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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 4

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 4

1

All of these services that were performed [in the Temple] every day were performed on the basis of a lottery.1 How would they conduct themselves? All of the priests of the clan of that day2 enter the Chamber of Hewn Stone3 after dawn4 while garbed in the priestly garments. The [priest] appointed [to supervise] the lotteries [stands] with them and they stand in a semicircle. The supervisor takes a hat from one of the priests and returns it to him.5 This is the person from whom they will begin to count and thus determine the lottery, as will be explained.6

א

כָּל הָעֲבוֹדוֹת הָאֵלּוּ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּכָל יוֹם בְּפַיִס הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן. וְכֵיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. כָּל כֹּהֲנֵי בָּתֵּי אָבוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם נִכְנָסִין לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית אַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר וּמְלֻבָּשִׁין הֵן בְּבִגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה. וְהַמְמֻנֶּה שֶׁעַל הַפְּיָסוֹת עִמָּהֶן וְהֵן עוֹמְדִין בְּהַקָּפָה וְהַמְמֻנֶּה נוֹטֵל מִצְנֶפֶת מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶן וּמַחֲזִירָהּ וְהוּא הָאִישׁ שֶׁמַּתְחִילִין לִמְנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְפִיסִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

2

The men [selected to perform] the services proceed to them. The remainder of the priests are taken to the attendants who remove the sacred garments from them, leaving them only with the leggings7 until they put on their ordinary garments. They then remove the sacred leggings. The attendants then return the garments to the lockers.8

ב

וְיוֹצְאִין לַעֲבוֹדָה אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁעוֹבְדִין בּוֹ. וּשְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים מוֹסְרִין אוֹתָן לְחַזָּנִין וּמַפְשִׁיטִין אוֹתָן אֶת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶלָּא הַמִּכְנָסַיִם בִּלְבַד עַד שֶׁלּוֹבְשִׁין בִּגְדֵי חֹל וְחוֹזְרִין וּפוֹשְׁטִין אֶת הַמִּכְנָסַיִם שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ וּמַחְזִירִים הַחַזָּנִים אֶת הַכֵּלִים לַחַלּוֹנוֹת:

3

How would the lottery be carried out? [The priests] would stand in a semi-circle. They would decide on a number, e.g., 100, 1000, or any other number that they would choose. Afterwards, the supervisor says: "Stick out your fingers" and they stick out one or two fingers.9 If one would stick out three, the three are counted.10 A thumb should not be stuck out in the Temple because of the deceivers. For a thumb is small and it is easy to stick out and then bend over.11 If one sticks out a thumb, it is not counted.

The supervisor begins counting from [the priest] who was identified by the removal of his hat. The count on their fingers12 and then repeat13 until they reach the number they agreed upon. The person upon whose finger the counting was completed is the one who is chosen in the first lottery for the Temple service.

ג

כֵּיצַד מְפִיסִין. עוֹמְדִין בְּהֶקֵּף וּמַסְכִּימִין עַל מִנְיַן שְׁמוֹנִים מֵאָה אוֹ אֶלֶף אוֹ כָּל מִנְיַן שֶׁיַּסְכִּימוּ עָלָיו. וְהַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַצְבִּיעוּ וְהֵן מוֹצִיאִין אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶן אַחַת אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם. וְאִם הוֹצִיא שָׁלֹשׁ מוֹנִין לוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ. וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין גּוּדָל בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מִפְּנֵי הָרַמָּאִים שֶׁהַגּוּדָל קָצָר וְנוֹחַ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וְלִכְפּוֹתוֹ. וְהַמּוֹצִיא גּוּדָל אֵין מוֹנִין אוֹתוֹ לוֹ. וּמַתְחִיל הַמְמֻנֶּה לִמְנוֹת מִן הָאִישׁ הַיָּדוּעַ שֶׁהֵסִיר מִצְנַפְתּוֹ תְּחִלָּה. וּמוֹנֶה עַל אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶן וְחוֹזֵר חֲלִילָה עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן שֶׁהִסְכִּימוּ עָלָיו וְהָאִישׁ שֶׁשָּׁלֵם הַמִּנְיָן אֵצֶל אֶצְבָּעוֹ הוּא שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּפַיִס רִאשׁוֹן לַעֲבוֹדָה:

4

Why do they count the number they have agreed upon by the fingers they stuck out instead of counting the people themselves? Because it is forbidden to count Jews14 except via another entity, as [I Samuel 15:4] states: "And he counted them with lambs."15

ד

וְלָמָּה מוֹנֶה הַמִּנְיָן שֶׁהִסְכִּימוּ עָלָיו עַל הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ וְלֹא הָיָה מוֹנֶה עַל הָאֲנָשִׁים עַצְמָן לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א טו ד) "וַיִּפְקְדֵם בַּטְּלָאִים":

5

Four lotteries were carried out each day in the morning.16 The first lottery was for who would remove the ashes from the altar.17 The lottery was conducted and the one who merited was chosen to remove the ashes. He also arranges the wood on the altar and he brings the two logs of wood to the altar and brings in a fire-pan full of flaming [coals]18 from the outer altar to the golden altar to offer the incense upon it.

ה

אַרְבָּעָה פְּיָסוֹת הָיוּ מְפִיסִין בְּכָל יוֹם בְּשַׁחֲרִית. הַפַּיִס הָרִאשׁוֹן מִי תּוֹרֵם אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. הֵפִיסוּ וְזָכָה מִי שֶׁזָּכָה לִתְרֹם. וְהוּא מְסַדֵּר אֶת הַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְהוּא מַעֲלֶה שְׁנֵי גִּזְרֵי עֵצִים לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְהוּא מַכְנִיס מַחְתָּה מְלֵאָה אֵשׁ מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן לְמִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב לְהַקְטִיר עָלֶיהָ קְטֹרֶת:

6

Thirteen [priests] are chosen in the second lottery19 according to the order in which they stand.

What is implied? The supervisor tells them to stick out their fingers and counts as explained.20 The one who is chosen first by lottery slaughters the continuous offering of the morning. The second priest standing next to him21 receives the blood of the continuous offering and he casts [on the altar]. The third, [who stands] next to the second, removes the ashes from the inner altar, the altar of the incense offering. The fourth on his side removes the ashes from the Menorah and kindles the lamps. The fifth brings up the head of the continuous offering and its [right] hindleg to the ramp.22 The sixth brings up the two forefeet. The seventh brings up the tail and the [left] hindleg. The eighth brings up the breast and the neck. The ninth brings up the two flanks. The tenth brings up the inner organs. The eleventh brings up the flour for the additional offerings. The twelfth brings up the chavitin23 and the thirteenth brings up the wine of the additional offerings.

ו

הַפַּיִס הַשֵּׁנִי זוֹכִין בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר עַל סֵדֶר עֲמִידָתָן. כֵּיצַד. הַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַצְבִּיעוּ וּמוֹנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְזֶה שֶׁיָּצָא בְּפַיִס רִאשׁוֹן הוּא שׁוֹחֵט תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר. וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּצִדּוֹ הוּא מְקַבֵּל אֶת דַּם הַתָּמִיד וְהוּא זוֹרְקוֹ. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי הַסָּמוּךְ לַשֵּׁנִי מְדַשֵּׁן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁהוּא מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת. וְהָרְבִיעִי שֶׁבְּצִדּוֹ מְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַמְּנוֹרָה וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת. וְהַחֲמִישִׁי מַעֲלֶה רֹאשׁ הַתָּמִיד וְרַגְלוֹ לַכֶּבֶשׁ. וְהַשִּׁשִּׁי מַעֲלֶה שְׁתֵּי הַיָּדַיִם. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִי מַעֲלֶה הָעֹקֶץ וְהָרֶגֶל. וְהַשְּׁמִינִי מַעֲלֶה הֶחָזֶה וְהַגֵּרָה. וְהַתְּשִׁיעִי מַעֲלֶה שְׁתֵּי הַדְּפָנוֹת. וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מַעֲלֶה הַקְּרָבַיִם. וְהָאַחַד עָשָׂר מַעֲלֶה סלֶת הַנְּסָכִים. וְהַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר מַעֲלֶה הַחֲבִיתִין. וְהַשְּׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר מַעֲלֶה הַיַּיִן שֶׁל נְסָכִים:

7

For the third lottery, the supervisor announces to all the members of the clan of that day: "Whoever has never brought an incense offering24 should come and enter the lottery."25 The one chosen first in this lottery merited to offer the incense offering.

ז

הַפַּיִס הַשְּׁלִישִׁי אוֹמֵר לָהֶן הַמְמֻנֶּה לְכָל אַנְשֵׁי בֵּית אָב שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת מִיָּמָיו יָבוֹא וְיָפִיס. וְיִתְקַבְּצוּ אֵצֶל הַמְמֻנֶּה וְיָפִיסוּ וּמִי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּפַיִס זֶה רִאשׁוֹן הוּא שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה לְהַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת:

8

For the fourth lottery, all the priests gathered.26 The lottery is held to know who will bring the limbs up from the ramp to the altar. The lottery was held and the one who was chosen27 merited.

A different lottery was not held for the continuous offering of the afternoon. Instead, all of the priests who were chosen to perform any of the tasks in the morning should also perform them in the afternoon.28 An exception was the incense offering. Another lottery was made for [the right to offer] it in the afternoon. All those who never brought an incense offering from that clan could come and enter the lottery. If they had all offered incense previously, they are all able to enter the third lottery in the morning and the one who was selected in the morning offers the incense in the afternoon as well.

ח

הַפַּיִס הָרְבִיעִי מִתְקַבְּצִין כֻּלָּן וּמְפִיסִין לֵידַע מִי מַעֲלֶה אֵיבָרִים מִן הַכֶּבֶשׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. הֵפִיסוּ וְזָכָה מִי שֶׁזָּכָה. תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם אֵין מְפִיסִין לוֹ פַּיִס אַחֵר. אֶלָּא כָּל כֹּהֵן שֶׁזָּכָה בַּעֲבוֹדָה מִן הָעֲבוֹדוֹת שַׁחֲרִית יִזְכֶּה בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. חוּץ מִן הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁהֵן מְפִיסִין לָהּ פַּיִס אַחֵר בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם וְיָבוֹא כָּל מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת מֵעוֹלָם מֵאַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ בֵּית אָב וְיָפִיסוּ עָלֶיהָ. וְאִם כְּבָר הִקְטִירוּ כֻּלָּן מִימֵיהֶן מְפִיסִין לָהֶן כֻּלָּן בְּשַׁחֲרִית בְּפַיִס שְׁלִישִׁי וְזֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בָּהּ שַׁחֲרִית מַקְטִירָהּ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

9

On the Sabbath, when [besides] the continuous offerings, the additional offerings and the two bowls of frankincense were offered, how would they conduct themselves?

In the morning, the lottery was held among the men of clan of the watch that was leaving.29 They would offer the continuous offering of the morning and the two sheep brought as burnt-offerings for the additional offering.30 The ones selected to perform the tasks for the continuous offering of the morning would [perform those tasks] for the two sheep [brought as] additional offerings.31 The watch that enters32 on the Sabbath would conduct other lotteries for the continuous offering of the afternoon. Both watches would [participate in] the division of the showbread.33

ט

בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם תְּמִידִין וּמוּסָפִין וּשְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה כֵּיצַד הֵם עוֹבְדִין. מְפִיסִין בְּשַׁחַר אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ בֵּית אָב שֶׁל מִשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא וּמַקְרִיבִין תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר וּשְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי עוֹלָה שֶׁל מוּסָפִין. וְכָל שֶׁזָּכָה בַּעֲבוֹדָה מֵעֲבוֹדַת הַתָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר הוּא זוֹכֶה בָּהּ בִּשְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי מוּסָף. וְהַמִּשְׁמָר הָאַחֵר שֶׁנִּכְנַס בְּשַׁבָּת מְפִיסִין פְּיָסוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת לְתָמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ חוֹלְקִין בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים:

10

The [show]bread is not eaten until the two bowls of frankincense are offered on the pyre. The frankincense requires salt like the other sacrifices.34

י

וְאֵין אוֹכְלִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם עַד שֶׁיַּקְטִירוּ שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה עַל הָאֵשׁ. וְהַלְּבוֹנָה טְעוּנָה מֶלַח כִּשְׁאָר הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת:

11

These two bowls are offered after the additional offerings.35 Two priests offer these two bowls.36

יא

וְאַחַר קָרְבַּן הַמּוּסָפִין מַקְטִירִין שְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין. וּשְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים מַקְרִיבִין אֶת שְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין:

12

How is the showbread divided on the Sabbaths of the year in general? The watch that enters receives six loaves and the watch that leaves receives six loaves. Those that enter divide [the bread] among themselves in the north, for they are prepared to carry out the Temple service.37 Those who depart divide it in the south.38

When the holiday of one of the three pilgrimage festivals39 falls on the Sabbath or on Sabbath in the midst of the holiday,40 all of the watches share equally in the division41 of the showbread.42 Similarly, if the first holiday of a festival falls on Sunday, all of the watches share equally in the division of the showbread on the day preceding the festival which is the Sabbath because they came early to the Temple service.43

Similarly, if the final day of the festival falls on Friday, all of the watches share equally in the division of the showbread on the Sabbath which is the day following the festival. This practice is an ordinance of our Sages [who instituted it] so that the priests should delay [their departure from Jerusalem so that they share] in the division of the showbread.44 [In this way,] if one of the members of the watch [of the coming week] would be delayed and not come [on time], another priest will be found [to take his place].

יב

כֵּיצַד חוֹלְקִין לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בְּכָל שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. מִשְׁמָר הַנִּכְנָס נוֹטֵל שֵׁשׁ חַלּוֹת. וּמִשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא נוֹטֵל שֵׁשׁ. הַנִּכְנָסִין חוֹלְקִין בֵּינֵיהֶם בַּצָּפוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן מוּכָנִים לַעֲבוֹדָה. וְהַיּוֹצְאִין חוֹלְקִין בַּדָּרוֹם. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְכֵן בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הֶחָג חוֹלְקִין כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. וְכֵן אִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹלְקִין כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִקְדִּימוּ לַעֲבוֹדָה. וְכֵן אִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת חוֹלְקִין כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת שֶׁהִיא מוֹצָאֵי הֶחָג. וְדָבָר זֶה תַּקָּנָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְאַחֲרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בִּשְׁבִיל חִלּוּק לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים וְאִם נִתְאַחֵר אֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי מִשְׁמָר וְלֹא בָּא יִמָּצֵא אַחֵר:

13

If there is one day intervening between the Sabbath and the festival, e.g., the first day of the festival fell on Monday or the last day fell on Thursday, or Shavuot fell on Monday or Thursday, the watch whose time was fixed that week receives ten loaves and the watch which enters receives two.45 The rationale is that only one day is left for them to serve alone,46 either Friday or Sunday, and they are indolent and only a few come [to the Temple].47

יג

חָל יוֹם אֶחָד לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין הַשַּׁבָּת וּבֵין יוֹם טוֹב כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בְּשֵׁנִי אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּחֲמִישִׁי אוֹ יוֹם שֶׁל עֲצֶרֶת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשֵׁנִי אוֹ בַּחֲמִישִׁי. מִשְׁמָר שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת נוֹטֵל עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת וְזֶה הַנִּכְנָס נוֹטֵל שְׁתַּיִם. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִשְׁאַר לָהֶם לַעֲבוֹדָה הֵם לְבַדָּם אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹ אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וּמִתְעַצְּלִין וְאֵין בָּאִין מֵהֶן אֶלָּא מְעַט:

14

The High Priest always receives from each watch half of the loaves that they receive, as [implied by Leviticus 24:9]: "And it shall be for Aaron and his sons," i.e., half for Aaron and half for his sons. A High Priest never receives a portion of a loaf, because that is not respectful.

יד

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל לְעוֹלָם נוֹטֵל מִכָּל מִשְׁמָר חֲצִי הַחַלּוֹת שֶׁזָּכָה בָּהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כד ט) "וְהָיְתָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו" מֶחֱצָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּמֶחֱצָה לְבָנָיו. וְאֵין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל נוֹטֵל פְּרָס שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּבוֹדוֹ:

Footnotes
1.

This refers to the offering of the communal offerings. The priests to offer individual sacrifices were not chosen on the basis of a lottery (Rashi, Yoma 26b). See also the gloss of the Mishneh LiMelech to Halachah 9 which discusses this issue.

Yoma 22a explains that the lotteries were initiated, because originally the priests would race to carry out the Temple functions. Once as the priests were running up the ramp, one pushed another and he fell and broke his leg. When the Sages realized that danger could result, they instituted these lotteries.

2.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash, ch. 4, which explains that the priests were divided into 24 watches. Each watch would serve in the Temple for one week at a time. Each of those watches were divided into seven clans which would carry out the services for that particular day.

3.

A large chamber on the northern side of the Temple Courtyard. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:17. This chamber was chosen because a portion of it is outside the Temple Courtyard and it was in that portion the priests would stand. The rationale is that, as will be explained, the hat of one of the priests would be removed and it is inappropriate to stand bareheaded in the Temple Courtyard even briefly.

4.

The first glowing of the sun's rays, well before sunrise. At this time, the dust was removed from the altar, as stated in Chapter 2, Halachah 11. See also Chapter 6, Halachah 1.

5.

Immediately, so that the priest would not be bareheaded.

6.

In Halachah 3.

7.

For reasons of modesty.

8.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 8:8-9.

9.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Yoma 2:1), the Rambam writes that a priest would stick out one finger if he was weak or several if he was healthy.

10.

The commentaries note that the Rambam's interpretation of Yoma, loc. cit., is different from that of most other authorities with regard to this point. See the gloss of the Radbaz who elaborates on this matter.

11.

And thus he could manipulate the counting to favor himself [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.). Here also, the Rambam's interpretation differs from that of other authorities.

12.

Proceeding to the right along the semi-circle.

13.

Counting each finger a second time.

14.

Even for a mitzvah (Yoma 22b).

15.

This refers to Saul's census of the army before entering into battle against Amalek. Conversely, we find that when David took a census and actually counted people, a severe plague resulted.

16.

With regard to the afternoon, see Halachah 8.

17.

As described in Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

18.

The Radbaz elaborates in questioning the Rambam's ruling, for it appears to run contrary to the statements of Yoma 25b-26a. Indeed, he maintains that there is a printing error in the text and that this phrase should be included in the following halachah. Others, however, explain that it appears that there is support for the Rambam's position based on the Mishnayot of Tamid 5:5, 6:2.

19.

As Yoma 26b relates, on Sabbaths and festivals even more priests are selected in this lottery. As indicated by Chapter 6, Halachah 1, according to the Rambam, the first two lotteries were conducted in direct proximity to each other.

20.

In Halachah 3.

21.

On his right.

22.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, ch. 6, for details concerning how the offering was divided into portions and brought to the altar.

23.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 18; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:4, 6:16.

24.

The laws that apply had they all brought an incense offering once are mentioned in the following halachah.

25.

Bringing the incense offering was a medium to drawn down Divine blessings for prosperity. Hence the opportunity is given to priests who had never brought that offering previously (Yoma 26a).

26.

I.e., in contrast to the previous lottery where those who had brought the incense offering previously did not participate (ibid.).

27.

I.e., one priest would bring up all the limbs (Tosafot, Yoma 26a).

28.

The Kessef Mishneh notes that although the wood for the altar was brought by two priests in the afternoon as opposed to the one in the morning, there was no need for a second lottery. Instead, the priest who was selected in the morning would bring one of his friends to assist him in the afternoon.

29.

I.e., completes their week of Temple service. For the watches changed after the offering of the sacrifices on the morning of the Sabbath (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3).

30.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 41) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 402) count the offering of the two sheep as the additional offering of the Sabbath as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

31.

This conclusion is reached from the fact that the Talmud does not speak of a separate lottery for the additional offerings.

32.

I.e., begins their week of Temple service.

33.

As described in Halachah 12.

34.

Hilchot Issurei HaMizbeiach 5:11-13; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 16:14.

35.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 11.

36.

They are the fourteenth and fifteenth priests in the second lottery (Kessef Mishneh in the name of the Ritbah). The Radbaz maintains that these priests came from the watch that entered the Temple service that week.

37.

This is the portion of the Temple Courtyard where the communal sacrifices are slaughtered. Dividing the bread there distinguishes them as the watch that will perform the service in the Temple that week [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 5:6)].

38.

This would show that they have completed their service (Sukkah 56b).

39.

I.e., the first and last days of Pesach and Sukkot and the holiday of Shavuot.

40.

I.e., during Chol HaMoed.

41.

This refers to the division of the bread itself, but not to the division of the tasks involved in offering it. Those are performed only by the priests of the watch who serve in the Temple that week (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:6).

42.

See ibid.:4-5 which explains the derivation of this concept.

43.

Indeed, they were given the right to share in the division of the showbread to motivate them to come early.

44.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's statements, explaining that since the festival ended on the day before the Sabbath, the priests had no choice but to stay. The Radbaz explains that it is possible that the priests will be staying in the surroundings of Jerusalem, but will not come to the Temple Mount. Giving them a share in the showbread would encourage them to come to the Temple Mount.

45.

This applies if the last day of the holiday fell on Thursday. Conversely, if the first day fell on Monday, few priests will come so the watch which departs receives ten loaves and the watch which comes two. See the Rambam' Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 5:6).

46.

For the priests of all the watches will come to serve during the festival.

47.

The Ra'avad and Rashi have a different understanding of the passage from Sukkah. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh offer support for the Rambam's view.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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