Chapter 16

פרק טז

This, then, is the important principle regarding the divine service of the beinoni:

וְזֶה כְּלָל גָּדוֹל בַּעֲבוֹדַת ה' לַבֵּינוֹנִים:

The essential thing is to govern and rule the nature that is in the left part of the heart,

הָעִיקָּר, הוּא לִמְשׁוֹל וְלִשְׁלוֹט עַל הַטֶּבַע שֶׁבֶּחָלָל הַשְּׂמָאלִי

by means of the Divine light that illuminates the divine soul abiding in the brain,

עַל יְדֵי אוֹר ה' הַמֵּאִיר לַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹהִית שֶׁבַּמּוֹחַ,

and to rule the desires of the heart.

וְלִשְׁלוֹט עַל הַלֵּב.

To enable him to master his desires, the beinoni requires (in addition to the natural ability of one’s mind to govern his heart) the help of the Divine light which illuminates his mind1 upon contemplating G-d’s greatness.

This mastery of one’s nature and desires is achieved when he meditates in his mind on the greatness of the blessed Infinite G-d so as to create through his understanding a spirit of knowledge and fear of G-d in his mind.

כְּשֶׁמִּתְבּוֹנֵן בְּמוֹחוֹ בִּגְדוּלַּת אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, לְהוֹלִיד מִבִּינָתוֹ רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת ה' בְּמוֹחוֹ –

This knowledge and fear will cause him to turn away from the evil condemned by the Torah or by our Sages, even from a minor Rabbinic prohibition, heaven forbid.

לִהְיוֹת "סוּר מֵרָע" דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא וּדְרַבָּנָן, וַאֲפִילוּ אִיסּוּר קַל שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם חַס וְשָׁלוֹם,

Contemplation on G-d’s greatness will bring about also a love of G-d which will reveal itself in the right part of his heart—the seat of the G-dly soul’s emotional faculties,

וְאַהֲבַת ה' בְּלִבּוֹ בֶּחָלָל הַיְמָנִי –

with a longing and desire to cleave to Him by fulfilling the precepts of the Torah, and of the Rabbis, and the study of Torah which is equivalent to them all.

בַּחֲשִׁיקָה וַחֲפִיצָה לְדָבְקָה בוֹ בְּקִיּוּם הַמִּצְוֹת דְּאוֹרַיְיתָא וּדְרַבָּנָן, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד כּוּלָּן.

As the Alter Rebbe has already pointed out,2 the commandments cannot be performed fully, that is, with the totality of one’s being, unless the performance is motivated by love of G-d (for the fulfillment of the positive commandments) and fear of G-d (for avoiding transgression of the negative commandments). When one’s observance is so motivated, his love and fear of G-d permeate the performance of the commandments and enhance them with their power.

Seemingly, however, this is true only of a love and fear that are openly felt in one’s heart. What if, despite one’s efforts in meditating on G-d’s greatness, he cannot excite himself to an arousal of love or fear of G-d? In answer, the Alter Rebbe now goes on to say that even if the love and fear born of one’s meditation remain hidden in one’s mind and heart (in a state which the Alter Rebbe refers to as tevunah—an “intellectual love”), they still permeate his performance of the commandments as though these emotions were open and aroused.

Furthermore, one must know an additional important principle in the beinoni’s service of G-d:

וְיֶתֶר עַל כֵּן, צָרִיךְ לֵידַע כְּלָל גָּדוֹל בַּעֲבוֹדָה לַבֵּינוֹנִים,

Even if one’s intellect and understanding are incapable of producing a revealed love of G-d in his heart,

שֶׁגַּם אִם אֵין יַד שִׂכְלוֹ וְרוּחַ בִּינָתוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לְהוֹלִיד אַהֲבַת ה' בְּהִתְגַּלּוּת לִבּוֹ,

to make it burn as it ought with fiery flames, with a desire and a longing and a passion manifestly felt in the heart, to cleave to G-d,

שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לִבּוֹ בּוֹעֵר כְּרִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ וְחָפֵץ בַּחֲפִיצָה וַחֲשִׁיקָה וּתְשׁוּקָה מוּרְגֶּשֶׁת בַּלֵּב לְדָבְקָה בוֹ,

instead, the love is hidden in his mind and in the recesses of his heart—3

רַק הָאַהֲבָה מְסוּתֶּרֶת בְּמוֹחוֹ וְתַעֲלוּמוֹת לִבּוֹ,

At this point, the Alter Rebbe inserts a note, stating that one’s inability to reveal the love in his heart does not indicate a fault in his meditation; the cause may well be inherent in the spiritual root of his soul.

The reason for this [inhibition] is that this person’s intellect and nefesh, ruach, and neshamah derive from the so-called ibbur (conception) and concealment within the [supernal] understanding and not from the [stage] of leidah (birth) and revelation—as is known to the students of the Kabbalah.

וְהַסִּיבָּה לָזֶה הִיא, מִפְּנֵי הֱיוֹת הַמּוֹחִין שֶׁלּוֹ וְנֶפֶשׁ־רוּחַ־נְשָׁמָה שֶׁלּוֹ מִבְּחִינַת ﬠִיבּוּר וְהֶﬠְלֵם תּוֹךְ הַתְּבוּנָה, וְלֹא מִבְּחִינַת לֵידָה וְהִתְגַּלּוּת, כַּיָּדוּﬠַ לְיוֹדְﬠֵי חֵן:

Briefly, this means:

In human emotions born of the intellect (e.g., a love of G-d is “born” through meditation on G-d’s greatness), there are two states: (1) where the emotion has already been born and revealed and (2) an earlier stage, where the emotion is still part of the intellect. In this latter state, the “emotion” consists merely of an intellectual inclination toward the object of one’s understanding.

These two stages are similarly found in the Divine attributes, to which the human emotions are analogous. The Divine attributes—the middot of kindness (chesed), severity (gevurah), etc.—prior to their existence in a revealed state are concealed within and encompassed by the supernal intellect (binah), which is their source. The soul, in turn, stems from the Divine attributes and hence reflects their characteristics. Thus, those souls which derive from the attributes as they are in their revealed state possess the quality of revelation, i.e., they are capable of bringing their love of G-d into a revealed state, whereas the souls deriving from the concealed state of the attributes lack this capacity, and their emotions remain concealed within their intellect.

The Alter Rebbe now goes on to describe a love of G-d as it is concealed within one’s intellect.

This means that the heart comprehends, with the spirit of wisdom and understanding in the brain (i.e., instead of being excited with the love of G-d, as it ought to be, the heart merely experiences an understanding of),

דְּהַיְינוּ שֶׁהַלֵּב מֵבִין בְּרוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה שֶׁבְּמוֹחוֹ

the greatness of the blessed Infinite G-d, before Whom all else is as naught,

גְּדוּלַּת אֵין־סוֹף בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, דְּכוּלָּא קַמֵּיהּ כְּלָא חֲשִׁיב מַמָּשׁ,

for which reason it is fitting and due unto Him, blessed be He, that the soul of every living thing should pine for Him, to cleave to and become absorbed in His Divine light.

אֲשֶׁר עַל כֵּן, יָאֲתָה לוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ שֶׁתִּכְלֶה אֵלָיו נֶפֶשׁ כָּל חַי לִידָּבֵק וּלְהִכָּלֵל בְּאוֹרוֹ;

It is likewise fitting for his own soul, the nefesh and ruach within him,4 to languish for Him with a fervent desire to leave their sheath, i.e., the body, which surrounds and conceals the soul like a sheath, in order to cleave to Him.

וְגַם נַפְשׁוֹ וְרוּחוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבּוֹ כָּךְ יָאֲתָה לָהֶן לִהְיוֹת כָּלוֹת אֵלָיו בַּחֲשִׁיקָה וַחֲפִיצָה, לָצֵאת מִנַרְתֵּקָן, הוּא הַגּוּף, לְדָבְקָה בוֹ,

So intensely, his thoughts continue, should his nefesh and ruach long for G-d that only against their will do they dwell in the body; they are bound to it like deserted wives (literally, “living widows,” who are bound to their husbands and are forbidden to remarry as long as the husbands who left them are alive).

רַק שֶׁבְּעַל כָּרְחָן חָיוֹת הֵנָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַגּוּף וּצְרוּרוֹת בּוֹ כְּאַלְמָנוֹת חַיּוֹת;

In their present state, their thought cannot grasp G-d at all, except when it grasps and vests itself in the Torah and its commandments. By studying Torah and observing its commandments, one grasps G-d’s will and His wisdom, which are one with G-d Himself,

וְלֵית מַחֲשָׁבָה דִילְהוֹן תְּפִיסָא בֵיהּ כְּלָל, כִּי אִם כַּאֲשֶׁר תְּפִיסָא וּמִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בַּתּוֹרָה וּבְמִצְוֹתֶיהָ,

as illustrated previously5 by the example of one who embraces the king.

כִּמְשַׁל הַמְחַבֵּק אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל;

Although the king is dressed in his robes, this does not detract from the royal embrace; similarly, although the Torah and its commandments are clothed in material matters, yet, since they express G-d’s will and wisdom, when one grasps them, it is as though he grasped G-d Himself.

All the above thoughts pass through his mind and heart and lead him to resolve that: It is therefore fitting and proper for them—for his nefesh and ruachto embrace G-d with all their heart, soul, and might.

וְאֵי לָזֹאת, יָאֲתָה לָהֶן לְחַבְּקוֹ בְּכָל לֵב וְנֶפֶשׁ וּמְאֹד,

This means, in a practical sense, to fulfill the 613 commandments in act, speech, and thought, the thought being the comprehension and knowledge of the Torah, as explained above in the previous chapters, that through Torah and the commandments, one grasps G-d Himself, so to speak.

דְּהַיְינוּ, קִיּוּם הַתַּרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת בְּמַעֲשֶׂה וּבְדִבּוּר וּבְמַחֲשָׁבָה, שֶׁהִיא הַשָּׂגַת וִידִיעַת הַתּוֹרָה כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל.

Thus, we see that what motivates this person’s actual observance of the commandments is meditation on G-d’s greatness; this brings about the realization that one ought to strive to bind himself to G-d—a bond which can be achieved only through the commandments.

Consequently, when the beinoni ponders this subject in the recesses of his heart’s and mind’s understanding,

הִנֵּה, כְּשֶׁמַּעֲמִיק בְּעִנְיָן זֶה בְּתַעֲלוּמוֹת תְּבוּנוֹת לִבּוֹ וּמוֹחוֹ,

and his mouth and heart are in accord, i.e., what his heart feels, finds full expression in his speech

וּפִיו וְלִבּוֹ שָׁוִין,

in that he fulfills with his mouth, in his speech, the resolve of his mind’s and heart’s understanding—

שֶׁמְּקַיֵּים כֵּן בְּפִיו כְּפִי אֲשֶׁר נִגְמַר בִּתְבוּנַת לִבּוֹ וּמוֹחוֹ,

namely, to direct his desire toward G-d’s Torah, meditating on it day and night in oral study,

דְּהַיְינוּ, לִהְיוֹת בְּתוֹרַת ה' חֶפְצוֹ וְיֶהְגֶּה בָהּ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה בְּפִיו,

and when his hands and other bodily organs, too, carry out the commandments, as was resolved in his mind’s and heart’s understanding,

וְכֵן הַיָּדַיִם וּשְׁאָר אֵבָרִים מְקַיְּימִים הַמִּצְוֹת כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּגְמַר בִּתְבוּנַת לִבּוֹ וּמוֹחוֹ,

then when he implements his resolution, this tevunahthe “intellectual emotion,” which cannot properly be called love or fear, but tevunah, literally, “understanding”—is clothed in the act, speech, and thought of the Torah and its commandments, providing them with intellectual power, vitality, and “wings” that enable them to soar on high,

הֲרֵי תְּבוּנָה זוֹ מִתְלַבֶּשֶׁת בְּמַעֲשֵׂה דִּבּוּר וּמַחֲשֶׁבֶת הַתּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹתֶיהָ, לִהְיוֹת לָהֶם בְּחִינַת מוֹחִין וְחַיּוּת וְגַדְפִין לְפָרְחָא לְעֵילָא,

for so it is written in the Zohar: “Torah without love and fear (of G-d) does not soar aloft.”6

The love and fear referred to as tevunah, although not heartfelt emotions, nevertheless serve as “wings” for one’s Torah and mitzvot in the same way as if he practiced them with real fear and love as revealed in the heart,

כְּאִלּוּ עָסַק בָּהֶם בִּדְחִילוּ וּרְחִימוּ מַמָּשׁ אֲשֶׁר בְּהִתְגַּלּוּת לִבּוֹ

(7in which case he would have performed them with a desire, fervor, and passion that are felt in the heart and soul thirsting for G-d, due to the flaming love of G-d in his heart, as explained above—that a revealed love of G-d elevates one’s Torah and mitzvot by lending warmth and vitality to one’s actions).

[בַּחֲפִיצָה וַחֲשִׁיקָה וּתְשׁוּקָה מוּרְגֶּשֶׁת בְּלִבּוֹ וְנַפְשׁוֹ הַצְּמֵאָה לַה', מִפְּנֵי רִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ אַהֲבָתוֹ שֶׁבְּלִבּוֹ, כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל],

However, the statement that the tevunah-love too possesses this power requires further elucidation. When does the tevunah-love add to the quality of one’s observance that would enable it to elevate his actions? This the Alter Rebbe now goes on to explain.

For it is this tevunah in his mind and in the recesses of his heart that leads him to engage in the Torah and mitzvot, as explained above.

הוֹאִיל וּתְבוּנָה זוֹ שֶׁבְּמוֹחוֹ וְתַעֲלוּמוֹת לִבּוֹ הִיא הַמְּבִיאָתוֹ לַעֲסוֹק בָּהֶם,

Had he not meditated on this tevunah, he would not have occupied himself with them at all but with his physical needs alone.

וְלוּלֵי שֶׁהָיָה מִתְבּוֹנֵן בִּתְבוּנָה זוֹ לֹא הָיָה עוֹסֵק בָּהֶם כְּלָל, אֶלָּא בְּצָרְכֵי גוּפוֹ לְבַד

(8Even if he is an assiduous student by nature, nevertheless, he naturally loves his body more.)

[וְגַם אִם הוּא מַתְמִיד בְּלִמּוּדוֹ בְּטִבְעוֹ, אַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן, אוֹהֵב אֶת גּוּפוֹ יוֹתֵר בְּטִבְעוֹ].

What is it, then, that diverts one from his natural inclination to engage in his bodily wants and that enables his diligence to overcome his physical self-love? It is the love of G-d—in this case, the hidden tevunah-love. For this reason, the tevunah provides his Torah and mitzvot with “wings,” enabling them to rise heavenward, as though motivated by a revealed and conscious love of G-d.