After these words and this truth, which are manifest and known to all, let us return to the original subject, concerning anger—where a person [who is angry] is likened to an idolater.52

וְאַחַר הַדְּבָרִים וְהָאֶמֶת הָאֵלֶּה הַגְּלוּיִם וִידוּעִים לַכֹּל, נַחֲזוֹר לְעִנְיָן רִאשׁוֹן, בְּעִנְיַן הַכַּעַס – שֶׁהוּא "כְּעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה־זָרָה",

This is so only with regard to mundane matters, for “everything is in the hands of heaven except for the fear of heaven.”53

וְהַיְינוּ – בְּמִילֵּי דְעָלְמָא, כִּי "הַכֹּל בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם חוּץ מִיִּרְאַת שָׁמַיִם",

Since everything is in G-d’s hands, there is no reason to become angry. However, with regard to matters involving the “fear of heaven,” anger does have a place.

Hence, with respect to heavenly matters, to “ward [a fellow Jew] from [transgressing] a prohibition,”54 the reason stated does not apply, for these matters are not in G-d’s hands but in man’s.

וְלָכֵן, בְּמִילֵּי דִשְׁמַיָּא – לְאַפְרוּשֵׁי מֵאִיסּוּרָא לֹא שַׁיָּיךְ הַאי טַעֲמָא דַּאֲמָרָן,

As it is written, “And Moses was angry.”55

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "וַיִּקְצוֹף מֹשֶׁה",

This was because G-d caused him to encounter this mitzvah of “warding [a fellow Jew] from [transgressing] a prohibition” in order to make him meritorious.

וְהַיְינוּ, מִשּׁוּם כִּי ה' הִקְרָה לְפָנָיו מִצְוָה זוֹ, לְאַפְרוּשֵׁי מֵאִיסּוּרָא, כְּדֵי לְזַכּוֹתוֹ:

Thus, this situation is obviously quite different from being angry at someone because of harm or offense.

But this applies only when one is able to prevent [transgression] by his wrath and anger against his fellow-man; in such a case, he is permitted to become angry, as did Moses.

אַךְ זֶהוּ כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ לִמְחוֹת בְּקִצְפּוֹ וְכַעֲסוֹ עַל חֲבֵירוֹ,

However, when he is unable to change the situation, as in the case of the heathen56 who talks and confuses him while he is praying,

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין בְּיָדוֹ לִמְחוֹת, כְּגוֹן נָכְרִי הַמְדַבֵּר וּמְבַלְבְּלוֹ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ,

[the question] then [arises]: What is this that G-d has done to him, that a gentile should disrupt his prayers?

אִם כֵּן מַה זֹּאת עָשָׂה ה' לוֹ,

This is so only in order that he prevail and strengthen himself ever more in his prayers, from the depths of his heart, and with such intense concentration

אֵין זֹאת, כִּי אִם – כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְגַּבֵּר וְיִתְאַמֵּץ יוֹתֵר בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ, בְּעוֹמֶק הַלֵּב וּבְכַוָּונָה גְדוֹלָה כָּל כָּךְ,

that he will not hear the gentile’s talk.

עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמַע דִּבּוּרֵי הַנָּכְרִי.

However, for such a level, one needs a great and intense arousal.

אַךְ, שֶׁלְּמַדְרֵגָה זוֹ צָרִיךְ הִתְעוֹרְרוּת רַבָּה וַעֲצוּמָה.

And the counsel suggested to attain such an arousal derives from this very subject.

וְעֵצָה הַיְּעוּצָה לְהִתְעוֹרְרוּת זוֹ, הִיא מֵעִנְיָן זֶה עַצְמוֹ,

One should consider and meditate on the concept of the descent of the Shechinah, as it were—how “it descended in wondrous fashion”57 to have a spark of its radiance invested [within the kelipot].

כְּשֶׁיָּשִׂים אֶל לִבּוֹ וְיִתְבּוֹנֵן עִנְיַן יְרִידַת הַשְּׁכִינָה כִּבְיָכוֹל, "וַתֵּרֶד פְּלָאִים", לְהִתְלַבֵּשׁ נִיצוֹץ מֵהֶאָרָתָהּ,

It is generally in a state of exile among the kelipot in order to animate them.

אֲשֶׁר הִיא בִּבְחִינַת גָּלוּת בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּלִיפּוֹת דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לְהַחֲיוֹתָם,

And now, a spark of its radiance vests itself in a particular state of exile,

וְעַתָּה הַפַּעַם, נִיצוֹץ הֶאָרָתָהּ מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בִּבְחִינַת גָּלוּת דֶּרֶךְ פְּרָט,

in the speech of this gentile who utters words that disturb one’s Divine service, i.e., one’s devout concentration during prayer.

בְּדִבּוּר נָכְרִי זֶה, הַמְדַבֵּר דְּבָרִים הַמְבַלְבְּלִים עֲבוֹדַת ה', הִיא כַּוָּונַת הַתְּפִלָּה,

And, as explained above, “[G-d created] this opposite that,”58 each element of the holy “side” of the universe having its unholy counterpart on the “other side,” the sitra achara.

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵיל, כִּי "זֶה לְעוּמַּת זֶה וְכוּ'",

Thus, the supernal speech vests itself in the nether speech, and so on.

וְדִבּוּר הָעֶלְיוֹן מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בַּדִּבּוּר הַתַּחְתּוֹן וְכוּ',

I.e., supernal speech vests itself in a lower degree of speech, ultimately descending through a self-screening chain of descent until it provides life-force even for the kelipot.

This indeed is the meaning of the verse, “That man rules over man to his detriment,”59 which was explained above in terms of the temporary dominion of the “evil man” (of kelipah) over the “sacred man” (the holy “side” of the universe).

וְזֶהוּ מַמָּשׁ "אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַט הָאָדָם בְּאָדָם לְרַע לוֹ",

When this gentile utilizes the spark which is exiled within himself to hinder a Jew who is trying to pray, the kelipot are manifestly ruling over the holy “side” of the universe. The forces of holiness, however, can thereby be invigorated and vitalized when the worshipper reacts by upgrading his concentration.

This he will be prompted to do when he meditates on the above-described descent of the Shechinah into exile. And from this exile, he will seek to liberate it.

In the words of the Alter Rebbe:

That is to say that through this [meditation], the individual is aroused to pray with greater devotion, from the depth of his heart, until he will not hear [the gentile’s] words.

דְּהַיְינוּ, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה מִתְעוֹרֵר הָאָדָם לְהִתְפַּלֵּל יוֹתֵר בְּכַוָּונָה מֵעוּמְקָא דְלִבָּא, עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמַע דִּיבּוּרָיו.

The above explains the statement of the Baal Shem Tov in Tzavaat Harivash, that the Shechinah vests itself in this gentile. For everything in this world houses a spark of holiness, and within this gentile, the spark is present in a state of exile, for the reason explained above.

As for the compiler [of Tzavaat Harivash] using the word shartah, meaning that the Shechinah “dwelt” or “abided” within this gentile,

וּמַה שֶּׁכָּתַב הַמְלַקֵּט "שָׁרְתָה" –

he did not know how to determine the precise term,

לֹא יָדַע לְכַוֵּין הַלָּשׁוֹן בְּדִקְדּוּק,

for the Baal Shem Tov, of blessed memory, used to deliver Torah teachings in Yiddish, not in the Holy Tongue.

כִּי הַבַּעַל־שֵׁם־טוֹב זִכְרוֹנוֹ לִבְרָכָה הָיָה אוֹמֵר דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה בִּלְשׁוֹן אִידִישׁ וְלֹא בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקּוֹדֶשׁ,

The compiler, translating these discourses into Hebrew, transmitted their content, not their precise terminology, and in this case, he erred.

He really meant to say nitlabshah (“became vested”), for shartah (“dwelt” or “abided”) implies that the Shechinah was revealed,

וְרָצָה לוֹמַר "נִתְלַבְּשָׁה",

whereas [nitlabshah] means [that the Shechinah was vested] in a state of exile.

וְהַיְינוּ בִּבְחִינַת גָּלוּת.

This [distinction] explains [the emphasis in Tzavaat Harivash], “And especially if he is a gentile…,”

וְזֶהוּ "וּבִפְרָט אִם הוּא נָכְרִי כוּ'".

Were we to be speaking of a manifest indwelling of the Shechinah, how could it be said that the Divine Presence resides to a greater extent within this gentile who is disturbing a Jew at prayer than within the worshipper? Rather, we are speaking of a self-obscuring investiture of the Shechinah within the gentile—

for then it is so much more in exile.

שֶׁאָז הִיא בְּחִינַת גָּלוּת בְּיוֹתֵר.

There is no need to wonder at a spark of the radiance of the Shechinah being referred to (in Tzavaat Harivash) as Shechinah.

וְאֵין לִתְמוֹהַּ אִם נִיצוֹץ מִן הֶאָרַת שְׁכִינָה נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "שְׁכִינָה",

For we find that even a created angel, which is not a spark of the Shechinah, is referred to by G-d’s Name in Parashat Vayera in the verse, “And he said, ‘Lord, do not pass by your servant,’”60 according to the commentary of R. Moses Nachmanides (Ramban);

דְּהָא אַשְׁכְּחָן, שֶׁאֲפִילוּ מַלְאָךְ נִבְרָא, נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם ה' בְּפָרָשַׁת וַיֵּרָא לְפֵירוּשׁ הָרַמְבַּ"ן,

and as it is likewise written, “And [Hagar] called the name of G-d Who spoke to her…,”61 where we are explicitly told that we are speaking of an angel; and many more [passages] like this.

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם ה' הַדּוֹבֵר אֵלֶיהָ וְכוּ'", וּכְהַאי גַּוְנָא טוּבָא.