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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Terumot - Chapter 3

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Terumot - Chapter 3

1

There is no minimum requirement for the great terumah according to Scriptural Law, as [implied by Deuteronomy 18:4]: "The first of your grain," i.e., even the slightest amount. Even one kernel of grain fulfills the requirement for the entire grain heap. Idealy, one should separate only according to the measures specified by our Sages. In the present age, when [the terumah] will be burnt because of impurity, a person may separate even the smallest amount as an initial and prefatory measure.1

א

תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ד) "רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ" כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֲפִלּוּ חִטָּה אַחַת פּוֹטֶרֶת הַכְּרִי. וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יַפְרִישׁ אֶלָּא כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁנָּתְנוּ חֲכָמִים. וּבַזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לִשְׂרֵפָה מִפְּנֵי הַטֻּמְאָה יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַפְרִישׁ כָּל שֶׁהוּא לְכַתְּחִלָּה:

2

What is the measure that our Sages established? A generous measure is one fourtieth [of the crop]. The average [measure] is one fiftieth and a parsimonious measure is one sixtieth.

ב

וְכַמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּרָהּ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ חֲכָמִים. עַיִן יָפָה אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעִים. וְהַבֵּינוֹנִית אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשִּׁים. רָעָה אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים. וְלֹא יִפְחֹת מֵאֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים:

3

Idealy, we may separate one sixtieth [of the crop] as terumah from species to which the priests do not pay attention, e.g., carobs2 and kilisin beans.

[Similarly,] we [may separate] one sixtieth [of the crop as terumah] in the following situations: terumah separated from produce grown from terumah,3 terumah that is mixed [with tevel],4 or impure terumah that became impure against one's will or inadvertently,5 terumah taken from consecrated crops,6 terumah [separated in] the Diaspora, terumah from ketzach, kilisin, carobs,7 poor quality wild figs, red barley kernels, and the like,8 and produce grown in a flower-pot that does not have a hole.9

Similarly, when guardians separate [terumah] from the produce of orphans, they should separate one sixtieth.10

ג

כָּל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים מַקְפִּידִין עָלֶיהָ כְּגוֹן תְּרוּמוֹת הֶחָרוּבִין וְהַקְּלִיסִין נִטֶּלֶת לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים. וְאֵלּוּ נִטָּלִין אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים. תְּרוּמַת גִּדּוּלֵי תְּרוּמָה וְעֵרוּבֵי תְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּאֹנֶס אוֹ בִּשְׁגָגָה וּתְרוּמַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּתְרוּמַת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ וּתְרוּמַת הַקֶּצַח וְהַקְּלִיסִין וְהֶחָרוּבִין וְהַגִּמְזִיּוֹת וְהַתֻּרְמוֹסִין וּשְׂעוֹרִים אֲדוֹמִיּוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֵן וּפֵרוֹת עָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב. וְכֵן הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין כְּשֶׁתּוֹרְמִין פֵּרוֹת יְתוֹמִים תּוֹרְמִין אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים:

4

One should not11 separate this terumah with a measure, a scale, or by number, because [the Torah] did not specify a measure for this [allocation]. Instead, one makes an estimation and separates one fiftieth12 according to his conception.13 One may, however, separate terumah from [produce that is] measured, weighed, or counted.14 He should not separate terumah using a basket or a container whose measure is known.15 He may, however, separate terumah by [filling] half or a third of their measure. One should not separate terumah [by using] half [a measure of] a se'ah, because its half is also a measure.

ד

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין תְּרוּמָה זוֹ לֹא בְּמִדָּה וְלֹא בְּמִשְׁקָל וְלֹא בְּמִנְיָן לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בָּהּ שִׁעוּר אֶלָּא אֹמֶד וּמַפְרִישׁ בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּמוֹ אֶחָד (מִשִּׁשִּׁים) [מֵחֲמִשִּׁים]. אֲבָל תּוֹרֵם הוּא אֶת הַמָּדוּד וְאֶת הַשָּׁקוּל וְאֶת הַמָּנוּי. וְלֹא יִתְרֹם בְּסַל וּבְקֻפָּה שֶׁמִּדָּתָן יְדוּעָה. אֲבָל תּוֹרֵם הוּא בָּהֶן חֶצְיָן אוֹ שְׁלִישָׁן. וְלֹא יִתְרֹם בִּסְאָה חֶצְיָהּ שֶׁהַחֶצְיָהּ מִדָּה:

5

When a person separates a large measure of terumah,16 as long as he leaves a certain portion as ordinary produce,17 [the separated portion] is terumah. If, however, he said: "All of this produce is terumah," his statements are of no consequence.18

If a person intended to separate one tenth [of his crop] as terumah, but it happened that he actually set aside one sixtieth, [the separated portion] is terumah.19 If, however, he intended to give the sixtieth as terumah, but it happened that he actually set aside one fiftieth, [the separated portion] is not terumah.20

ה

הַמַּרְבֶּה בִּתְרוּמָה הוֹאִיל וְשִׁיֵּר מִקְצָת חֻלִּין הֲרֵי זוֹ תְּרוּמָה. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ תְּרוּמָה לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לִתְרֹם אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְעָלְתָה בְּיָדוֹ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה. נִתְכַּוֵּן לִתְרֹם אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְעָלְתָה בְּיָדוֹ אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשִּׁים אֵינוֹ תְּרוּמָה:

6

When a person sets aside terumah and it happened that he gave one twentieth [of his crop],21 [the separated portion] is terumah.22 If he set aside terumah and it happened that he gave one sixtieth [of his crop] and hence, he added more produce for the sake of terumah,23 the tithes must be separated from that additional amount.24 The priest must separate them and only then may he partake of it.25

If a person set aside terumah26 and it happened that he gave one sixty-first [of his crop], [the separated portion] is terumah, but he must set aside a second portion to complete the measure that he originally intended to give. This additional measure may be set aside with a measure, a scale, or by number.27 He should set aside [the terumah] only from the produce that is encompassed [in the same area] as is true with regard to the initial separation [of terumah].28

ו

הַמַּפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה וְעָלְתָה בְּיָדוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד מֵעֶשְׂרִים תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה. תָּרַם וְעָלְתָה בְּיָדוֹ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְחָזַר וְהוֹסִיף לְשֵׁם תְּרוּמָה אוֹתָהּ הַתּוֹסֶפֶת חַיֶּבֶת בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת וּמַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנָּה הַכֹּהֵן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאכְלֶנָּה. תָּרַם וְעָלְתָה בְּיָדוֹ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד הֲרֵי זוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים הַשִּׁעוּר שֶׁבְּדַעְתּוֹ. וְהַתּוֹסֶפֶת הַזֹּאת יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַפְרִישָׁהּ בְּמִדָּה אוֹ בְּמִשְׁקָל אוֹ בְּמִנְיָן אֲבָל לֹא יַפְרִישֶׁנָּה אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף כָּרִאשׁוֹנָה:

7

When a person separates a portion of the terumah [that he originally intended to separate], that portion does not have the status of terumah.29 Nevertheless, the terumah from that portion30 should be separated from it and not from other produce.

ז

הַמַּפְרִישׁ מִקְצָת הַתְּרוּמָה אוֹתוֹ הַמִּקְצָת אֵינוֹ תְּרוּמָה וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּחֵלֶק הַכְּרִי. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמַת אוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת מִמֶּנּוּ. וְלֹא יַפְרִישׁ עָלָיו מִפֵּרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת:

8

When a person separates a portion of terumah from one grain heap and a portion of terumah from a second grain heap of the same species, he should not separate terumah from one grain heap for the other.31

[The following rules apply when a person] says: "The terumah for this grain heap is in its midst." If he specified a place - on the north side or the south - he has designated terumah and is obligated to separate terumah from that [portion of the grain heap]. If he did not specify a place, his statements are of no consequence.32

ח

הַמַּפְרִישׁ מִקְצָת תְּרוּמָה מִכְּרִי זֶה וּמִקְצָת תְּרוּמָה מִכְּרִי אַחֵר מִמִּינוֹ. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִתְרֹם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. האוֹמֵר תְּרוּמַת הַכְּרִי זֶה לְתוֹכוֹ אִם אָמַר בִּצְפוֹנוֹ אוֹ בִּדְרוֹמוֹ קָרָא שֵׁם וְחַיָּב לְהַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָתוֹ וְאִם לֹא צִיֵּן בְּמָקוֹם לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם:

9

If [a person separating terumah] said: "The terumah for this grain heap is this33 and the terumah for this grain heap is like that one,"34 at the place where the terumah for the first grain heap ended, the terumah for the second grain heap also ended.

ט

אָמַר תְּרוּמַת הַכְּרִי זֶה וְהַכְּרִי הַזֶּה כָּזֶה מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּסְתַּיְּמָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן שָׁם נִסְתַיְּמָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי:

10

Terumat Ma'aser35 may not be separated by estimation.36 [Instead,] one must be precise in its measure, even in the present age,37 because its measure is explicitly stated in the Torah.

י

תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר אֵין מַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתָהּ בְּאֹמֶד. אֶלָּא מְדַקְדֵּק בְּשִׁעוּרָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה. שֶׁהֲרֵי שִׁעוּרָהּ מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה:

11

[Produce] that is usually measured in volume, should be measured in volume. [Produce] that is weighed should be weighed and if it can [easily] be counted, it should be counted. If it could [easily] be counted, weighed, or measured in volume, it is praiseworthy to count it,38 more praiseworthy to measure its volume, and most praiseworthy to weigh it.39

יא

דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לִמְדֹּד מוֹדֵד. וְדָבָר הַנִּשְׁקָל שׁוֹקֵל. דָּבָר שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִמְנוֹתוֹ מוֹנֶה. הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לִמְנוֹתוֹ וּלְשָׁקְלוֹ וּלְמָדְדוֹ הַמּוֹנֶה מְשֻׁבָּח וְהַמּוֹדֵד מְשֻׁבָּח מִמֶּנּוּ וְהַשּׁוֹקֵל מְשֻׁבָּח מִשְּׁנֵיהֶן:

12

The mitzvah [to separate] terumat ma'aser is for a Levite to separate it from the tithe [given] him, as [Numbers 18:26] states: "When you take the tithe from the children of Israel...."40 An Israelite may separate terumat ma'aser and give it to a priest41 and then give the tithes to a Levite after separating the terumat [ma'aser] from it, i.e., a tenth of a tenth.

יב

מִצְוַת תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ אוֹתָן בֶּן לֵוִי מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כו) "וְכִי תִקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר". וְיֵשׁ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַפְרִישׁ אוֹתָהּ וְלִתְּנָהּ לַכֹּהֵן. וְיִתֵּן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לַלֵּוִי אַחַר שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָתוֹ שֶׁהִיא מַעֲשֵׂר מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר:

13

When an Israelite separates the first tithe while the crop is still stalks [of grain] and gives it to the Levite before it was threshed and before he separated the great terumah, the Levite is not required to separate the great terumah from it after he threshes it, only terumat ma'aser.42

If, however, the Israelite threshed [the crop]43 and separated a tithe of the grain and gave it to the Levite before he separated the great terumah, the Levite is obligated to separate the great terumah and terumat ma'aser, since [the crop] has already been [separated into kernels of] grain, the obligation [to separate] terumah has fallen upon it, as [implied by the phrase]: "The first of your grain."44

יג

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן כְּשֶׁהוּא שִׁבֳּלִים קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּדוּשׁ וְיַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּנְתָנוֹ לְלֵוִי. אֵין הַלֵּוִי חַיָּב לְהַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה אַחַר שֶׁיְּדוּשֶׁנּוּ אֶלָּא תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אִם דַּשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִפְרִישׁ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר מִן הַדָּגָן קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה [וּנְתָנוֹ לְלֵוִי חַיָּב הַלֵּוִי לְהַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה] וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר מֵאַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה דָּגָן נִתְחַיֵּב בִּתְרוּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ד) "רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ":

14

When a Levite took grain while it was in stalks, he should not give the terumah to the priest in stalks. Instead, we penalize him [and require him] to thresh [the crop], winnow it, and give the priest a tenth of a tenth of the kernels of the grain.45 He is not required to give him a tenth of the straw or the chaff.46 If he set aside terumat ma'aser while the crop was in stalks as it was given to him, he must crush it and give the priest the kernels and the straw.47

Why did they penalize him and make him crush it? Because he accepted the tithe while it was in the stalks and thus precluded the separation of the great terumah.

יד

בֶּן לֵוִי שֶׁלָּקַח מַעֲשַׂר שִׁבֳּלִים לֹא יִתֵּן תְּרוּמָתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן שִׁבֳּלִים אֶלָּא קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ לָדוּשׁ וְלִזְרוֹת וְלִתֵּן לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר מִן הַדָּגָן. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר מִן הַתֶּבֶן אוֹ הָעֵצָה. וְאִם הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שִׁבֳּלִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כּוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַזֶּרַע וְאֶת הַתֶּבֶן. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה קְנָסוּהוּ לִכְתּשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלָּקַח הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שִׁבֳּלִים וְהִפְקִיעַ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה:

15

When an Israelite tells a Levite: "My father told me: 'I have ma'aser for you in my possession,' we are not concerned about [the possibility of] it containing terumat ma'aser. [We are confident] that his father separated the terumat ma'aser. Therefore he commanded him that the [entire] tithe should be given to the Levite.48

If [the Israelite] told [the Levite]: "My father told me: 'I have a kor49 of ma'aser for you in my possession,' we are concerned about [the possibility of] it containing terumat ma'aser.

טו

בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאָמַר לְלֵוִי כָּךְ אָמַר לִי אַבָּא מַעֲשֵׂר לְךָ בְּיָדִי אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לִתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁבּוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי אָבִיו הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָתוֹ וּלְפִיכָךְ צִוָּהוּ שֶׁזֶּה הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לִפְלוֹנִי הַלֵּוִי. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ כָּךְ אָמַר לִי אַבָּא כּוֹר מַעֲשֵׂר יֵשׁ לְךָ בְּיָדִי חוֹשְׁשִׁין לִתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁבּוֹ:

16

Terumat ma'aser that is an eighth of an eighth [of a log]50 should be brought to a priest. For less than that, [we do not trouble him] to bring it to a priest.51 Instead, he may throw it into the fire and burn it.52 With regard to wine and oil, by contrast, even the smallest amount [of terumat ma'aser] should be brought to a priest53 provided it is definitely terumat ma'aser and ritually pure.54 If it was ritually impure or if it was demai,55 if it does not contain [the above] measure, he is not required to trouble himself with it. Instead, he should burn it.

טז

תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהָיָה בָּהּ אֶחָד מִשְּׁמוֹנָה בִּשְׁמִינִית מוֹלִיכָהּ לַכֹּהֵן. פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן אֵינוֹ מְטַפֵּל לְהוֹלִיכָהּ אֶלָּא מַשְׁלִיכָהּ בָּאוּר וְשׂוֹרְפָהּ. וּבְיַיִן וּבְשֶׁמֶן אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא מוֹלִיכָהּ לַכֹּהֵן. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁתְּהֵא תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וַדָּאִית וּטְהוֹרָה. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל דְּמַאי אִם אֵין בָּהּ כַּשִּׁעוּר אֵינוֹ מְטַפֵּל בָּהּ אֶלָּא שׂוֹרְפָהּ:

17

We should separate the great terumah only from [produce] in the same location.56 What is implied? A person had 50 se'ah in one room57 and 50 se'ah in another,58 he should not separate two se'ah from one room for the entire 100 se'ah, for he would be separating produce from one location for produce from another.

[After the fact,] if one separated terumah from one location for produce in another, the separation is effective,59 provided the produce separated [as terumah] is protected. If, however, a person possessed jugs of oil and/or wine and saw that they were breaking, should he say: "These are terumah for the produce in my home,"60 his words are of no consequence.61

יז

אֵין תּוֹרְמִין תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ לוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים סְאָה בְּבַיִת זֶה וַחֲמִשִּׁים סְאָה בְּבַיִת אַחֵר לֹא יַפְרִישׁ מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן שְׁתֵּי סְאִים עַל הַמֵּאָה. שֶׁנִּמְצָא מַפְרִישׁ מִמָּקוֹם זֶה עַל מָקוֹם אַחֵר. וְאִם הִפְרִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַמֻּפְרָשׁ שָׁמוּר אֲבָל אִם הָיָה טָעוּן כַּדֵּי יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן וְרָאָה שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּבְּרִין וְאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן תְּרוּמָה עַל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁבְּבֵיתִי לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם:

18

When produce is scattered in a room or there are two granaries in the same room,62 one may separate terumah from one for the entire amount.63 When sacks of grain, spheres of dried figs, or jugs of figs are in the same place, one may separate from one for the entire amount. With regard to jugs of wine, until one has sealed their lids closed, he may separate terumah from one for the entire amount.64 After they have been sealed, he must separate terumah from each one individually.65

יח

פֵּרוֹת הַמְפֻזָּרִין בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת אוֹ שְׁתֵּי מְגוּרוֹת שֶׁבְּבַיִת אֶחָד תּוֹרֵם מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל. שַׂקֵּי תְּבוּאָה וְעִגּוּלֵי דְּבֵלָה וְחָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל גְּרוֹגָרוֹת אִם הָיוּ בַּהֲקֵיפָה אַחַת תּוֹרֵם מֵאַחַת עַל הַכּל. חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן עַד שֶׁלֹּא סָתַם אֶת פִּיהֶן תּוֹרֵם מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל. מִשֶּׁסָּתַם תּוֹרֵם מִכָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת:

19

When a person was gathering bunches of vegetables and leaving them in [his] garden, he may separate terumah from one for the entire amount.66 If he brings another type of produce between them, he must separate terumah from each one individually. If he brought several species together in a container, e.g., cabbage on top, cabbage on bottom, and another species in between, he should not separate terumah from the top head for the bottom head.67

If he collected five piles in one granary, he may separate terumah from one for the entire amount68 provided the fundamental collection is intact.69 If the fundamental collection is not intact, he must separate terumah from each one individually.

יט

הָיָה מְלַקֵּט גַּפֵּי יָרָק וּמַנִּיחַ בַּגִּנָּה תּוֹרֵם מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל. הֵבִיא מִין אֶחָד בֵּינֵיהֶן תּוֹרֵם מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. הֵבִיא מִינִין הַרְבֵּה בַּקֻּפָּה כְּרוּב מִלְּמַעְלָה וּכְרוּב מִלְּמַטָּה וּמִין אַחֵר בָּאֶמְצַע לֹא יִתְרֹם מִן הָעֶלְיוֹן עַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן. וְאִם הִקִּיף חֲמִשָּׁה צִבּוּרִים בְּגֹרֶן תּוֹרֵם מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל בִּזְמַן שֶׁעִקַּר הַגֹּרֶן קַיָּם. אֵין עִקַּר הַגֹּרֶן קַיָּם תּוֹרֵם מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:

20

Terumat ma'aser may be separated even if [the produce] is not in the same location. [This is implied by Numbers 18:28]: Separate terumah "from all of your tithes."70 [Implied is that] even if there is one [collection of] tithes in one city and another [collection of] tithes in another city, one may separate terumat [ma'aser] once for all of them. Torah scholars separate even terumat ma'aser only from [produce] in one location.71

כ

תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר מַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כח כט) "מִכָּל מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם תָּרִימוּ תְּרוּמָה" אֲפִלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר אֶחָד בִּמְדִינָה זוֹ וּמַעֲשֵׂר אֶחָד בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת מַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל. וְתַלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים אֵין תּוֹרְמִין אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף וַאֲפִלּוּ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר:

21

When a Levite possessed [produce from] the first tithe from which terumat ma'aser was not separated and he left it so that he could continuously separate terumat ma'aser [for other crops] from it while it is still tevel, his actions are viable. [This is derived from Numbers 18:24]: "For the tithes of the children of Israel [from] which they will separate terumah...." Implied is that [the tithes] can be transformed into terumat [ma'aser] in their entirety.

כא

בֶּן לֵוִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָתוֹ וְהִנִּיחוֹ לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עָלָיו וְהוֹלֵךְ וְהוּא בְּטִבְלוֹ מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה עָשׂוּי. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כד) "כִּי אֶת מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַה' תְּרוּמָה" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֶת כֻּלּוֹ תְּרוּמָה לְאַחֵר:

22

If one separated terumat ma'aser first and then left [the produce] so that one could continually separate terumat ma'aser for other produce from it until it becomes terumat ma'aser in its entirety, at which he would give it to a priest, his actions are of no consequence.72 [This is derived from ibid.:29]: "The sacred portion from it." Implied is that when its sacred portion is in it,73 it can be made terumat [ma'aser] for other [crops]. If its sacred portion is no longer in it, it cannot be made terumat [ma'aser] for other [crops]. Similarly, when a person sets aside crops to separate the great terumah from them, they must be tevel with regard to terumah.74 If a person sets aside crops to separate the tithes from them, they must be tevel with regard to the tithes.75

כב

הִפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִנִּיחוֹ לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עָלָיו וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה כֻּלּוֹ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְיִתְּנוֹ לַכֹּהֵן לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח כט) "אֶת מִקְדְּשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ" בִּזְמַן שֶׁקָּדָשָׁיו בְּתוֹכוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ תְּרוּמָה לַאֲחֵרִים. אֵין קָדָשָׁיו בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ תְּרוּמָה לַאֲחֵרִים. וְכֵן הַמַּנִּיחַ פֵּרוֹת לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶם תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ טְבוּלִין לִתְרוּמָה. וְאִם הִנִּיחָן לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ טְבוּלִין לְמַעֲשֵׂר:

23

When terumah and the tithes are separated, we separate them in proper sequence.

What is implied? Before everything, one separates bikkurim.76 Afterwards, [he separates] the great terumah, the first tithe, then the second tithe or the tithe for the poor.77 If a person separated the second [tithe] before the first, or the tithes before terumah, or terumah before bikkurim, his actions are effective despite the fact that he has transgressed a negative commandment.78

What is the source which teaches that a negative commandment is involved? [Exodus 22:28] states: "Do not delay your fullness offering or your priestly heave-offering."79 [Implied is a command] not to delay [the separation of produce] that should come first. Lashes are not given [as punishment for the violation] of this prohibition.80

כג

כְּשֶׁמַּפְרִישִׁין תְּרוּמָה וּמַעֲשֵׂר מַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתָן עַל הַסֵּדֶר. כֵּיצַד. מַפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרִים תְּחִלָּה לַכּל. וְאַחַר כָּךְ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר עָנִי. וְהַמַּקְדִּים שֵׁנִי לָרִאשׁוֹן. אוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר לִתְרוּמָה. אוֹ תְּרוּמָה לְבִכּוּרִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה עָשׂוּי. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהוּא בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב כח) "מְלֵאָתְךָ וְדִמְעֲךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר". לֹא תְּאַחֵר דָּבָר שֶׁרָאוּי לְהַקְדִּימוֹ. וְאֵין לוֹקִין עַל לָאו זֶה:

24

When a person desires to separate the great terumah and terumat ma'aser at the same time, he should separate 1/33.33 of his crop.81 He should say: "One hundredth of [the produce] that is here - i.e., on the side of the produce which I set aside - is ordinary produce.82 The remainder of what I separated is terumah for the entire crop. The tithes which are necessary to be separated for these hundred portions83 of ordinary produce are at the side of [the produce] that I separated. The remainder of what I separated aside from the terumah is terumat ma'aser on the entire amount."84

כד

הָרוֹצֶה לְהַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר כְּאֶחָד מַפְרִישׁ אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה וּשְׁלִישׁ. וְאוֹמֵר אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן הֲרֵי הוּא בְּצַד זֶה שֶׁהִפְרַשְׁתִּי וַהֲרֵי הוּא חֻלִּין. וְהַנִּשְׁאָר מִזֶּה שֶׁהִפְרַשְׁתִּי הוּא תְּרוּמָה עַל הַכּל. וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁרָאוּי לִהְיוֹת לְמֵאָה חֻלִּין אֵלּוּ הֲרֵי הוּא בְּצַד זֶה שֶׁהִפְרַשְׁתִּי. וְזֶה הַנִּשְׁאָר יֶתֶר עַל הַתְּרוּמָה מִמַּה שֶּׁהִפְרַשְׁתִּי הֲרֵי הוּא תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר עַל הַכּל:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

Since the produce will ultimately be burnt, there is no purpose in setting aside more than the very minimum. The Radbaz notes that the priests are also given the opportunity to benefit from impure terumah, because they use it as fuel. Why then shouldn't they be given a full measure of impure terumah? He explains that since this is not the primary use of terumah, our Sages did not feel that for the minimal benefit the priest receives from burning the terumah, it was necessary to require the people to separate a larger amount.

2.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 1:3, there are certain species of carobs which are generally not eaten by humans. There is no obligation to separate terumah from them according to Scriptural Law. Here we are speaking about carobs from which one is obligated to separate terumah according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, since they are not considered important by the priests, there is no need to separate more than the minimal amount.

3.

As explained in Chapter 11, Halachot 21 and 27, when produce that is terumah is sown, according to Scriptural Law, the produce which grows is ordinary produce and terumah and tithes must be separated from it. Nevertheless, our Sages were stringent and declared that the entire crop should be considered as terumah and sold to the priests (at a price substantially less than that of ordinary produce). Since the owners are required to consider the entire crop as terumah, our Sages did not require them to separate more than a sixtieth to be given as terumah (Tosefta, Terumot, ch. 5).

4.

Tevel is produce from which terumah and tithes were not separated. As indicated by Chapter 13, Halachah 1, if there are more than 100 times the amount of tevel as terumah, it is necessary to remove the amount of terumah that became mixed with the tevel and then separate the terumah. Since the person is already separating the amount of terumah from the mixture, our Sages did not require him to separate a large quantity of terumah from the tevel. As noted in Chapter 13, Halachah 2, more stringent laws apply when terumah becomes mixed with less than 100 times the amount of other produce.

5.

The Radbaz questions: Why is it not sufficient to separate the slightest amount as terumah as is the practice in the present age (Halachah 1)? He explains that in the present age, all terumah will become ritually impure. Hence, there is no need to give a significant amount at all. In the time of the Talmud, by contrast, significant amounts of terumah that is pure must be separated. If an inconsequential amount of impure terumah would be separated, people might refrain from giving an appropriate amount of pure terumah.

6.

I.e., crops that were consecrated after the work involving their harvest was completed (at which time the obligation to separate terumah became incumbent upon them), but from which terumah was not actually separated. There is no need to separate terumah from crops that grew in a field belonging to the Temple treasury.

7.

Note, however, Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 1:3.

8.

I.e., all of these species are types of produce that are not usually considered valuable.

9.

This leniency is granted for the obligation to separate terumah from such produce is merely Rabbinic in origin. Hence it is sufficient to separate one-sixtieth as an initial measure.

10.

Because special consideration is given to the orphans' property.

11.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 1:7), Rambam states that separating terumah in this manner is "forbidden." The commentaries question whether his use of different wording in this halachah indicates a change of position or not.

12.

This is the average measure. Our translation follows authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah. The standard printed text reads "one sixtieth."

13.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Terumah 1:7) derives this from Numbers 18:27: "And your terumah will be considered for you...." Venechshav translated as "considered" shares the root chashav meaning "thought" or "estimate." Implied is that terumah should be given by estimation. Although this verse is speaking about terumat ma'aser which must be separated by exact measure (see Halachah 10), we follow the principle (see Rashi, Pesachim 24a): If a concept explicitly stated with regard to terumat ma'aser cannot be applied to it, we assume that it is referring to the great terumah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)].

14.

I.e., one measures the produce and then separates terumah by estimation (ibid.).

15.

For that is obviously equivalent to separating with a measure.

16.

I.e., a measure above that stated by the Sages.

17.

I.e., he did not designate the entire crop as terumah.

18.

For Numbers 15:21 speaks of giving "from the first of your kneading." Implied is that one must give "from the first," but not all the first [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 4:5, based on the Jerusalem Talmud)].

19.

For he had intended to give this amount of produce - and more - as terumah (Kessef Mishneh). And when giving terumah, one's deed must be aligned - at least partially - with his intent. Since the terumah is acceptable, there is no need for the person to supplement the amount separated and give the amount he originally intended (Radbaz).

20.

For he had not intended to give this amount as terumah (ibid.).

21.

I.e., without either desiring to give this amount or having a desire to give a lesser amount. Note the gloss of the Radbaz who suggests that there is a printing error in the text.

22.

The fact that he gave a larger measure than usual as terumah does not disqualify his gift.

23.

So that he would not be giving a parsimonious measure.

24.

Although normally, there is no obligation to separate tithes from terumah, since the portion he separated originally fulfilled his obligation, it immediately became necessary to separate tithes from the remainder of the produce.

25.

He must observe all the obligations required when partaking of terumah.

26.

With the intent of giving the measure required by our Sages.

27.

Although initially, one should not give a measured amount of terumah as stated in Halachah 4, in this instance, he is required to give a measured amount so that he will give the amount that he originally intended.

28.

As is required by Halachah 17, as an initial and preferable measure.

29.

In contrast to the situation described in the previous halachah, in this instance, the person originally intended to separate more. Hence, what he separated is not considered as terumah.

30.

Since the separation was not effective, that portion is considered as tevel and terumah must be separated from it. Since it was set aside as a separate portion, the terumah should be separated from it and not from other produce. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 4:1).

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam's interpretation of that mishnah and maintains that the separated produce is in fact terumah. The Kessef Mishneh justifies the Rambam's interpretation.

31.

For as mentioned above and in Halachah 17, preferably, one should separate terumah from the grain for which it is being separated and not from other grain.

32.

And he may separate terumah from other produce. The rationale is that terumah is called "the first." Implied is that it must be set aside from produce that is not "first" and in this instance, that has not been done (Siftei Cohen 331:45).

33.

I.e., he designated a certain portion of the first grain heap as terumah.

34.

I.e., the terumah for the second grain heap should be separated in a way entirely parallel to the separation from the first. It should be taken from an equivalent place and have the measure. Our translation is based on the version of the Mishneh Torah possessed by the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh and their interpretations of that text. There are other slightly different versions of the text.

35.

As stated in Halachah 12, after a tenth of the produce is given to the Levites, they must separate a tenth of that tenth and give it to the priests as terumat ma'aser.

36.

I.e., in contrast to "the great terumah," as mentioned in Halachah 4.

As stated in the notes to that halachah, a verse ostensibly referring to terumat ma'aser (Numbers 18:27) states: "And your terumah will be considered for you...." Venechshav translated as "considered" shares the root chashav meaning "thought" or "estimate." Implied is that terumah should be given by estimation. Nevertheless, according to the Jerusalem Talmud (Terumah 1:7), that verse refers to the great terumah and not to terumat ma'aser (Radbaz).

37.

When it will be destroyed because of impurity.

38.

I.e., separating the terumat ma'aser after counting it is praiseworthy [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 4:6)].

39.

For in this way, the measurement is most precise.

40.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 129) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 396) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

41.

I.e., the Torah's requirement is for the Israelite to give the tithes to the Levite and for the Levite to separate one tenth of the tithes as terumat ma'aser. Nevertheless, if the Israelite desires to fulfill this mitzvah, he has the option. It is not considered as if he is usurping the Levite's right.

The Radbaz notes that the source for this concept (Gittin 30b) also implies that terumat ma'aser can be separated by estimation and finds it somewhat problematic to derive one concept from that source, but not the second. Nevertheless, he concludes that this is in fact the Talmud's conclusion.

42.

Berachot 47a derives this concept from the exegesis of Numbers 18:26 which speaks of taking "a tenth from the tithe." Implied is that only a tenth is separated from the tithe and nothing more.

43.

And completed all the other tasks to make it obligated for tithing.

44.

I.e., once produce has been reduced to kernels of grain, the obligation to separate terumah takes effect. Hence, the Levite must separate terumah from the tithe as well as terumat ma'aser.

45.

I.e., he is penalized by being required to perform the work necessary to process the stalks of grain until they are reduced to kernels.

46.

For the obligation to tithe is incumbent only on the food and not on the other parts of the plant.

47.

He is required to perform the tasks necessary to process the grain for the reasons mentioned above. Nevertheless, he must give the priest the chaff because he designated it as terumah while it was in its stalks. That sacred designation does not depart from the chaff when the kernels are separated from it.

48.

I.e., his statements indicate that his father desired that the entire tithe be given to the Levite. Hence, we assume that he already separated the terumat ma'aser.

49.

The mention of a measure indicates that he expects the Levite to separate the terumat ma'aser required for this measure.

The Ra'avad challenges the Rambam's ruling, noting that it is the opposite of the standard text of the Talmud (Gittin 30b). The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh state that the version of the Talmud possessed by the Rambam differed from the standard version and indeed, possesses an advantage over it.

50.

This measure, a kortov, is slightly less than 5 cc. according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 9.5 cc. according to Chazon Ish.

51.

Because such a small amount is of little value.

On the basis of the Jerusalem Talmud (Terumot 11:4), the Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling, maintaining that even the slightest amount of pure grain should also be brought to a priest if there was a definite obligation to tithe. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh acknowledge the validity of Ra'avad's questions, but offer possible resolutions for the Rambam's approach.

52.

He must, however, separate it. Otherwise, it is forbidden to benefit from the tithes.

53.

For even a small amount of these substances is of value for a priest (Radbaz).

54.

If it was not ritually pure, it would be of little benefit to the priest, for he could use it only as fuel. Hence we do not require that it be brought to him.

55.

Produce from which we are uncertain whether the tithes had been separated and hence, require that the tithes be separated again. Since the tithes are being separated merely as a safeguard and thus it is possible that there is no Scriptural obligation from this crop, we do not trouble him to bring a priest a very small amount.

56.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:9). Note the contrast to terumat ma'aser as stated in Halachah 20.

57.

We have chosen this translation for bayit based on the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh to Halachah 18 where he explains that when one grain heap is in a room and another in the loft of the same building, they are considered as being in the same place. This interpretation enables us to understand an otherwise difficult passage in the Tosefta, Terumot 3:9.

58.

Everything that is in the same room is considered as being in the same location even if the two piles of produce are not touching each other (Radbaz; see the following halachah).

59.

The Siftei Cohen 331:49 explains the rationale for the above restriction and why it is not binding after the fact. As mentioned above, according to Rabbinic Law, one must separate between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the crop as terumah and that separation must be made by estimation. Hence, in order to make an appropriate estimation, one must be in the same place as the produce. Nevertheless, since according to Scriptural Law, one fulfills his obligation with even one grain, after the fact, such a separation is not disqualified.

60.

And thus try to receive something of value for the wine and/or oil that will be spilled.

61.

Since the jugs are breaking, we considered them as having been broken already and the produce as having been spilled. When quoting this law, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 331:25) states that in the present age, when terumah is destroyed regardless because of its impurity, even when the jugs are breaking, the separation is effective.

62.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:9). Note the contrast to terumat ma'aser as stated in Halachah 20.

63.

Since they are in the same room, they are considered as being in the same place.

64.

It is considered as if they were all mixed together [see the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 3:12)].

65.

Each closed jug is considered as a separate entity, even though they are all in the same room.

66.

For the entire garden is considered as a single entity.

67.

Since there are other species between them, they are not considered as of the same group.

68.

The fact that they are in the same granary causes them to be considered as a single entity.

69.

I.e., provided he has not begun removing produce from the granary.

70.

The Rambam is not quoting the verse as it appears in the Torah.

71.

The Siftei Cohen 331:48 describes this as the most choice way of observing the mitzvah. The Radbaz emphasizes that this is a stringency that Torah scholars have accepted upon themselves and, according to the Rambam, is not even a Rabbinic obligation. The Ra'avad explains that an Israelite need not separate terumat ma'aser from produce that is in one place, but a Levite must. The Kessef Mishneh does not accept that position and quotes sources in support of the Rambam's view.

72.

And it is as if terumat ma'aser has never been separated for the produce for which he intended that it serve that purpose.

73.

I.e., terumat ma'aser has not yet been separated.

74.

I.e., terumah has never been separated from them. See Chapter 5, Halachah 12.

75.

I.e., the tithes have never been separated from them. See Hilchot Ma'aser 1:7.

76.

The first fruits.

77.

I.e., either one or the other. For in the year the second tithe is separated, the tithe for the poor is not separated.

78.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 154) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 72) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

79.

"Your fullness offering" refers to bikkurim for they are separated when the produce becomes full. "Your priestly heave-offering" refers to terumah. Thus the bikkurim precede terumah. See also Terumot 3:6-7.

80.

Temurah 4b explains that this prohibition is considered as correctable by the fulfillment of a positive commandment, for one may make separations in the proper order. See the gloss of Radbaz.

81.

I.e., three hundredths of his crop. An average donation of terumah is one fifitieth, two hundredths. And terumat ma'aser is one tenth of the first tithe, another hundredth. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 5:2).

82.

This refers to the portion that will be separated as terumat ma'aser. Initially, it is to remain as ordinary produce, so that the prohibition against making the separations in improper sequence is not violated. See Ra'avad.

83.

I.e., including that which was separated as terumah.

84.

In this way, he will have separated terumah, the tithes, and terumat ma'aser in proper sequence.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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