Now, this light, hidden away for the righteous for the Time to Come, is termed (as above) the “pleasantness of G-d,” and the “pleasurable thirst” of “delighting in G-d,”

וְהִנֵּה, אוֹר זֶה הַגָּנוּז לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא, הַנִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "נוֹעַם ה'" וְ"צַחְצָחוֹת", לְהִתְעַנֵּג עַל ה',

and also “the 400 Worlds of Longing in which the tzaddikim delight…”26 as it is written, “400 shekalim of silver (kesef)….”27

וְ"ד' מֵאוֹת עָלְמִין דְּכִסּוּפִין דְּמִתְעַנְּגֵי בְּהוֹן צַדִּיקַיָּיא כוּ'", כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: "אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף כוּ'"

The Aramaic phrase translated “Worlds of Longing” is almin dekisufin. The root of the second word (כסף) means not only “silver” but also “longing” (as in the phrase nichsof nichsafta28). Hence, the Kabbalah relates the above reference to “400 shekalim of kesef” to the 400 Worlds of Longing, whose spiritual delights are reserved for tzaddikim.

This [light] comprises very many rungs and levels, one superior to the other.

הִנֵּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ מַעֲלוֹת וּמַדְרֵגוֹת רַבּוֹת מְאֹד, גָּבוֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבוֹהַּ,

But the minute radiance, which descends level after level to create this garment that garbs the soul, belongs to the lowest level of this light.

אַךְ הֶאָרָה מוּעֶטֶת הַיּוֹרֶדֶת מַדְרֵגָה אַחַר מַדְרֵגָה לִבְרוֹא לְבוּשׁ זֶה, הִיא מִבְּחִינַת מַדְרֵגָה הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁבְּאוֹר זֶה,

Metaphorically speaking, it is referred to as the external level, or achorayim,

וְנִקְרֵאת בְּשֵׁם "מַדְרֵגָה הַחִיצוֹנָה" וַ"אֲחוֹרַיִים" דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל,

as stated in the Zohar, p. 208b (29cf. the commentary entitled Mikdash Melech30) and 210b: “And that which is left…,” meaning that the light which is the source of the garment is of the most external or hindmost level.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּזֹּהַר דַּף ר"ח עַמּוּד ב' (עַיֵּין בְּסֵפֶר "מִקְדַּשׁ מֶלֶךְ") וְר"י עַמּוּד ב': וּמַה דְאִשְׁתְּאַר כוּ'.

The Alter Rebbe now goes on to explain that the external level of this radiance, from which these garments derive, is called the supernal will. Will, as is soon to be explained, is the external aspect (i.e., a consequence) of pleasure, or delight.

Now, in the soul of man, there is a faculty for pleasure: [the soul] takes pleasure in what it finds pleasurable,31 as in the conception of a new insight, or the like.

וְהִנֵּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁבְּנִשְׁמַת הָאָדָם יֵשׁ בָּהּ כֹּחַ הַתַּעֲנוּג שֶׁמִּתְעַנֶּגֶת מִמַּה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ עֹנֶג מִמֶּנּוּ, כְּמוֹ מֵהַשְׂכָּלַת שֵׂכֶל חָדָשׁ וּכְהַאי גַּוְנָא,

The external and hindmost aspect of [the soul’s] power and state of delight is its faculty of will, willing that which it wills, i.e.,32 something that is not painful, for pain is the opposite of delight.

וּבְחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת וַאֲחוֹרַיִים שֶׁל כֹּחַ וּבְחִינַת הַתַּעֲנוּג שֶׁבָּהּ – הִיא בְּחִינַת כֹּחַ הָרָצוֹן שֶׁבָּהּ, שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה מַה שֶּׁהוּא רוֹצֶה, דְּהַיְינוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ צַעַר, שֶׁהַצַּעַר – הֵיפֶךְ הַתַּעֲנוּג.

A person desires something because it gives him pleasure. Thus, pleasure is the “inner” (or motivating) aspect of desire, which is considered “external” (i.e., consequent) to it.

Metaphorically speaking, it is the same with the [infinite] Ein Sof-light, as it were:

וְכָכָה עַל דֶּרֶךְ מָשָׁל בְּאוֹר אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, גַּם כֵּן, כִּבְיָכוֹל,

The supernal will is the external and hindmost aspect (i.e., the resultant chitzoniyut and achorayim) of the abovementioned supernal delight, the “pleasantness of G-d,” the “pleasurable thirst,” and the “Worlds of Longing.”

הָרָצוֹן הָעֶלְיוֹן בָּרוּךְ־הוּא הִיא בְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת וַאֲחוֹרַיִים לִבְחִינַת "עֹנֶג הָעֶלְיוֹן" וְ"נוֹעַם ה'" וְ"צַחְצָחוֹת" וְ"עָלְמִין דְּכִסּוּפִין" הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל.

Thus, when we state that the garment for the soul derives from the achorayim and chitzoniyut of the supernal delight, this means that it derives from the supernal will.

Though these—the supernal delight and the supernal will—are fused in absolute unity, for [G-d] and His Will are one,

הֲגַם שֶׁהֵם מְיוּחָדִים בְּתַכְלִית הַיִּחוּד, שֶׁהוּא יִתְבָּרֵךְ וּרְצוֹנוֹ אֶחָד,

and not (heaven forfend) like the will of man, neither wholly nor partially,

וְלֹא כִּרְצוֹן הָאָדָם חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, לֹא מִינֵּיהּ וְלֹא מִקְצָתֵיהּ,

there being no similarity whatsoever between them,

וְאֵין דִּמְיוֹן בֵּינֵיהֶם כְּלָל,

Man’s will is not wholly one with the person himself; it is one of the soul-faculties that he possesses. By contrast, G-d and His Will are one. How, then, can we differentiate Above between Pleasure and Will, saying that G-d’s Pleasure is internal and His Will is external?

nevertheless, “the Torah speaks in human idiom”33 in order “to modulate for the ear what it is able to hear,”34 with allegory and metaphor relating to the soul of man, which compounds the faculty of delight, will, wisdom, understanding, and so on.

אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן, דִּבְּרָה תוֹרָה כִּלְשׁוֹן בְּנֵי אָדָם, לְשַׁכֵּךְ הָאֹזֶן מַה שֶּׁיְּכוֹלָה לִשְׁמוֹעַ בְּמָשָׁל וּמְלִיצָה מִנִּשְׁמַת הָאָדָם הַכְּלוּלָה מִכֹּחַ הַתַּעֲנוּג וְהָרָצוֹן וְהַחָכְמָה וְהַבִּינָה וְכוּ',

Just as in man, pleasure is described as “internal” and will as “external,” so do we describe the corresponding attributes Above.

This is empirically evident, for when a person conceives some wonderful new insight, then at that moment, at least, a wondrous delight is born35 in his mind.

וְכַנִּרְאֶה בְּחוּשׁ, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאָדָם מַשְׂכִּיל אֵיזֶה שֵׂכֶל חָדָשׁ נִפְלָא, אֲזַי, בְּאוֹתָהּ רֶגַע עַל כָּל פָּנִים נוֹלָד לוֹ תַּעֲנוּג נִפְלָא בְּשִׂכְלוֹ,

Thus, it follows that the capacity for pleasure surpasses by far the faculty of intellect and wisdom; it merely is vested in the faculty of intellect and wisdom.

מִכְּלָל, שֶׁהַתַּעֲנוּג הוּא לְמַעְלָה מַּעְלָה מִבְּחִינַת הַשֵּׂכֶל וְהַחָכְמָה, רַק שֶׁמְּלוּבָּשׁ בִּבְחִינַת שֵׂכֶל וְחָכְמָה,

Thus, when a man feels [a subject of] intellect and wisdom, that is, he apprehends and understands it well, he then also senses the faculty of pleasure which is vested in the [subject of] wisdom.

וּכְשֶׁהָאָדָם מַרְגִּישׁ הַשֵּׂכֶל וְחָכְמָה, דְּהַיְינוּ – שֶׁמַּשִּׂיגָהּ וּמְבִינָהּ הֵיטֵב, אֲזַי, מַרְגִישׁ גַּם כֵּן בְּחִינַת הַתַּעֲנוּג הַמְלוּבָּשׁ בַּחָכְמָה.

That is why in the sacred Zohar,36 the faculty of binah is referred to as “the World to Come.”

וְלָכֵן נִקְרֵאת בְּחִינַת בִּינָה בְּשֵׁם "עוֹלָם־הַבָּא" בַּזּוֹהַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ,

For it is the state of manifestation of chochmah, together with the delight vested in it, which the righteous in the Garden of Eden apprehend and conceive [new insights] in the pnimiyut (i.e., the innermost, mystical dimension) of the Torah.

שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת הִתְגַּלּוּת הַחָכְמָה עִם הַתַּעֲנוּג הַמְלוּבָּשׁ בָּהּ, שֶׁמַּשִּׂיגִים הַצַּדִּיקִים בְּגַן עֵדֶן וּמַשְׂכִּילִים בִּפְנִימִיּוּת הַתּוֹרָה,

For the Torah derives from chochmah,37 and38 the Torah and the Holy One, blessed be He, are entirely one.39

דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא מֵחָכְמָה נָפְקָא, וְאוֹרַיְיתָא וְקוּדְשָׁא־בְּרִיךְ־הוּא כּוּלָּא חַד:

Thus, through gaining a perception of pnimiyut in the manner in which the soul apprehends it in the Garden of Eden, where it apprehends the essence of G-dliness—and “this delight itself (as the Rebbe adds) is utterly inward, as explained above”—the soul gains an apprehension of G-d’s infinite light. And in order for it to be able to absorb this degree of illumination, it must be equipped with the protective and receptive garments of the mitzvot, as previously explained.