; and his two wings are the two tetters hey and hey, representing binah and malchut, respectively.

רֵישָׁא דִילֵיהּ – י', וְגוּפָא – וָא"ו, וּתְרֵין גַּדְפִין – ה' ה' כוּ',

This corresponds to the World of Yetzirah, which is called Metatron.

וְהַיְינוּ עוֹלַם הַיְצִירָה שֶׁנִּקְרָא מט"ט,

Thus, applying the various elements of the figure to their corresponding aspects in Yetzirah, we obtain:

14Vav, the “body” of Metatron, represents the “body” of the laws in the Mishnah (since Mishnah is at the level of Yetzirah, as will soon be explained), for the “body” of the laws, i.e., the actual rulings determining what is permitted or forbidden, who is guilty or innocent, and the like, are related to the middot, which are represented by the letter vav.

וּבוֹ הֵן גּוּפֵי הֲלָכוֹת שֶׁבַּמִּשְׁנָה,

His head represents intelligence—the level of ChaBaD, which are, in terms of the Mishnah, the inner depth of the laws, their esoteric meaning, and their reasons.

וְרֵישָׁא דִילֵיהּ הֵן הַמּוֹחִין וּבְחִינוֹת חָכְמָה בִּינָה דַּﬠַת, שֶׁהֵן פְּנִימִיּוּת הַהֲלָכוֹת וְסוֹדָן וְטַﬠֲמֵיהֶן,

The two “wings” denoting flight, namely fear and love, represent [respectively]: the higher hey, which is an allusion prevalent in the literature of the Kabbalah to love,

וּתְרֵין גַּדְפִין דְּחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ הֵן ה' ﬠִילָּאָה, שֶׁהִיא רְחִימוּ,

and the lower hey, alluding to “lower-level fear,” namely, “the yoke of the Heavenly Kingdom” and the dread of G-d similar to the dread of a king.

וְה' תַּתָּאָה הִיא יִרְאָה תַּתָּאָה, עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם וּפַחַד ה', כְּפַחַד הַמֶּלֶךְ דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל,

Such fear is external and revealed and is therefore alluded to by the lowest level (i.e., letter) of the Divine Name.

שֶׁהִיא יִרְאָה חִיצוֹנִית וְנִגְלֵית;

“Higher-level fear,” however, meaning “awe consisting of shame before G-d’s greatness,” is of those “hidden matters belonging to G-d, our L-rd.”

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן יִרְאָה ﬠִילָּאָה, יְרֵא בּוֹשֶׁת, הִיא מֵ"הַנִּסְתָּרוֹת לַה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ",

It is on the level of supernal wisdom, alluded to by the yud of the Four-letter Divine Name, blessed be He, as is written in Raaya Mehemna.

וְהִיא בְּחָכְמָה ﬠִילָּאָה יוּ"ד שֶׁל שֵׁם הֲוָיָ"ה בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּרַﬠְיָא מְהֵימְנָא:

We see, at any rate, that love and fear of G-d are described as “wings.” According to what has been said above concerning the role of love and fear in elevating one’s Torah and mitzvot, the analogy is clearly understood, as follows:

The wings of a bird are not its main components; its life does not depend on them at all,

כִּי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכַּנְפֵי הָעוֹף אֵינָם עִיקַּר הָעוֹף, וְאֵין חַיּוּתוֹ תָּלוּי בָּהֶם כְּלָל,

for as the Mishnah implies,15 a bird whose wings were removed is kosher.

כְּדִתְנַן: "נִיטְּלוּ אֲגַפֶּיהָ – כְּשֵׁרָה",

Rather, the main parts are its head and the rest of its body; the wings merely serve the head and body, enabling them to fly.

וְהָעִיקָּר, הוּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְכָל גּוּפוֹ, וְהַכְּנָפַיִים אֵינָם רַק מְשַׁמְּשִׁים לְרֹאשׁוֹ וְגוּפוֹ לְפָרְחָא בְּהוֹן;

Likewise with Torah and mitzvot: They constitute the essential supernal union by the revelation of supernal will which they cause;

וְכָךְ דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל, הַתּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת הֵן עִיקַּר הַיִּחוּד הָעֶלְיוֹן, עַל יְדֵי גִילּוּי רָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן הַמִּתְגַּלֶּה עַל יְדֵיהֶן,

fear and love, like wings, [merely] elevate the Torah and mitzvot to a place where this will—the blessed Ein Sof-light—and this unity can be revealed, namely, Yetzirah and Beriah.

וְהַדְּחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ – הֵם מַעֲלִים אוֹתָן לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּתְגַּלֶּה בּוֹ הָרָצוֹן אוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא וְהַיִּחוּד, שֶׁהֵן יְצִירָה וּבְרִיאָה.

To his statement that Beriah and Yetzirah are the place to which Torah and mitzvot are elevated and where the union caused by them is revealed, the Alter Rebbe adds:

Or even in Asiyah, in the ten holy sefirot [of that World], the abode of the mitzvot consisting of action.

אוֹ אֲפִילוּ בַּﬠֲשִׂיָּה בְּי' סְפִירוֹת דִּקְדוּשָּׁה, מְקוֹם מִצְוֹת מַﬠֲשִׂיּוֹת,

Performing these mitzvot out of “submission to the heavenly yoke” elevates the mitzvot to the sefirot of Asiyah and reveals the supernal union there. For such submission is related to G-d’s attribute of Sovereignty (malchut), which pervades Asiyah; moreover, these mitzvot are performed at the level of action, which corresponds to Asiyah.

Likewise with [the study of] Scripture.

וְכֵן מִקְרָא.

This, too, is related to Asiyah, for the mitzvah of studying Scripture requires one to recite the holy words, and speech is considered a minor form of action.

But in the case of Mishnah, the union and the blessed Ein Sof-light are revealed in Yetzirah.

אֲבָל בְּמִשְׁנָה מִתְגַּלֶּה הַיִּחוּד וְאוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא בִּיצִירָה,

The halachic rulings contained in the Mishnah are derived from the middot: the attribute of chesed dictates that a particular object be deemed kosher or a litigant judged innocent, while gevurah dictates that it be ruled unkosher and the litigant pronounced guilty, and so on. The Mishnah is therefore on the level of Yetzirah, the World of middot.

In the case of Talmud, [the union and Ein Sof-light are revealed] in Beriah16for the Talmud seeks out the logic underlying the Mishnaic laws; it is thus related to ChaBaD, which are manifest in Beriah.

וּבְתַּלְמוּד בִּבְרִיאָה.

This does not mean, however, that the union effected by the study of Mishnah, for example, takes place only in Yetzirah, and that effected by study of Scripture only in Asiyah, etc. Were this the intention, an obvious difficulty would arise: Scripture is holier than Mishnah (as indicated by the law that one may place the Scriptures on top of a book of Mishnah but not vice versa) and Mishnah holier than Talmud. Why then should the revelation of the Ein Sof-light created by their (respective) study be in reverse order, with Talmud, the least holy of the three, effecting a revelation in Beriah, the highest of the three Worlds?

We must, perforce, say that:

This means that by the study of Scripture, the union and [revelation of] the blessed Ein Sof-light extends from Atzilut downward till the World of Asiyah;

דְּהַיְינוּ, שֶׁבְּלִימּוּד מִקְרָא מִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַיִּחוּד וְאוֹר־אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מֵאֲצִילוּת ﬠַד הָﬠֲשִׂיָּה,

through study of Mishnah, only till Yetzirah; and through Talmud, only till Beriah;

וּבְמִשְׁנָה ﬠַד הַיְצִירָה לְבַדָּהּ, וּבְתַּלְמוּד ﬠַד הַבְּרִיאָה לְבַדָּהּ,

for all of them (Scripture, Mishnah, and Talmud) are in Atzilut and effect the union and revelation there. The difference between them lies only in how “far” from Atzilut the impact of the study reaches.

כִּי כּוּלָּן בַּאֲצִילוּת.

Kabbalah, however, effects a union and revelation in Atzilut that does not extend at all to the lower WorldsBeriah, Yetzirah, or Asiyah, as is written in Pri Etz Chaim.

אֲבָל קַבָּלָה אֵינָהּ מִתְפַּשֶּׁטֶת כְּלָל מֵאֲצִילוּת לִבְרִיאָה יְצִירָה ﬠֲשִׂיָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּפְרִי ﬠֵץ חַיִּים: