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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Kilaayim - Chapter 4

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Kilaayim - Chapter 4

1

It is permitted to sow two rows of zucchini next to each other, next to them two rows of squash, next to them two rows of Egyptian beans, [provided] there is a trench1 between each species.2 One should not, however, sow one row of zucchini, one row of squash, and one row of Egyptian beans, even though there is a trench separating between each species, because the leaves of these species grow long and become extended and tangled. If they are sown one row next to another, everything will become intermingled and it will appear that he sowed [the crops] as a mixture.

א

מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ שְׁתֵּי שׁוּרוֹת זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ שֶׁל קִשּׁוּאִין וּשְׁתֵּי שׁוּרוֹת בְּצִדָּן שֶׁל דְּלוּעִין. וּשְׁתֵּי שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי. וְתֶלֶם בֵּין כָּל מִין וָמִין. אֲבָל לֹא יִזְרַע שׁוּרָה אַחַת שֶׁל קִשּׁוּאִין וְשׁוּרָה אַחַת שֶׁל דְּלוּעִין וְשׁוּרָה אַחַת שֶׁל פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתֶּלֶם מַבְדִּיל בֵּין כָּל מִין וָמִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּינִין אֵלּוּ עָלִים שֶׁלָּהֶן אֲרֻכִּין וְנִמְשָׁכִין וּמִסְתַּבְּכִין. וְאִם זְרָעָן שׁוּרָה בְּצַד שׁוּרָה יִתְעָרֵב הַכּל וְנִרְאוּ כְּנִזְרָעִין בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא:

2

If a person's field was planted with types of vegetables and he desired to plant several rows of squash3 in it, [he must do the following]: Rip up from the vegetables a place where he will plant a row of squash and separate between it and the vegetables with a trench. He then leaves a twelve cubit section of vegetables and plants a second row of squash, dividing between it and the vegetables with a trench. Similarly, [he should follow this pattern] until [he reaches] the place he desires. Thus there will be twelve cubits between each two rows of squash.4 If there is less than this measure, it is forbidden, because the leaves will become tangled with the vegetables between them on either side and it will appear that he sowed [the crops] as a mixture.

ב

הָיְתָה שָׂדֵהוּ זְרוּעָה מִין מִמִּינֵי יְרָקוֹת וּבִקֵּשׁ לִזְרֹעַ בְּתוֹכָהּ שׁוּרוֹת שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל דְּלוּעִין עוֹקֵר מִן הַיָּרָק מָקוֹם שֶׁזּוֹרֵעַ בּוֹ שׁוּרָה שֶׁל דְּלוּעִין וּמַבְדִּיל בֵּינָהּ וּבֵין הַיָּרָק בְּתֶלֶם וּמַנִּיחַ מִן הַיָּרָק רֹחַב שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה וְעוֹשֶׂה שׁוּרָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל דְּלוּעִין וּמַבְדִּיל בֵּינָהּ וּבֵין הַיָּרָק בְּתֶלֶם. וְכֵן עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. שֶׁנִּמְצָא בֵּין כָּל שְׁתֵּי שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל דְּלוּעִין שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה. אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִיכַּן אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי הֶעָלִין שֶׁמִּסְתַּבְּכִין מִיכַּן וּמִיכַּן בַּיָּרָק שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם וְנִרְאֶה הַכּל כְּאִלּוּ נִזְרַע בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא:

3

When [a person has] a row of squash sown or even one squash [plant] and desires to plant grain next to it, he must [leave empty a portion] large enough to sow a fourth [of a kav],5 for [the squash plants'] leaves have become extended and are considered to have taken possession of a large area.6 Any entity, e.g., a grave, a rock,7 or the like, that exists within [the area] large enough to sow a fourth [of a kav] that is left empty as a separation between these two species is considered as part of the measure.

ג

הָיְתָה שׁוּרָה שֶׁל דְּלַעַת זְרוּעָה אֲפִלּוּ דְּלַעַת יְחִידִית וּבָא לִזְרֹעַ בְּצִדָּהּ תְּבוּאָה. מַרְחִיק בֵּית רֹבַע. שֶׁהֲרֵי נִמְשְׁכוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהֶחֱזִיקָה מָקוֹם גָּדוֹל. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית רֹבַע שֶׁמַּרְחִיקִין בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַמִּינִין עוֹלֶה מִן הַמִּדָּה כְּגוֹן הַקֶּבֶר וְהַסֶּלַע וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

4

When a trench or an irrigation ditch are a handbreadth deep,8 one may sow three types of plants within them: one on each edge of the trench and one in the middle.9

ד

הַתֶּלֶם אוֹ אַמַּת הַמַּיִם שֶׁהֵן עֲמֻקִּים טֶפַח זוֹרְעִין לְתוֹכוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינֵי זְרָעִים אֶחָד עַל שְׂפַת הַתֶּלֶם מִיכַּן וְאֶחָד מִיכַּן וְאֶחָד בָּאֶמְצַע:

5

It is permitted to sow two species in one pit - even zucchini and squash10 - provided that one is leaning above one side of the pit and the other leans above the other side and thus they appear separate from each other.11 Similarly, if one planted four species in a pit and pointed them to each of the four directions, it is permitted.

ה

וּמֻתָּר לִנְטֹעַ שְׁנֵי מִינִין בְּתוֹךְ גֻּמָּא אַחַת. וַאֲפִלּוּ קִישׁוּת וּדְלַעַת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִין זֶה נוֹטֶה מֵעַל שְׂפַת הַגֻּמָּא לְכָאן וְהַמִּין הָאַחֵר נוֹטֶה לַצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי וְיֵרָאוּ נִבְדָּלִין זֶה מִזֶּה. וְכֵן אִם נָטַע אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין בְּתוֹךְ הַגֻּמָּא וַהֲפָכָן לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹתֶיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

6

When a person desires to sow his field in many long rows of different species, he should make a separation of two cubits by two cubits [at the beginning of the rows]. He may then continually reduce the width of the empty space until at the end of the rows, there is only the slightest amount of empty space between them. [This is permitted,] because they do not look like they have been sown as a mixture.12

ו

הָרוֹצֶה לִזְרֹעַ שָׂדֵהוּ מֵשַּׁר מֵשַּׁר מִכָּל מִין וָמִין מַרְחִיק בֵּין כָּל מֵשַּׁר וּמֵשַּׁר שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת עַל שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת וּמֵצֵר וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר בֵּינֵיהֶן בְּסוֹף הַמֵשַּׁר אֶלָּא כָּל שֶׁהוּא. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן נִרְאִין שֶׁלֹּא נִזְרְעוּ בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא:

7

If a person wants to plant his field in squares13 of different species, he should not plant more than nine squares in a field large enough to sow a se'ah. Each square should be large enough to sow a quarter of a kav.14 Thus there will be approximately ten cubits minus a fourth of a cubit between each square, for the area in which a se'ah can be sown is fifty [cubits] by fifty [cubits].

ז

רָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׂדֵהוּ קָרַחַת קָרַחַת מִכָּל מִין וָמִין לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּתוֹךְ כָּל בֵּית סְאָה יֶתֶר עַל תֵּשַׁע קָרָחוֹת כָּל קָרַחַת מֵהֶן בֵּית רֹבַע וְנִמְצָא רָחוֹק בֵּין קָרַחַת וְקָרַחַת קָרוֹב לְעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת פָּחוֹת רְבִיעַ. שֶׁכָּל בֵּית סְאָה חֲמִשִּׁים עַל חֲמִשִּׁים:

8

What is the difference between the terms meishar and karachat?15 The former is long and the latter is square.

ח

וּמַה בֵּין הַמֵשַּׁר לַקָּרַחַת שֶׁהַמֵשַּׁר אָרֹךְ וְהַקָּרַחַת מְרֻבַּעַת:

9

[The following principle applies with regard to] species of vegetables that it is not customary for a person to sow in large amounts as we explained.16 It is permitted to sow even five types of these vegetables in one row that is six handbreadths by six handbreadths, provided he sows four species at the four sides17 of the row and one in the middle, leaving a handbreadth and a half between each species so that they will not derive nurture from each other.18 One should not, however, sow more than five species [in a row] even if he makes an appropriate separation, because it appears that they are sown as a mixture.

ט

מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִזְרֹעַ מֵהֶם אֶלָּא מְעַט מְעַט כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ מֵהֶם אֲפִלּוּ חֲמִשָּׁה מִינִין בְּתוֹךְ עֲרוּגָה אַחַת שֶׁהִיא שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים עַל שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּזְרַע אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין בְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הָעֲרוּגָה וְאֶחָד בָּאֶמְצַע. וְיַרְחִיק בֵּין כָּל מִין וָמִין כְּמוֹ טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִינְקוּ זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲבָל יוֹתֵר עַל חֲמִשָּׁה מִינִין לֹא יִזְרַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּרַחֵק בֵּינֵיהֶם לְפִי שֶׁמִּינִין הַרְבֵּה בַּעֲרוּגָה כָּזוֹ הֲרֵי הֵן כִּנְטוּעִין בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא:

10

When does the above apply? To a row planted in a ruin where there are no crops outside it. If, however, a row is planted among other rows [of produce], it is forbidden to sow five [different] species. For if he will sow all four sides of one row and all the sides of the rows around it, everything will appear as a mixture.19

If he caused the leaves of one row to lean to one side and those of the other row to lean to the other side so they appear distinct [from each other], it is permitted. Similarly, if he makes a trench between each row, it is permitted.20

י

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בַּעֲרוּגָה שֶׁהִיא בְּחֻרְבָּה וְאֵין שָׁם זֶרַע חוּצָה לָהּ. אֲבָל עֲרוּגָה בֵּין עֲרוּגוֹת אָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ בָּהּ חֲמִשָּׁה מִינִין. שֶׁאִם יִזְרַע בְּכָל רוּחַ מֵעֲרוּגָה זוֹ וּבְכָל רוּחַ מֵעֲרוּגוֹתֶיהָ שֶׁסְּבִיבוֹתֶיהָ יֵרָאֶה הַכּל כִּמְעֹרָב. וְאִם הִטָּה עָלִין שֶׁבַּעֲרוּגָה זוֹ לְכָאן וְעָלִין שֶׁבַּעֲרוּגָה שֶׁבְּצִדָּהּ מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁיֵּרָאוּ מֻבְדָּלִים מֻתָּר. וְכֵן אִם עָשָׂה תֶּלֶם בֵּין כָּל עֲרוּגָה וַעֲרוּגָה מֻתָּר:

11

It is forbidden to sow outside this row without a trench or without leaning [the plants to the side]. [This applies] even opposite the corners of the row in which there are no plants. This is a decree, [enacted] lest one sow the four species in the four corners of the row21 and sow other species outside of it, opposite the corners, and thus, everything would appear mixed.

יא

וְאָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ חוּץ לַעֲרוּגָה בְּלֹא תֶּלֶם וּבְלֹא נְטִיָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּנֶגֶד הַקְּרָנוֹת שֶׁל עֲרוּגָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן זֶרַע. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִזְרַע אַרְבַּעַת הַמִּינִין בְּאַרְבַּע זָוִיּוֹת עֲרוּגָה וְיִזְרַע מִינִין אֲחֵרִים חוּצָה לָהּ כְּנֶגֶד הַזָּוִיּוֹת וְנִמְצָא הַכּל כִּמְעֹרָב:

12

If the row was six handbreadths by six handbreadths and it had a barrier a handbreadth high and a handbreadth wide around it, it is permitted to sow even eighteen species within it: three on each barrier22 and six in the middle. One must separate a handbreadth and a half between each species. One should not sow a turnip in the midst of the barrier, lest it fill it.23 He should not sow more than that.24

יב

הָיְתָה הָעֲרוּגָה שִׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה וְהָיָה לָהּ גְּבוּל גָּבוֹהַּ טֶפַח וְרָחָב טֶפַח סָבִיב מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר מִינִין שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל כָּל גְּבוּל וּגְבוּל וְשִׁשָּׁה בָּאֶמְצַע. וְיַרְחִיק בֵּין כָּל מִין וָמִין טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה. וְלֹא יִזְרַע רֹאשׁ הַלֶּפֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַגְּבוּל שֶׁמָּא יְמַלְּאֵהוּ. יוֹתֵר עַל זֶה לֹא יִזְרַע:

13

It is forbidden to sow different seed plants25 in this manner, because they appear as kilayim.26 [More lenient laws apply to] species of vegetables. Since people generally sow only small amounts of them, it is permitted [to sow them in the manner] explained [above].

יג

וְאָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ בַּעֲרוּגָה מִינֵי זְרָעִים בְּעִנְיָן זֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נִרְאִין כִּלְאַיִם. אֲבָל מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִזְרֹעַ מֵהֶן אֶלָּא מְעַט מְעַט הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

14

When there is a barrier a handbreadth wide and one sowed several species in it as we explained,27 if the height of the barrier was reduced,28 it is still acceptable since it was acceptable at the time when it was originally sown.29

יד

גְּבוּל שֶׁהָיָה גָּבוֹהַּ טֶפַח וְזָרְעוּ בּוֹ מִינִין הַרְבֵּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְנִתְמַעֵט מִטֶּפַח מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּזְרַע בּוֹ כָּשֵׁר שֶׁהָיָה כָּשֵׁר מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ:

15

When a person desires to fill his entire garden with different types of vegetables without making a separation between them, he should divide the entire garden into square rows, even six handbreadths by six handbreadths. He should then make five circles in every row, four for the four corners and one in the center. He may sow a species [of vegetables] in each circle and one in the center and he may sow four other species in the four corners.30 Thus there are nine species in each row and yet they appear separate from each other. He leaves empty only what is between the circles. This is left fallow so that the circles will appear distinct from the corners and distinct from each other.31

If he desires not to leave any empty space at all, he should do the following: If [the crops in] the circles are sown vertically, he should sow [crops in the space left] between them horizontally. If they are sown horizontally, he should sow [in the space] between them vertically so that they will appear distinct from each other.

טו

הָרוֹצֶה לְמַלְּאוֹת כָּל גִּנָּתוֹ מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת רַבִּים וְלֹא יַרְחִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם עוֹשֶׂה כָּל הַגִּנָּה עֲרוּגוֹת מְרֻבָּעוֹת אֲפִלּוּ שִׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה. וְעוֹשֶׂה בְּכָל עֲרוּגָה חֲמִשָּׁה עִגּוּלִין. אַרְבָּעָה בְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶחָד בְּאֶמְצַע. וְזוֹרֵעַ מִין בְּכָל עִגּוּל וְזוֹרֵעַ אַרְבָּעָה מִינִים אֲחֵרִים בְּאַרְבָּעָה קַרְנוֹת עֲרוּגָה. נִמְצְאוּ תִּשְׁעָה מִינִין בְּכָל עֲרוּגָה וְהֵן נִרְאִין מֻבְדָּלִין זֶה מִזֶּה וְאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיד אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁבֵּין הָעִגּוּלִין בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא מַנִּיחוֹ חָרֵב כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּרָאוּ הָעִגּוּלִין מֻבְדָּלִין מִן הַקְּרָנוֹת וּמֻבְדָּלִין זֶה מִזֶּה. וְאִם רָצָה שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד כְּלוּם אִם הָיוּ הָעִגּוּלִין זְרוּעִים שְׁתִי זוֹרֵעַ מַה שֶּׁבֵּינֵיהֶן עֵרֶב וְאִם הָיוּ זְרוּעִין עֵרֶב זוֹרֵעַ מַה שֶּׁבֵּינֵיהֶן שְׁתִי כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּרָאוּ מֻבְדָּלִין:

16

From all of the above, the following principles become apparent for you. When there is sufficient space32 between two species so that they will not derive nurture, we are not concerned with the appearance as we explained.33 And when they appear separate from each other, we are not concerned with the fact that they derive nurture from each other, even if they are next to each other as we just explained.

טז

מִכָּל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים נִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַמִּינִין הַרְחָקָה הָרְאוּיָה לָהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִינְקוּ זֶה מִזֶּה אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁיֵּרָאוּ מֻבְדָּלִים זֶה מִזֶּה אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים לִינִיקָתָן אֲפִלּוּ הֵן זֶה בְּצַד זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר עַתָּה:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

Chapter 3, Halachah 12, states that these trenches must be as wide as they are deep. The Aruch HaShulchan writes that the trench must be at least four handbreadths wide.

2.

Although these species are considered as kilayim, sowing them in this manner is permitted, because of the precautions that are taken. For each block of a particular crop appears as a separate field [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:4)].

Although in the following halachah, a twelve cubit stretch of each crop is required, that is because one is sowing only one row of the squash. Hence, it does not look like a field of squash and sowing a larger stretch of vegetables is required (Radbaz).

3.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.:6), the Rambam writes that a row of squash is four cubits wide.

4.

In such an instance, each block of vegetables appears as a separate field, as stated above (Radbaz).

The width of the trench is not counted because it does not have a specific measure, nor must it extend over the entire length of the field (Rav Yosef Corcus).

5.

10 and one fifth cubits by 10 and one fifth cubits. This stringency is required because the laws governing grain are stricter than those governing vegetables.

6.

The Radbaz notes that in Chapter 3, Halachah 13, the Rambam speaks of making a separation of six handbreadths between grain and squash and here, he requires a much larger figure. He explains that here we are speaking about a situation in which the squash has already grown and its leaves are extended, while there we are speaking of squash that is just beginning to grow.

7.

I.e., a rock that is less the ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide. If it is of the latter size, it alone is considered a sufficient divider, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 15.

8.

If they are not this deep, they are considered to be flush with the earth and the leniency mentioned in this halachah does not apply.

9.

For each type of plant appears distinct.

10.

Whose leaves spread and become entangled [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:5)].

11.

And the foundation of the prohibition of Kilayim is the impression created (ibid.).

12.

I.e., the separation made initially is sufficient to distinguish the crops sown throughout the field.

13.

The Ra'avad notes that the Rambam uses the term karachat which usually means "bald patch" to refer, not to the area of the field that is left empty, but the area which is planted.

14.

Ten and one fifth cubits, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 10.

15.

The Hebrew terms used in the two preceding halachot.

16.

Chapter 1, Halachah 9.

17.

Note the accompanying diagrams, taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:1).

18.

This is the measure in which plants derive nurture from the earth (ibid.). The Rambam, however, does not always focus on this point, because he views the impression created of equal significance, as stated at the conclusion of the chapter.

19.

Even if he does not fill up the borders, it is forbidden as a decree, lest he come to do so (Kessef Mishneh).

20.

For the trench appears as a distinction.

21.

See the accompanying diagram, taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah.

22.

I.e. since the species are sown on the barrier, they are distinct from those sown within the trench. Note the following diagram, taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah.

23.

I.e., lest the turnip grow large and fill up the empty space on the border.

24.

For it will be cluttered and appear as a mixture (Radbaz).

25.

E.g., mustard or smooth peas (Kilayim 3:2).

26.

It is customary to sow larger plots of these crops. Hence if one sows a row of the above size with different species of these crops, it will appear to be a mixture of species.

27.

Halachah 12.

28.

I.e., some of its earth was taken away.

29.

It is, however, forbidden to sow crops on the side of the barrier until its height is restored [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 3:2)]. There, however, the Rambam interprets the barrier as referring to a divider between two types of crops, not a barrier around a row.

30.

I.e., the area between the circles and the perimeter of the square.

31.

The Ra'avad objects to this ruling. The Rambam's rationale depends on the principle explained in the following halachah: that when crops appear distinct, we are not concerned that they derive nurture from each other.

32.

A handbreadth and a half.

33.

Halachah 9.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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