(30However, outside the Land of Israel,31 the life-force is [bestowed] by [means of “the word of G-d”] being invested within the extraneous patron-angels that are appointed over the seventy nations.

(אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ – הַחַיּוּת הוּא עַל־יְדֵי הִתְלַבְּשׁוּת שָׂרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים הַמְמוּנִּים עַל ע' אוּמּוֹת.

I.e., a [mere] spark from the “word of G-d,” which is called malchut of Asiyah, descends and radiates over the supernal patron-angels by encompassing them from above.

דְּהַיְינוּ, שֶׁיּוֹרֵד נִיצוֹץ מִ"דְּבַר ה'", הַנִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "מַלְכוּת דַּעֲשִׂיָּה", וּמֵאִיר עַל הַשָּׂרִים שֶׁל מַעְלָה בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף מִלְמַעְלָה,

I.e., it does not truly vest itself within them; rather, the life-force issues to them from this radiance which shines over them from above, in an encompassing manner.

אַךְ אֵינוֹ מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא נִמְשָׁךְ לָהֶם חַיּוּת מֵהֶאָרָה זוֹ שֶׁמֵּאִיר עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמַעְלָה, בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף.

And from the patron-angels, life-force issues to the nations, and to the cattle, beasts, and fowl that are in their lands,

וּמֵהַשָּׂרִים – נִשְׁפַּע חַיּוּת לָאוּמּוֹת, וְלִבְהֵמוֹת חַיּוֹת וְעוֹפוֹת שֶׁבְּאַרְצוֹתֵיהֶם,

and to the physical world, and the physical heavens, i.e., the spheres in which the stars orbit.32

וְלָאָרֶץ הַגַּשְׁמִית וְלַשָּׁמַיִם הַגַּשְׁמִיִּים שֶׁהֵם הַגַּלְגַּלִּים

(33However, there are distinctions between the various categories of created beings: the heavens and the earth, and the cattle, beasts, and fowl that are pure (i.e., kosher), are nurtured by kelipat nogah,

(אֶלָּא שֶׁשָּׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ וּבְהֵמוֹת וְחַיּוֹת וְעוֹפוֹת טְהוֹרִים – נִשְׁפָּעִים מִקְּלִיפַּת נוֹגַהּ,

whereas the impure [creatures] and the souls of the nations are [nurtured] by the other kelipot.)

וְהַטְּמֵאִים וְנַפְשׁוֹת הָאוּמּוֹת – מִשְּׁאָר קְלִיפּוֹת).

Kelipat nogah represents a finely balanced tension between potential good (which can also be misused) and potential evil (which can also be sublimated). The other three completely impure kelipot are entirely evil, as explained at length in the Tanya, Part I, ch. 6.

Now, outside the Land of Israel,34 the heavens and the earth and all they contain are all esteemed as truly nothing in relation to the patron-angels which are [the conduits for] their life-force and continued existence.

וְהִנֵּה, שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ וְכָל אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ, כּוּלָּם כְּלָא מַמָּשׁ חֲשִׁיבֵי לְגַבֵּי הַשָּׂרִים שֶׁהֵם חַיּוּתָם וְקִיּוּמָם.

The patron-angels themselves are esteemed as truly nothing in relation to the life-force issuing to them from the spark of the “word of G-d” which radiates over them from above, transcending them.

וְהַשָּׂרִים – כְּלָא מַמָּשׁ חֲשִׁיבֵי לְגַבֵּי הַחַיּוּת הַנִּמְשָׁךְ לָהֶם מֵהַנִּיצוֹץ מִ"דְּבַר ה'" הַמֵּאִיר עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמַעְלָה.

And even so, the life-force issuing to them from this radiance is in a state of exile within them.

וְאַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן, הַחַיּוּת הַנִּמְשָׁךְ לְתוֹכָם מֵהֶאָרָה זוֹ – הוּא בִּבְחִינַת גָּלוּת בְּתוֹכָם,

That is why they are called elohim acherim (“other gods”) while they call Him35 “G-d of the gods” since they consider themselves as deities.

שֶׁלָּכֵן נִקְרָאִים בְּשֵׁם "אֱלֹקִים אֲחֵרִים", וְקָרוּ לֵיהּ: "אֱלָהָא דֶאֱלָהַיָּא", שֶׁגַּם הֵם, הֵן בְּחִינַת אֱלֹקוּת.

Therefore, in view of their source, the nations which receive their life-force through [their patron-angels] are truly idolaters—

וְלָכֵן, הַגּוֹיִם הַנִּשְׁפָּעִים מֵהֶם – הֵם עוֹבְדֵי עֲבוֹדָה־זָרָה מַמָּשׁ,

[but only] until the time of the “end,” until the time of the imminent Redemption, when death and the sitra achara (i.e., the “other side,” the unholy aspect of the universe) will be swallowed up.

עַד עֵת קֵץ, שֶׁיְּבוּלַּע הַמָּוֶת וְהַסִּטְרָא אָחֳרָא,

Of that time, G-d promises, “Then shall I make the nations [pure of speech] so that they will all call upon the Name of G-d.”36

וְ"אָז אֶהְפּוֹךְ אֶל עַמִּים כוּ' לִקְרוֹא כוּלָּם בְּשֵׁם ה'".

The Alter Rebbe now returns to the theme of the Divine spark in exile:

This [sustenance of idolaters through the Divine spark] is also called “the exile of the Shechinah,”

וְנִקְרָא גַם כֵּן בְּשֵׁם "גָּלוּת הַשְּׁכִינָה",

for this life-force, which is in a state of exile within them, as previously explained,

מֵאַחַר שֶׁחַיּוּת זֶה אֲשֶׁר בִּבְחִינַת "גָּלוּת" בְּתוֹכָם,

stems from the radiance issuing to them from the spark of the “word of G-d,” which is called Shechinah in the terminology of the Sages, as mentioned above.

הוּא מֵהֶאָרָה הַנִּמְשֶׁכֶת לָהֶם מֵהַנִּיצוֹץ מִ"דְּבַר ה'" הַנִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "שְׁכִינָה"

According to the above, however, it would seem that this state of exile has existed since the creation of the world, with all its impure animals, etc. What do we mean, then, when we say that “the Shechinah was exiled”? This question is answered in the following parenthetical passage.

(37And this exile, brought about by the fact that the kelipot derive their life-force from a spark of G-d’s creative speech, stems from the sin of the Tree of Knowledge and onward, for from that time, kelipot were able to receive a degree of vitality that they did not have until that point.

(וְגָלוּת זֶה נִמְשָׁךְ מֵחֵטְא עֵץ הַדַּעַת וְאֵילַךְ,

However, [they receive their vitality] only from the hindmost (i.e., from the lowest and most external) dimension of holiness.

וְהוּא בְּחִינַת "אֲחוֹרַיִים" לְבַד דִּקְדוּשָּׁה.

But when the Jewish people were exiled among the nations—and the Jewish people are attached and rooted in the supernal countenance (the panim, or pnimiyus, i.e., the innermost aspect of Divinity)

אַךְ כְּשֶׁגָּלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבֵין הָאוּמּוֹת, וַאֲחִיזַת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׁרְשָׁם הוּא בִּבְחִינַת "פָּנִים" הָעֶלְיוֹנִים

this became a total exile. For then the innermost aspect of Divinity was also drawn down to the patron-angels and the nations, as explained at length in Iggeret Hateshuvah, ch. 6; see there.

הִנֵּה זוֹ הִיא גָלוּת שְׁלֵימָה,

Of this, our Sages, of blessed memory, said, “When [the Jewish people] were exiled to Edom, the Shechinah accompanied them.”38))

וְעַל זֶה אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה: "גָּלוּ לֶאֱדוֹם שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶם")):