If G-d grants him a greater abundance of time for Torah study, then “He whose hands are pure will increase his effort’’8; i.e., he should resolve that as more time becomes available to him, he will devote it to Torah study. Moreover, “[G-d reckons] a good intention [as an actual deed].”9

וְאִם יַרְחִיב ה' לוֹ עוֹד, אֲזַי "טְהוֹר יָדַיִם יוֹסִיף אוֹמֶץ", וּ"מַחֲשָׁבָה טוֹבָה כוּ'",

Therefore, even while his time for Torah study is limited to a small part of the day and night, he is regarded as if he had studied the entire day, since he would have devoted all this time to Torah study had it been available. By virtue of his good intention, he thus is, in a sense, an abode for G-dliness not only during the time actually spent in Torah study but also throughout the day.10

Even during the remainder of the day, when he is engaged in business, he will be an abode for G-d by giving charity out of the proceeds of his labor.

וְגַם שְׁאָר הַיּוֹם כּוּלּוֹ, שֶׁעוֹסֵק בְּמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן, יִהְיֶה מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתּוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ, בִּנְתִינַת הַצְּדָקָה שֶׁיִּתֵּן מִיגִיעוֹ,

Charity is one of G-d’s attributes which we are enjoined to emulate, as our Sages say, “As He is compassionate…[so must you be],”11 and as it is written in Tikkunei Zohar, “Kindness is the right arm of G-d,”12 so to speak, and, therefore, human kindness constitutes an abode for the Divine attribute of kindness.

שֶׁהִיא מִמִּדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא – "מַה הוּא רַחוּם וְכוּ'", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתִּיקּוּנִים: "חֶסֶד דְּרוֹעָא יְמִינָא".

Even though one distributes as charity no more than one-fifth of his earnings—the maximum requirement for charity—how then is he an abode for G-dliness while he is engaged in earning the other four-fifths?

וְאַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן אֶלָּא חוֹמֶשׁ,

Yet, that fifth elevates with it all the other four parts to G-d so that they, too, become an abode for Him.

הֲרֵי הַחוֹמֶשׁ מַעֲלֶה עִמּוֹ כָּל הָאַרְבַּע יָדוֹת לַה', לִהְיוֹת מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתּוֹ יִתְבָּרֵךְ,

In a well-known statement, our Sages have declared13 that the mitzvah of charity is equivalent to offering all the sacrifices.

כַּנּוֹדָע מַאֲמַר רַבּוֹתֵינוּ־זִכְרוֹנָם־לִבְרָכָה שֶׁמִּצְוַת צְדָקָה שְׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת,

Now, in the case of sacrifices, all living creatures were elevated to G-d through the offering of one animal, all plants through the “meal offering,” which consisted of merely “one-tenth of a measure of fine meal mixed with oil,” and so on.

וּבְקָרְבָּנוֹת הָיָה כָּל הַחַי עוֹלֶה לַה' עַל יְדֵי בְּהֵמָה אַחַת, וְכָל הַצּוֹמֵחַ עַל יְדֵי עִשָּׂרוֹן סֹלֶת אֶחָד בָּלוּל בַּשֶּׁמֶן כוּ'.

Similarly, all of one’s earnings are elevated when he gives one-fifth to charity.

Apart from this, as is explained below, all that one has eaten and drunk and generally enjoyed for his bodily health from the other four-fifths of his earnings is elevated toward G-d during his Torah study and prayer.

וּמִלְּבַד זֶה, הֲרֵי בִּשְׁעַת הַתּוֹרָה וְהַתְּפִלָּה, עוֹלֶה לַה' כָּל מַה שֶּׁאָכַל וְשָׁתָה וְנֶהֱנָה מֵאַרְבַּע הַיָּדוֹת לִבְרִיאוּת גּוּפוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר לְקַמָּן.

Thus, even the time spent on earning those profits which he does not distribute in charity also becomes an abode for G-dliness through Torah study and prayer.

From the end of ch. 30 up to this point, the Alter Rebbe discussed various forms of joy which one ought to strive to attain when saddened over his spiritual shortcomings: the joy of one’s soul on its being released from exile within one’s body and animal soul; the joy of being close to G-d through awareness of His unity; the joy occasioned by contemplating G-d’s joy in the crushing of the sitra achara; and so on.

The Alter Rebbe now goes on to state that all these forms of joy do not conflict with the bitter remorse and sadness that one experiences over one’s spiritual failings. For, although joy and sadness are opposites, they can nonetheless coexist when each has its own, distinct cause.

All the specific types of joy enumerated above do not preclude one from being shamed and despised in his own eyes or from having a broken heart and a humble spirit, even at the very time of his joy.

וְהִנֵּה, בְּכָל פְּרָטֵי מִינֵי שִׂמְחוֹת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל – אֵין מֵהֶן מְנִיעָה לִהְיוֹת "נִבְזֶה בְעֵינָיו נִמְאָס", וְ"לֵב נִשְׁבָּר", וְרוּחַ נְמוּכָה – בִּשְׁעַת הַשִּׂמְחָה מַמָּשׁ,

For the shame and so on is prompted by [one’s awareness of the lowliness of] his body and animal soul,

מֵאַחַר כִּי הֱיוֹתוֹ נִבְזֶה בְעֵינָיו וְכוּ' – הוּא מִצַּד הַגּוּף וְנֶפֶשׁ הַבַּהֲמִית,

while his joy is felt on account of his divine soul and the animating spark of G-dliness clothed within it, as mentioned above (in ch. 31).

וֶהֱיוֹתוֹ בְּשִׂמְחָה – הוּא מִצַּד נֶפֶשׁ הָאֱלֹהִית וְנִיצוֹץ אֱלֹהוּת הַמְלוּבָּשׁ בָּהּ לְהַחֲיוֹתָהּ, כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל [בְּפֶרֶק ל"א].

We find a similar statement in the Zohar: “Weeping is lodged in one side of my heart, and joy is lodged in the other.”14

וּכְהַאי גַּוְנָא אִיתָא בַּזֹּהַר: "בְּכִיָּה תְּקִיעָא בְּלִבַּאֵי מִסִּטְרָא דָא, וְחֶדְוָה תְּקִיעָא בְּלִבַּאֵי מִסִּטְרָא דָא":

Rabbi Elazar exclaimed these words upon hearing from his father, Rabbi Shimon, an esoteric exposition on the destruction of the Temple. On one hand, he now felt even more keenly the enormity of the tragedy; on the other hand, he was filled with joy over the secrets of Torah being revealed to him.

We thus see from the Zohar that two opposite emotions, stemming from separate causes, can exist in one’s heart side by side.