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Ma'achalot Assurot - Chapter 6

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Ma'achalot Assurot - Chapter 6

1

When a person partakes of an olive-sized1 portion of blood intentionally, he is liable for karet.2 If he does so inadvertently, he is liable to bring a fixed sin-offering.3

It is explicitly stated in the Torah that he is liable for partaking of blood from all domesticated animals, wild beasts, and fowl alone. This applies whether they are from a non-kosher or kosher species,4 as [Leviticus 7:26] states: "You may not partake of any blood from a fowl or an animal in all your dwellings." A wild beast is considered as an animal as [Deuteronomy 14:4-5] states: "These are the animals that you may eat: an ox... a gazelle and a deer...."5

One is not, [by contrast,] liable for transgressing of the prohibition against partaking of blood6 for partaking of the blood of fish, locusts, creeping animals, teeming animals, or humans. Therefore it is permitted to partake of the blood of kosher fish and locusts. Even if one collects it in a container and drinks it, it is permitted.7 The blood of non-kosher fish and locusts is forbidden because it comes from their bodies like the milk of a non-kosher animal.8 The blood of creeping animals is comparable to their bodies, as we explained.9

א

הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִן הַדָּם בְּמֵזִיד חַיָּב כָּרֵת בְּשׁוֹגֵג מֵבִיא חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה. וְדָבָר מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל דַּם בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף בִּלְבַד בֵּין טְמֵאִין בֵּין טְהוֹרִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז כו) "וְכָל דָּם לֹא תֹאכְלוּ בְּכל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לָעוֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָה". וְחַיָּה בִּכְלַל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד ד) "זֹאת הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכֵלוּ שׁוֹר" וְגוֹ' (דברים יד ה) "אַיָּל וּצְבִי" וְגוֹ'. אֲבָל דַּם דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים וּשְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים וְדַם הָאָדָם אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם דָּם. לְפִיכָךְ דַּם דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים טְהוֹרִים מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּנָסוֹ בִּכְלִי וְשָׁתָהוּ מֻתָּר. וְדַם חֲגָבִים וְדָגִים טְמֵאִים אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא תַּמְצִית גּוּפָן כַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה. וְדַם שְׁקָצִים כִּבְשָׂרָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

2

The blood of a human is forbidden according to Rabbinic law if it departed [from the person's body]. One is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct for [partaking] of it. When, by contrast, one's teeth bleed, he may swallow it; he need not hold himself back. If one bit into bread and found blood upon it,10 he must scrape away the blood before partaking of it, for the blood has departed [from the body].

ב

דַּם הָאָדָם אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אִם פֵּרַשׁ. וּמַכִּין עָלָיו מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת. אֲבָל דַּם הַשִּׁנַּיִם בּוֹלְעוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נִמְנַע. הֲרֵי שֶׁנָּשַׁךְ בְּפַת וּמָצָא עָלֶיהָ דָּם גּוֹרֵר אֶת הַדָּם וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹכֵל שֶׁהֲרֵי פֵּרַשׁ:

3

One is liable for karet only for blood that flows out [from the animal] when it is slaughtered, killed, or decapitated as long as it is tinted red, blood that is collected within the heart,11 and blood that is let, i.e., blood that flows forcefully [from the body]. One is not, however, liable for blood that drips at the beginning of bloodletting before it begins to flow forcefully or blood that drips at the ending of bloodletting when the bleeding begins to cease. It is like "blood within the limbs." [The reason for the distinction is that] blood that flows forcefully is bleeding through which the soul may expire.

ג

אֵין חַיָּבִין כָּרֵת אֶלָּא עַל דָּם הַיּוֹצֵא בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה וּנְחִירָה אוֹ הַתָּזַת הָרֹאשׁ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַדְמוּמִית. וְעַל הַדָּם הַכָּנוּס בְּתוֹךְ הַלֵּב. וְעַל דַּם הַקָּזָה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְקַלֵּחַ וְיוֹצֵא. אֲבָל הַדָּם הַשּׁוֹתֵת בִּתְחִלַּת הַקָּזָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִיל לְקַלֵּחַ וְדָם הַשּׁוֹתֵת בְּסוֹף הַקָּזָה כְּשֶׁיַּתְחִיל הַדָּם לִפְסֹק אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּדַם הָאֵיבָרִים. שֶׁדַּם הַקִּלּוּחַ הוּא הַדָּם שֶׁהַנֶּפֶשׁ יוֹצְאָה בּוֹ:

4

One is not liable for karet for concentrated blood12 or the blood within the limbs, i.e., the blood of the spleen, the kidneys, the testicles, the blood that collects in the heart at the time the animal is slaughtered, and the blood found in the liver.13 A person who partakes of an olive-sized portion of it, however, is liable for lashes, as it is written: "You may not partake of any blood."14 With regard to one's liability for karet [Leviticus 17:11] states: "For the soul of the flesh is in the blood." [Implied is that] one is liable for karet only for blood that causes the soul to expire.

ד

דַּם הַתַּמְצִית וְדַם הָאֵיבָרִין כְּגוֹן דַּם הַטְּחוֹל וְדַם הַכְּלָיוֹת וְדַם בֵּיצִים וְדָם הַמִּתְכַּנֵּס לַלֵּב בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה וְדָם הַנִּמְצָא בַּכָּבֵד אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת. אֲבָל הָאוֹכֵל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ג יז) (ויקרא ז כו) "וְכָל דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ". וּבְחִיּוּב כָּרֵת הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יז יא) "כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִיא" אֵינוֹ חַיָּב כָּרֵת אֶלָּא עַל הַדָּם שֶׁהַנֶּפֶשׁ יוֹצְאָה בּוֹ:

5

When a fetus is found in an animal's womb, its blood is like the blood of an animal that has been born.15 Therefore one is liable for the blood that is collected in its heart.16 The remainder of its blood, by contrast, is considered as the blood of the limbs.17

ה

הַשָּׁלִיל הַנִּמְצָא בִּמְעֵי הַבְּהֵמָה הֲרֵי דָּמוֹ כְּדַם הַיָּלוּד. לְפִיכָךְ הַדָּם הַנִּמְצָא כָּנוּס בְּתוֹךְ לִבּוֹ חַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת אֲבָל שְׁאָר דָּמוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּדַם הָאֵיבָרִין:

6

Whether one [desires to] roast or cook a heart, one must cut it open, remove its blood, and then salt it.18 If one cooks a heart without cutting it open, one may cut it open after it was cooked. It is then permitted.19 If one did not cut it open and partook of it, one is not liable for karet.

When does the above apply? With regard to the heart of a fowl, because it does not contain an olive-sized portion of blood.20 If, by contrast, one [partakes] of the heart of an animal, one is liable for karet. For there is an olive-sized portion of blood within the heart and therefore one is liable for karet.21

ו

הַלֵּב בֵּין לְצָלִי בֵּין לִקְדֵרָה קוֹרְעוֹ וּמוֹצִיא אֶת דָּמוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹלְחוֹ. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל הַלֵּב וְלֹא קְרָעוֹ קוֹרְעוֹ אַחַר שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ וּמֻתָּר. וְאִם לֹא קְרָעוֹ וַאֲכָלוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עָלָיו כָּרֵת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּלֵב הָעוֹף שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת דָּם. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה לֵב בְּהֵמָה חַיָּב כָּרֵת שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת מִדָּם שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַלֵּב שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת:

7

If one cuts open the liver22 and casts it into vinegar or boiling water until it turns white, it is permitted to cook it afterwards.23 It has already become universal Jewish custom to singe it over a fire24 and then cook it. [This applies] whether one cooks it alone or one cooks it with other meat.25

Similarly, it is a common custom that the brains are not cooked nor roasted until they are singed over a fire.26

ז

הַכָּבֵד אִם חֲתָכָהּ וְהִשְׁלִיכָהּ לְתוֹךְ הַחֹמֶץ אוֹ לְתוֹךְ מַיִם רוֹתְחִין עַד שֶׁתִּתְלַבֵּן הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַשֵּׁל אוֹתָהּ אַחַר כֵּן. וּכְבָר נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַבְהֲבָהּ עַל הָאוּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבַשְּׁלִין אוֹתָהּ בֵּין שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ לְבַדָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ עִם בָּשָׂר אַחֵר. וְכֵן מִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט שֶׁאֵין מְבַשְּׁלִין הַמֹּחַ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ וְלֹא קוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁמְּהַבְהֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בָּאוּר:

8

When a liver was cooked without being singed over a fire or cast into vinegar or hot water, the pot in which it was cooked is forbidden entirely: the liver and everything cooked with it.27

It is permitted to roast a liver together with other meat on one spit, provided the liver is positioned below [the other meat].28 If one transgressed and roasted it while it was positioned above the meat, [after the fact,] one may eat it.

ח

הַכָּבֵד שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ וְלֹא הִבְהֲבָהּ עַל הָאוּר וְלֹא חֲלָטָהּ בְּחֹמֶץ אוֹ בְּרוֹתְחִין הֲרֵי הַקְּדֵרָה כֻּלָּהּ אֲסוּרָה הַכָּבֵד וְכָל שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל עִמָּהּ. וּמֻתָּר לִצְלוֹת כָּבֵד עִם הַבָּשָׂר בְּשִׁפּוּד אֶחָד וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַכָּבֵד לְמַטָּה. וְאִם עָבַר וּצְלָאָהּ לְמַעְלָה מִבָּשָׂר הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכְלוֹ:

9

It is permitted to cook a spleen29 together with meat, because it is not blood, but meat that resembles blood.

When one breaks the neck of an animal before its soul expires, the blood is absorbed into the limbs.30 It is forbidden to eat raw meat from it even if one causes the blood to be sealed.31 What should be done? One should cut open32 the piece and salt it thoroughly and afterwards, cook it or roast it.33

We have already explained34 that when a person slaughters a domesticated animal, wild beast, or fowl and no blood emerges, they are permitted.

ט

הַטְּחוֹל מֻתָּר לְבַשְּׁלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עִם הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָּם אֶלָּא בָּשָׂר הַדּוֹמֶה לְדָם. הַשּׁוֹבֵר מִפְרֶקֶת בְּהֵמָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּצֵא נַפְשָׁהּ הֲרֵי הַדָּם נִבְלַע בָּאֵיבָרִים וְאָסוּר לֶאֱכל מִמֶּנָּה בָּשָׂר חַי וַאֲפִלּוּ חֲלָטוֹ. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. יַחְתֹּךְ הַחֲתִיכָה וְיִמְלַח יָפֶה יָפֶה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבַשֵּׁל אוֹ יִצְלֶה. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף וְלֹא יָצָא מֵהֶן דָּם שֶׁהֵן מֻתָּרִין:

10

Meat does not release [all] the blood it contains unless it is salted thoroughly and washed thoroughly. What should one do? One should wash the meat first35 and afterwards, salt it thoroughly. One should leave it in the salt for the time it takes to walk a mil36 and then wash it thoroughly, [continuing] until clean water emerges.37 Immediately afterwards, one should cast it into boiling water - warm water is not [sufficient] - so that it will become white immediately and [no further] blood will be released.38

י

אֵין הַבָּשָׂר יוֹצֵא מִידֵי דָּמוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מוֹלְחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה וּמְדִיחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה. כֵּיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. מֵדִיחַ הַבָּשָׂר תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מוֹלְחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה וּמַנִּיחוֹ בְּמִלְחוֹ כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ מִיל. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְדִיחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה עַד שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ הַמַּיִם זַכִּים וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ מִיָּד לְתוֹךְ מַיִם רוֹתְחִין אֲבָל לֹא לְפוֹשְׁרִין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְלַבֵּן מִיָּד וְלֹא יֵצֵא דָּם:

11

When we salt meat, we salt it only in a utensil that has holes.39

We salt it only with thick salt that resembles coarse sand. [The rationale is that] salt that is thin like flour will be absorbed by the meat and will not extract the blood.40

One must shake the salt from the meat before washing it.41

יא

כְּשֶׁמּוֹלְחִין הַבָּשָׂר אֵין מוֹלְחִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בִּכְלִי מְנֻקָּב. וְאֵין מוֹלְחִין אֶלָּא בְּמֶלַח עָבֶה כְּחוֹל הַגַּס. שֶׁהַמֶּלַח דַּק כְּקֶמַח יִבָּלַע בַּבָּשָׂר וְלֹא יוֹצִיא דָּם. וְצָרִיךְ לְנַפֵּץ הַבָּשָׂר מִן הַמֶּלַח וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְדִיחֶנּוּ:

12

All of the above procedures apply with regard to meat that one must cook. For roasting, by contrast, one may salt the meat and roast it immediately.42

When a person desires to eat raw meat, he should salt it thoroughly43 and wash it thoroughly. If he causes the blood to be sealed [by casting the meat into] vinegar, it is permitted to eat the meat while raw.44 And it is permitted to drink the vinegar which sealed it, for vinegar does not extract blood.

יב

כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ לְבָשָׂר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבַשְּׁלוֹ אֲבָל לְצָלִי מוֹלֵחַ וְצוֹלֶה מִיָּד. וְהָרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכל בָּשָׂר חַי מוֹלְחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה וּמְדִיחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאכַל. וְאִם חֲלָטוֹ בְּחֹמֶץ מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי. וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת הַחֹמֶץ שֶׁחֲלָטוֹ בּוֹ שֶׁאֵין הַחֹמֶץ מוֹצִיא הַדָּם:

13

Vinegar in which meat was sealed should not be used to seal meat a second time.45 When a piece of meat turns red within vinegar,46 it and the vinegar are forbidden. [It can be permitted by] salting it thoroughly and roasting it.

When meat turns red,47 similarly, the testicles of an animal or beast and their membranes,48 and similarly the neck which contains large blood vessels that are filled with blood, it is permitted to cook them if they are cut open and salted as required. If one did not cut them open and instead roasted them on a spit, they are permitted if he roasted the neck with its opening facing downward or he roasted all of them on the coals themselves.

יג

חֹמֶץ שֶׁחָלַט בּוֹ בָּשָׂר לֹא יַחְלֹט בּוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. וַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁהֶאֱדִימָה בְּתוֹךְ הַחֹמֶץ הִיא וְהַחֹמֶץ אֲסוּרִין עַד שֶׁיִּמְלַח אוֹתָהּ יָפֶה יָפֶה וְיִצְלֶה. בָּשָׂר שֶׁהֶאְדִּים וְכֵן בֵּיצֵי בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה בִּקְלִיפָה שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן הָעֹרֶף שֶׁבּוֹ הַמִּזְרָקִים שֶׁהֵן מְלֵאִים דָּם. אִם חֲתָכָן וּמְלָחָן כַּדָּת מֻתָּר לְבַשְּׁלָן. וְאִם לֹא חֲתָכָן וּצְלָאָן בְּשִׁפּוּד וְצָלָה הָעֹרֶף וּפִיו לְמַטָּה אוֹ שֶׁצְּלָאָן כֻּלָּן עַל הַגֶּחָלִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין:

14

[The following rules apply when one] roasts the head of an animal in an oven or a furnace. If one hangs the head with the opening to its neck49 hanging downward, it is permitted, for the blood will emerge and flow outward.50 If the opening to the neck is positioned to the side, the brain is forbidden, because the blood collects in it.51 The remainder of the meat on the external surface of the bones is permitted.52

Should he [roast it] with its nose positioned downward, if he places a straw or a reed in its nose so that it will remain open and the blood can flow out through it, [the brain] is permitted. If not, it is forbidden.

יד

רֹאשׁ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁצָּלָהוּ בְּתַנּוּר אוֹ בְּכִבְשָׁן אִם תָּלָהוּ וּבֵית שְׁחִיטָתוֹ לְמַטָּה מֻתָּר שֶׁהַדָּם יוֹצֵא וְשׁוֹתֵת. וְאִם הָיָה בֵּית הַשְּׁחִיטָה מִן הַצַּד מֹחוֹ אָסוּר. שֶׁהַדָּם מִתְקַבֵּץ לְתוֹכוֹ. וּשְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁעַל הָעֲצָמוֹת מִבַּחוּץ מֻתָּר. הִנִּיחַ חָטְמוֹ לְמַטָּה אִם הִנִּיחַ בּוֹ גֶּמִי אוֹ קָנֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר פָּתוּחַ וְיֵצֵא דָּמוֹ דֶּרֶךְ חָטְמוֹ מֻתָּר וְאִם לָאו מֹחוֹ אָסוּר:

15

One should not place a utensil beneath meat53 that is being roasted to collect the juice [dripping from it] until no red color remains in the juice. What should be done?54 One places a small amount of salt55 in the utensil and leaves the utensil there until the meat roasts. He then removes the fat resting on top. The liquid below the fat is forbidden.56

טו

אֵין מַנִּיחִין כְּלִי תַּחַת הַצָּלִי לְקַבֵּל מֵימָיו עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה כָּל מַרְאֶה אַדְמוּמִית שֶׁבּוֹ. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשִׂין. מַשְׁלִיכִין לְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי מְעַט מֶלַח וּמַנִּיחַ הַכְּלִי עַד שֶׁיִּצָּלֶה וְלוֹקֵחַ הַשַּׁמְנוּנִית שֶׁל מַעְלָה וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁל מַטָּה שֶׁתַּחַת הַשַּׁמְנוּנִית אֲסוּרָה:

16

When roasted meat is sliced over a piece of bread, it is permitted to eat the bread, for [the liquid] which exudes is only fat.57

When fish and fowl are salted together, even in a utensil with holes, the fish are forbidden. [The rationale is that] the fish is soft and will absorb the blood which is being exuded by the fowl.58 Needless to say, [this law applies] if one salted fish together with the meat of an animal or beast.

טז

פַּת שֶׁחָתַךְ עָלֶיהָ בָּשָׂר צָלִי מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא שַׁמְנוּנִית [א. ב] דָּגִים וְעוֹפוֹת שֶׁמְּלָחָן זֶה עִם זֶה אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי מְנֻקָּב הַדָּגִים אֲסוּרִין שֶׁהַדָּג רָפֶה וּבוֹלֵעַ דָּם הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הָעוֹף. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם מָלַח דָּג עִם בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה אוֹ חַיָּה:

17

When one leaves fowl whole, stuffs their cavity with meat and eggs, and cooks them, they are forbidden, for the blood flows into them.59 This applies even if one salted them thoroughly,60 and even if the meat inside them was cooked or roasted. If one roasted [the fowl], they are permitted.61 [This applies] even if the meat inside them was raw and even if their opening was pointed upward.62

יז

עוֹפוֹת שֶׁהִנִּיחָן שְׁלֵמִים וּמִלֵּא חֲלָלָן בָּשָׂר וּבֵיצִים וּבִשְּׁלָן אֲסוּרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי דָּם יוֹצֵא לְתוֹכָן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּלָחָן יָפֶה יָפֶה. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן שָׁלוּק אוֹ צָלוּי. וְאִם צְלָאָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן חַי וַאֲפִלּוּ פִּיהֶן לְמַעְלָה:

18

When one filled intestines [that were not salted] with roasted or cooked meat in this manner or with eggs and cooked them or roasted them, they are permitted. [The rationale is that] we do not presume that there is blood in the intestines.63 The Geonim ruled in this manner.

יח

בְּנֵי מֵעַיִם שֶׁמִּלְּאָן עַל דֶּרֶךְ זוֹ בְּבָשָׂר צָלוּי אוֹ שָׁלוּק אוֹ שֶׁמִּלְּאָן בְּבֵיצִים וּשְׁלָקָן אוֹ קְלָאָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין דָּם בִּבְנֵי מֵעַיִם. וְכֵן הוֹרוּ הַגְּאוֹנִים:

19

[The following rules apply when] one coated fowl64 with flour and roasted them, whether whole or cut in portions. If they were coated with coarse flour, one may partake of the coating, even if it became reddish. [The rationale is that] coarse flour will crumble65 and the blood will flow outward. When they are coated with wheat flour that was moistened [before being ground],66 it is permitted to eat from the coating if it is white like silver. Otherwise, it is forbidden. If they were coated with other flours, they are forbidden if they turn red. Otherwise,67 they are permitted.

יט

עוֹפוֹת שֶׁטְּפָלָן בְּבָצֵק וּצְלָאָן בֵּין שְׁלֵמִים בֵּין מְחֻתָּכִין אִם טְפָלָן בְּסלֶת גַּסָּה אֲפִלּוּ הִסְמִיקָה הַטְּפֵלָה אוֹכֵל אֶת הַטְּפֵלָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסּלֶת גַּסָּה מִתְפָּרֶרֶת וְיוֹצֵא הַדָּם. וְאִם טְפָלָן בְּקֶמַח חִטִּים שֶׁלָּתְתָן אִם הָיְתָה הַטְּפֵלָה לְבָנָה כְּמוֹ הַכֶּסֶף מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל מִמֶּנָּה וְאִם לָאו אֲסוּרָה. טְפָלָן בִּשְׁאָר קְמָחִין אִם הֶאְדִּימוּ אֲסוּרִין וְאִם לֹא הֶאְדִּימוּ מֻתָּרִין:

20

It is forbidden to use a knife that was used for ritual slaughter to cut hot meat68 unless the knife was exposed to fire until it turned white, sharpened in a sharpener or inserted into hard earth ten times. [After the fact,] if one cut hot meat with it, it is permitted.

Similarly, one should not cut radishes or other sharp foods69 with it at the outset. If one washed the knife or cleaned it with a utensil, it is permitted to cut radish and the like with it, but not hot meat.

כ

סַכִּין שֶׁשָּׁחַט בָּהּ אָסוּר לַחְתֹּךְ בָּהּ רוֹתֵחַ עַד שֶׁיְּלַבֵּן הַסַּכִּין בָּאוּר אוֹ יַשְׁחִיזֶנָּה בְּמַשְׁחֶזֶת אוֹ יִנְעָצֶנָּה בְּקַרְקַע קָשָׁה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים. וְאִם חָתַךְ בָּהּ רוֹתֵחַ מֻתָּר. וְכֵן אֵינוֹ חוֹתֵךְ בָּהּ צְנוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִדְּבָרִים הַחֲרִיפִים לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם הֵדִיחַ הַסַּכִּין אוֹ שֶׁקִּנְּחָהּ בִּכְלִי מֻתָּר לַחְתֹּךְ בּוֹ צְנוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֲבָל לֹא רוֹתֵחַ:

21

When meat has been salted in a bowl,70 one is forbidden to eat hot food71 in it for all time,72 for the blood has already been absorbed in its clay.73 [This applies] even if [the utensil] is coated with lead.74

כא

קְעָרָה שֶׁמָּלַח בָּהּ בָּשָׂר אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה שׁוֹעָה בַּאֲבָר אָסוּר לֶאֱכל בָּהּ רוֹתֵחַ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁכְּבָר נִבְלַע הַדָּם בַּחֲרָסֶיהָ:

Footnotes
1.

Although blood is a liquid, the Rambam mentions an olive-sized portion, i.e., a measure of mass, rather than a fourth of a lug, a liquid measure. It is possible to explain that since the Torah uses the word "eat" while stating the prohibition, the intent is the same measure that applies with regard to other prohibitions involving "eating," an olive-sized portion.

2.

The soul is cut off in this world (i.e., the person dies prematurely) and in the world to come (Hilchot Teshuvah 8:1). Whenever a person is liable for karet, he is punished by lashes if he was warned before committing the transgression. If lashed, he is absolved from karet.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 184) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 148) include this prohibition among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

3.

This term is used to differentiate this offering from a guilt offering whose value is adjusted according to the person's means.

4.

In contrast to the prohibition against partaking of cheilev, forbidden fat, which applies only with regard to kosher species of domesticated animals.

5.

I.e., the verse uses the term behemah which more specifically refers to domesticated animals and mentions both domesticated animals and wild beasts.

6.

One may, however, be liable for another prohibition as the Rambam continues to explain.

7.

The Ra'avad and the Maggid Mishneh note that Keritot 21a states that it is permitted to partake of fish blood that has been collected only when fish scales are placed in it. Otherwise, it is forbidden because of the impression that may be created. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 66:9) quotes this view.

8.

As apparent from Chapter 3, Halachot 1 and 6, although this prohibition is of Scriptural origin, it is not punishable by lashes. See also Chapter 3, Halachah 22.

9.

Chapter 2, Halachot 9-10.

10.

I.e., the same blood that he is permitted to swallow.

11.

See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Keritot 5:1) where he states that this is the blood of fundamental importance. See also Halachot 5-6.

12.

I.e., blood that flows slowly after the majority of the animal's blood has already been discharged. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.).

13.

There is a difference of opinion among the Rabbis if the prohibition against the blood of the liver is Scriptural or Rabbinic in origin. See the gloss of Rav Moshe HaCohen.

14.

The term "blood within the limbs" appears to refer to blood that is absorbed within the meat and organs of the animal. As indicated later in this chapter and as stated in the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 67:1, this blood is forbidden only when it emerges from the meat or moves from place to place within the meat. See the notes to Halachah 12.

15.

There is a distinction between the blood of a fetus and its fat (which is permitted in certain circumstances, see Chapter 7, Halachah 3). The rationale is that the verse forbidding blood prohibits "any blood" (Lechem Mishneh).

16.

As stated in Halachah 3.

17.

According to the Maggid Mishneh, even if one slaughters the fetus after removing it from its mother's womb, he is not liable for partaking of its blood.

18.

As stated in Halachah 12, the Rambam maintains that even when one roasts meat, he must salt it first. As stated in the notes to that halachah, there are other Rabbis who differ with that point and require salting only when one cooks meat. See also the Rama (Yoreh De'ah 72:1) which quotes certain authorities that forbid eating a cooked heart, even if it was cut open and salted.

19.

Pesachim 74b states that the meat of the heart is smooth and hard and will not absorb the blood. Other substances that are cooked with it, however, are forbidden (Maggid Mishneh in the name of the Rashba). The Ra'avad and others differ with the Rambam and consider a heart cooked with its blood as forbidden. This is the view cited by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 72:2).

20.

The heart of a fowl is not large enough for there to be an olive-sized portion of blood absorbed within its meat before slaughter. And it is only that blood for which one is liable for karet. If an olive-sized portion of blood collects there when the animal is slaughtered, one is liable for lashes.

21.

This indicates that according to the Rambam, even when one cooks blood, one is liable for kereit for partaking of it (Lechem Mishneh). Other authorities differ and maintain that if blood has been cooked or salted, one is not liable according to Scriptural Law (Siftei Cohen 87:15).

22.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 73:1) states: "The liver has an abundance of blood. Therefore at the outset, it is not a sufficient measure to prepare it for cooking by salting."

The liver must be cut open thoroughly so that the blood contained in the blood vessels inside of it will flow out. Afterwards, placing it in vinegar or hot water causes the blood to be sealed in its place and not to flow into other portions of the liver. It is only blood that flows from place to place within the meat itself that is forbidden (Kessef Mishneh).

23.

Implied is that if one desires to roast it, there is no difficulty (Maggid Mishneh).

Many opinions maintain that we are not knowledgeable with regard to the process of casting a liver in vinegar or boiling water in the present age and should not rely on this practice. This view is quoted in the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 73:2).

24.

See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 10:11) where the Rambam mentions ordinary roasting and not singeing for the liver to be permitted.

25.

The Rama (Yoreh De'ah 73:1) states that it must be roasted to the extent that it is fit to be eaten. The Siftei Cohen 73:2 explains that this means that it must be roasted at least half the extent to which one would normally roast it.

26.

The Maggid Mishneh states that this custom is not as widespread as the custom of singeing the liver. Instead, he writes that it is customary to cut open the membrane surrounding it and then to salt it thoroughly. See the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 71:3).

27.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 73:2) follows the opinion that the liver itself is permitted if it is cooked after being salted, though everything cooked with it is forbidden. The Rama, however, states that the Rambam's view should be followed.

28.

For then the blood will not flow from the liver to the other meat. Hence, even at the outset, this is permitted. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 73:4) states that this ruling applies with regard to the ovens that existed in the Talmudic era. In the present era, however, it is common to turn the spit upside down. Hence, one should not roast the liver together with other meat.

29.

That has been salted [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 74:1)].

30.

I.e., the animal suffers internal bleeding when its neck is broken. Since it is in the midst of expiring, it does not have the potential to expel this blood from its system. Instead, it becomes absorbed in its meat [Tur (Yoreh De'ah 67)].

31.

By casting it into vinegar or boiling water.

To explain the difficulty the Rambam is addressing: There is a certain amount of blood absorbed in the meat of an animal. It is forbidden to partake of blood that has moved from place to place within an animal's body and cooking meat will certainly cause such movement. To avoid this difficulty, we salt meat, for this removes the blood. Casting meat in vinegar or boiling water does not remove blood, but instead causes it to be sealed in its place without moving even when the meat is cooked. Hence, according to the Rambam, this process is effective for ordinary meat. It is not, however, effective in this instance, for the internal bleeding that resulted from the breakage of the neck leaves blood that is not in its natural place (Kessef Mishneh, see also his gloss to Halachah 12).

32.

Our translation follows the gloss of the Lechem Mishneh who states that one should cut open the meat to allow its blood to flow out. The Maggid Mishneh states that it is unnecessary to cut open the meat and his view is accepted by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 67:3). The Rama, however, states that at the outset, one should be stringent.

33.

It is then permitted, because the salting removes all the blood.

34.

Chapter 4, Halachah 13. In that chapter, the emphasis was that the animal was not dead when slaughtered. Here the Rambam is restating the law to emphasize that we do not fear that the blood became absorbed within the meat and will not be released through salting.

35.

Among the reasons given for this initial washing are:

a) it removes the blood on the external surface of the meat;

b) it softens the meat and enables the blood inside to flow out more easily;

c) it enables the salt to adhere well to the surface of the meat.

36.

A mil is a Talmudic measure equivalent to approximately a kilometer. According to many Rabbinic opinions, it takes 18 minutes to walk a mil. [This view is cited in the present context by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 69:6).] The Rambam, however, follows a more stringent view [see his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pesachim 3:2)] and requires 24 minutes.

The Rama states that these measures are acceptable only after the fact or when there is an urgent need to prepare meat quickly. Otherwise, meat should be allowed to soak in water for at least half an hour.

37.

This washing removes the salt and blood from the meat. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 69:7) states that the meat should be washed twice and the Rama requires a third washing.

38.

This follows the Rambam's view that we are knowledgeable in the process of casting meat into hot water to seal it in its place. (As mentioned above, there are many who maintain that we lack that knowledge.) Moreover, in this instance, once the meat has been salted, there is no need for this measure, because all its blood has been released. For this reason, the Ra'avad and the Maggid Mishneh object to the Rambam's ruling. It is, however, mentioned by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 69:19).

39.

So that the blood will drain out and not be reabsorbed by the meat. If one salted meat in utensil that did not have holes, all the meat lying in the brine is forbidden. Moreover, the outer surface of the meat above the brine becomes forbidden [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 69:18)]. The Rama maintains that the entire piece of meat becomes forbidden.

40.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 69:3) states that one should be careful not to use salt with overly large crystals for they will not adhere to the meat. The Rama adds that if one has only thin salt, it is permitted to salt meat using it.

41.

For the water will stop the meat from releasing blood. Afterwards, the salt may cause the blood on the surface to be reabsorbed into the meat (Siftei Cohen 69:27).

42.

When meat is cooked, the blood will enter the pot in which it is being cooked and cause the meat and any other substances to become forbidden. When it is being roasted, the blood will flow down from the spit without being absorbed.

The Maggid Mishneh states that the Rambam's words imply that he maintains that one must salt meat before roasting it. There are other Rabbinic opinions that do not accept that approach. (They are favored by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 76:1).

The Rashba emphasizes that if one salts meat and does not roast it immediately, he should wash off the salt and the blood. Otherwise, the blood may become reabsorbed. The Rama rules that one should wash meat and salt it slightly before roasting it and should roast it directly after salting it.

43.

The Rambam's statements have attracted the attention of the commentaries, for they appear to contradict his approach in Halachah 9 and in the latter clause of this halachah. To explain: From Halachah 9, it would appear that it is forbidden to eat raw meat that is not salted only when there is internal bleeding while the animal is being slaughtered. For although the meat contains blood, that blood is forbidden only when it moves from one part of the meat to another while cooking. If one eats the meat raw, such a transfer will not take place.

Similarly, the latter clause of this halachah permits meat when it is cast into vinegar because the blood becomes sealed in its place. Implied is that the blood itself is permitted.

This clause, by contrast, states that one must salt the meat to remove the blood even when one eats the meat without cooking it. Implied is that the blood is forbidden even though it has not moved from place to place within the meat. The Kessef Mishneh resolves the contradiction, explaining that since the blood is fit to move from place to place, it is forbidden. Hence, the latter clause which speaks about blood that is sealed in its place does not represent a contradiction. Similarly, this interpretation allows Halachah 9 to be understood in a manner that does not produce a contradiction.

It must be emphasized that the Ra'avad and many other authorities object to the Rambam's ruling and maintain that as long as the blood has not actually moved from place to place, it is not forbidden. Therefore it is permitted to partake of raw meat without salting it. It must, however, be washed thoroughly to remove all blood on its surface. This view is cited by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 67:2).

44.

As mentioned previously, in the Ashkenazic community (and also among many Sefardim), the custom of sealing blood by casting meat into vinegar is no longer practice. See Rama (Yoreh De'ah 67:6).

45.

For its power has been weakened (Rashi, Chulin 33a).

46.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, maintaining that it is based on an improper interpretation of Chulin 93b. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 67:4-5 appears to think that the interpretations are not mutually exclusive, for it accepts both of them.

47.

An indication that it has absorbed additional blood.

48.

For they also contain large quantities of blood. See Chulin 93a.

49.

Literally, the place where the animal was slaughtered.

50.

The Rama (Yoreh De'ah 68:1) states that, as an initial and preferred measure, it is customary to be stringent and not to roast the head while it is whole at all, even if the opening to the neck is positioned downward.

51.

If, however, a hole is made in the skull and its membranes so that the blood can drain off, the brain is permitted [Rashba, as quoted by the Maggid Mishneh; Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 68:1)].

52.

The brain must, however, be removed from the skull, before the skull is cooked (Maggid Mishneh in the name of the Ramban).

53.

That has not been salted and left to let the blood drain off.

54.

For if one waits until there is no trace of the blood, the fat that one wishes to collect will also have drained off.

55.

One should use only a small amount of salt. If one uses a large amount, the blood will become mixed with the fat (Maggid Mishneh).

56.

Because it is mixed with blood. Since the fat does not mix with the other liquids but instead floats above them, it remains a distinct entity and is permitted.

The Maggid Mishneh writes that there are opinions that we are not familiar with the details of this process. Hence one should not rely on this leniency. This approach is followed by the Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 76:6) which state that one should not place a utensil under the meat until the meat is roasted to the extent that it can be eaten.

57.

I.e., once the meat is roasted to the extent that it is fit to be eaten, we assume that all the forbidden blood has drained off.

58.

Generally, when pieces of meat are being salted together and the utensil has holes so that the blood can run off, the meat is permitted even if the blood from other meat flows over it. The rationale is that since it is expelling its own blood and/or other juices, it will not absorb blood. Fish, however, will expel its blood and juices far faster than meat or fowl and will complete that process before the meat completes expelling its blood. Hence, we fear that it will absorb the blood from the meat or fowl (Maggid Mishneh).

All that is forbidden is the external surface of the fish (kedai kelipah). Once that is cut off, the remainder of the fish is permitted [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 70:1)]. The Rama rules that all the fish are forbidden. This stringency applies when the fishes' scales have been removed. If they have not been removed, the fish are permitted.

59.

I.e., into the stuffings. Afterwards, the blood will become reabsorbed into the fowl itself and cause it to become forbidden.

60.

The Maggid Mishneh interprets the Rambam's ruling as being dependent on his ruling in Halachah 10 that after being salted, meat must be placed in hot water. In this instance, the fowl's stuffing prevents the boiling water from having the desired effect on the fowl.

Alternatively, the Rambam's ruling can be understood according to the statements of the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 77:1) who rules that initially one must salt both sides of the fowl. If the fowl was already stuffed, salting just the exterior is not sufficient, because it will not effect the blood on the inside. See also the Rama who rules that at the outset, fowl must be salted properly and any meat placed within it must be salted properly. Only in such a situation should one cook a fowl with stuffing.

61.

For the fire will cause all the blood to drain out.

62.

Even in such a position, the power of the fire will cause the blood to drain downward.

63.

Hence salting is not required.

64.

The Maggid Mishneh interprets this halachah as referring to fowl that were salted, but were not placed in water after the salting. According to the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 78:1), it applies to fowl that were not salted. The Shulchan Aruch continues, stating that according to the present custom, one should not coat meat that is being roasted unless it has been salted and washed first.

65.

I.e., it will not stick thoroughly to the sides of the fowl. Thus there will be space for the blood to drain through.

66.

In which instance, the flour is very thin and hence, clings tightly to the fowl.

67.

Even if they are not white like silver.

68.

The Rambam's ruling is based on the following points. There is a difference of opinion among our Sages (Chullin 8b) whether the portion of the animal's neck where it is slaughtered is considered as "hot" at the time of slaughter, in which instance, when the animal is slaughtered some of its blood would be absorbed into the knife. Or it is not hot, in which instance, there is no such absorption.

From the Rambam's ruling (here and in Chapter 17, Halachah 7), it appears that he maintains that the animal's neck is not "hot." Nevertheless, he requires certain safeguards in consideration of the other views.

This issue is a matter of concern only when the meat being cut itself is hot. For otherwise, the blood absorbed in the knife will not be transferred to it.

The Maggid Mishneh mentions that there is another opinion which maintains that even though the animal's neck is cold, the pressure of cutting causes the knife to absorb some blood. See the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 10:2) and commentaries.

69.

Since these foods are sharp, they produce an effect similar to actual heat and have the potential to affect forbidden foods absorbed in a knife. Therefore safeguards should be taken.

70.

Seemingly this refers to a bowl that does not have holes. Nevertheless, there are authorities who also forbid using a bowl that has holes. The Rama (Yoreh De'ah 69:17) states that at the outset, one should not use even a bowl that has holes, but after the fact, the food is permitted.

71.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 69:16) also quotes an opinion that forbids using the bowl for cold food at the outset if it has not been washed.

72.

One of the fundamental principles of the laws of kashrut is that an earthenware vessel can never be kashered. Once it absorbs forbidden matter, it will never be dislodged from it (see Chapter 17, Halachah 2). Hence once the bowl has absorbed the blood, there is no way that the earthenware utensil will be permitted again.

73.

And will be released when the hot food is placed in it, causing that food to become forbidden.

74.

Were the utensil to be made of lead alone, it could be kashered by boiling water in it (hagalah), as is the law with regard to metal utensils. In this instance, however, the metal is just a coating and the blood will penetrate to the earthenware base. Hence, it remains forbidden.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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