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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Bikkurim - Chapter 6

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Bikkurim - Chapter 6

1

One who purchases bread from a baker is obligated [to separate] challah.1 He may separate a portion from bread freshly taken from the oven for bread that has cooled or from bread that has cooled for bread freshly taken from the oven. [This applies] even with regard to many trays of bread.2

א

הַלוֹקֵחַ מִן הַנַּחְתּוֹם חַיָּב בְּחַלָּה. וּמַפְרִישׁ מִן הַחַמָּה עַל הַצּוֹנֶנֶת וּמִן הַצּוֹנֶנֶת עַל הַחַמָּה אֲפִלּוּ מִדְּפוּסִין הַרְבֵּה:

2

The obligation [to separate] challah applies only to [dough from] the five species of grain: wheat barley, rye, oats, and spelt,3 as [implied by Numbers 15:19]: "When you partake of the bread of the land." The term "bread" refers only to a loaf made from these five species.4 If, however, one makes bread from rice, millet, or other legumes, there is no obligation of challah at all.

ב

אֵין חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה אֶלָּא חֲמִשָּׁה מִינֵי תְּבוּאָה בִּלְבַד וְהֵם הַחִטִּין וְהַשְּׂעוֹרִים וְהַכֻּסְּמִין וְשִׁבּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְהַשִּׁיפוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו יט) "בַּאֲכָלְכֶם מִלֶּחֶם הָאָרֶץ". וְאֵין קָרוּי לֶחֶם אֶלָּא פַּת הַנַּעֲשֵׂית מֵאֵלּוּ אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה פַּת אֹרֶז אוֹ דֹּחַן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִן הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת אֵינָן חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה כְּלָל:

3

Although there is no obligation to separate terumah from leket, shichachah, pe'ah,5 grain which is ownerless,6 and grain which did not reach a third of its growth,7 there is an obligation to separate challah from these. Similarly, there is an obligation to separate challah [from dough made from grain in the following circumstances]: the tithes was separated from the grain early while it was still stalks8 and terumat ma'aser was separated from it, even though the portion of the great terumah is still included in it,9 [grain that was from] the second tithe or consecrated property that was redeemed, the extra [portions of barley harvested for] the omer offering,10 the two loaves [prepared to be offered on Shavuot], and [the loaves prepared for] the showbread11 which were redeemed.12

ג

הַלֶּקֶט וְהַשִּׁכְחָה וְהַפֵּאָה וְהַהֶפְקֵר וּתְבוּאָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן פְּטוּרִין מִן הַתְּרוּמָה חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ בְּחַלָּה. וְכֵן מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהִקְדִּימוֹ בַּשִּׁבֳּלִים שֶׁנִּטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חֵלֶק תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ וּמוֹתַר הָעֹמֶר וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים כְּשֶׁיִּפָּדוּ כָּל אוֹתָן הַמּוֹתָרוֹת הַכּל חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה:

4

When a dough was made from grain from the second tithe in Jerusalem13or from grain from the Sabbatical year,14 or when there is a doubt whether the dough was made from a mixture of terumah and ordinary produce,15 there is an obligation to separate challah. A mixture of terumah and ordinary produce is exempt from the obligation of challah.16

ד

עִסָּה שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעִסַּת שְׁבִיעִית וּסְפֵק מְדֻמָּע חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה. אֲבָל הַמְדֻמָּע פָּטוּר מִן הַחַלָּה:

5

The loaves for the thanksgiving offering17 and the wafers for the nazirite offering18 which a person made for himself19 are exempt from the obligation of challah, for they are sanctified.20 [If they were made] to sell in the market place to nazirites and to those bringing thanksgiving offerings, there is an obligation to separate challah, since [the baker] has the intent that if they are not sold [for sacrificial purposes], he will eat them.

ה

חַלּוֹת תּוֹדָה וּרְקִיקֵי נָזִיר עֲשָׂאָן לְעַצְמוֹ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַחַלָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן קֹדֶשׁ. לְמָכְרָן בַּשּׁוּק לִנְזִירִים וּלְמַקְרִיבֵי תּוֹדָה חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה. לְפִי שֶׁבְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁאִם לֹא תִּמָּכֵר יֹאכְלֶנָּה:

6

There is an obligation to separate challah from a dough made for partners21 and a dough made for many people.22

ו

עִסַּת הַשֻּׁתָּפִין וְהָעוֹשֶׂה עִסָּה לְרַבִּים חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה:

7

When a person makes dough using grain that is tevel - whether the challah is separated before terumah or the terumah separated before challah - what he did is effective.23 If he separated the challah first, he should not partake of it until he separates terumah and terumat ma'aser for it. If he separated terumah first, he should not partake of it until he separates challah.24

ז

הָעוֹשֶׂה עִסָּה מִן הַטֶּבֶל. בֵּין שֶׁהִקְדִּים חַלָּה לִתְרוּמָה בֵּין שֶׁהִקְדִּים תְּרוּמָה לְחַלָּה מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה עָשׂוּי. וְאִם הִפְרִישׁ הַחַלָּה תְּחִלָּה לֹא תֵּאָכֵל עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ תְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאִם הִפְרִישׁ תְּחִלָּה תְּרוּמָה לֹא תֵּאָכֵל עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ חַלָּה:

8

When a person makes a dough with the intent25 of feeding the bread baked from it to a domesticated animal or a wild animal, it is exempt from challah.26There is an obligation to separate challah from a dough made for dogs27 which is eaten by the shepherds.28 A dough made by a gentile is exempt from challah.29

ח

הָעוֹשֶׂה עִסָּה לְהַאֲכִיל הַפַּת שֶׁלָּהּ לִבְהֵמָה אוֹ לְחַיָּה פְּטוּרָה. עִסַּת הַכְּלָבִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָרוֹעִים אוֹכְלִין מִמֶּנָּה חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה. עִסַּת הָעַכּוּ''ם פְּטוּרָה:

9

If a gentile and a Jew were partners in a dough and the portion owned by the Jew was large enough to be liable for challah, it is liable for challah.30

ט

הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַכּוּ''ם שֻׁתָּפִין בָּעִסָּה אִם הָיָה בְּחֵלֶק יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁעוּר עִסָּה הַחַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה:

10

When a gentile separates challah even in Eretz Yisrael, it is not challah. Instead, we inform him that he does not have to [observe this mitzvah. The dough separated] may be eaten by a non-priest.31

Why do we not suspect that maybe the dough belonged to a Jew and he gave it to a gentile so that it will be exempt?32 Because if a Jew wanted to exempt himself he could do so by making his dough smaller than the required measure.33

י

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ חַלָּה אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵינָהּ חַלָּה. אֶלָּא מוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ וְתֵאָכֵל לְזָר. וְלָמָּה לֹא חָשַׁשְׁנוּ לָהּ שֶׁמָּא עִסָּה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִיא וְתָלָה אוֹתָהּ בְּיַד עַכּוּ''ם וּכְדֵי לְפָטְרָהּ. שֶׁאִם יִרְצֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל יִפְטֹר עַצְמוֹ וְיַעֲשֶׂה יִשְׂרָאֵל עִסָּתוֹ פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר חַלָּה:

11

[The following laws apply when a person] mixes flour from wheat34and rice flour35 and makes a dough: If it has the flavor of grain, challah must be separated from it.36 If not, it is exempt. Even if one placed yeast37 from wheat38 into a dough from rice, one is obligated to separate challah from it if it has the flavor of wheat. If it does not have that flavor, it is exempt.

יא

הַמְעָרֵב קֶמַח חִטִּין וְקֶמַח אֹרֶז וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן עִסָּה אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם דָּגָן חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה וְאִם לָאו פְּטוּרָה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַשְּׂאוֹר חִטִּים לְתוֹךְ עִסַּת אֹרֶז. אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם דָּגָן חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה וְאִם לָאו פְּטוּרָה:

12

There is an obligation to separate challah in all [the following instances]:39 a dough that was kneaded with wine, oil, or honey,40 or with boiling water, or one in which spices where placed, water was boiled and flour was placed inside of it and a dough was kneaded. [And challah must be separated when] dough was baked whether in an oven or [in a pit] in the earth,41 whether in a frying pan or a deep pan, whether first one attached the dough to the frying pan or the deep pan and then heated them with fire from below until the loaf was baked or one heated them first and then attached the dough.

If, however, one made a dough to dry it in the sun alone or to cook it in a pot, it is exempt from challah, for [dough cooked] in the sun is not bread whether it was kneaded with water or other liquids.42 Similarly, roasted grain that was kneaded whether with water or honey and which is eaten without being baked is exempt, for the obligation of challah applies only to a dough that will ultimately be baked as bread for human consumption.

יב

עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּיַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן אוֹ דְּבַשׁ אוֹ מַיִם רוֹתְחִים אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָהּ תַּבְלִין אוֹ הִרְתִּיחַ הַמַּיִם וְהִשְׁלִיךְ הַקֶּמַח לְתוֹכוֹ וְלָשׁוֹ. אִם אֲפָאָהּ בֵּין בְּתַנּוּר בֵּין בְּקַרְקַע בֵּין עַל הַמַּחֲבַת וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת. בֵּין שֶׁהִדְבִּיק אֶת הַבָּצֵק בְּמַחֲבַת וּבְמַרְחֶשֶׁת וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִרְתִּיחָן בָּאֵשׁ מִלְּמַטָּה עַד שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית הַפַּת. בֵּין שֶׁהִרְתִּיחָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִדְבִּיק הַבָּצֵק. כָּל אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה. אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה עִסָּה לְיַבְּשָׁהּ בַּחַמָּה בִּלְבַד אוֹ לְבַשְּׁלָהּ בִּקְדֵרָה הֲרֵי הִיא פְּטוּרָה מִן הַחַלָּה שֶׁאֵין מַעֲשֵׂה חַמָּה לֶחֶם בֵּין שֶׁלָּשָׁהּ בְּמַיִם בֵּין שֶׁלָּשָׁהּ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין. וְכֵן קָלִי שֶׁלָּשִׁין אוֹתוֹ בְּמַיִם אוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ וְאוֹכְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּלֹא אֲפִיָּה פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין חַיֶּבֶת אֶלָּא עִסָּה שֶׁסּוֹפָהּ לְהֵאָפוֹת לֶחֶם לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם:

13

When a dough was first kneaded to make a dough to be cooked in the sun and then the person completed making it for a loaf of bread, or he began making it to bake bread and completed it to cook it in the sun and similarly, when roasted flour was kneaded to bake a loaf of bread, there is an obligation to separate challah.43

יג

עִסָּה שֶׁלָּשָׁהּ תְּחִלָּה לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מַעֲשֵׂה חַמָּה וְהִשְׁלִימָהּ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ פַּת. אוֹ שֶׁהִתְחִיל בָּהּ לֶאֱפוֹת פַּת וְהִשְׁלִימָהּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מַעֲשֵׂה חַמָּה. וְכֵן קָלִי שֶׁלָּשׁוֹ לֶאֱפוֹתוֹ פַּת חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה:

14

When bread was baked to be used for kutach,44 the manner in which it is made indicates the intent. If it was made as cakes, there is an obligation to separate challah.45 If he made it in strips, it is exempt from challah.46

יד

לֶחֶם הֶעָשׂוּי לְכוּתָח מַעֲשֶׂיהָ מוֹכִיחִין עָלֶיהָ. עֲשָׂאָהּ כְּעָכִין חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה. עֲשָׂאָהּ כְּלִמּוּדִין פְּטוּרָה מִן הַחַלָּה:

15

What is the minimum measure of dough from which we are obligated to separate challah? An entire omer of flour,47 whether from one of the five species or from all five together, for they are all combined to reach the minimum measure.

What is the measure of an omer? One fifth [of a kab] less than two kabbin. A kab is four lugim and a log is four revi'iot.48 A revi'it is the volume of a cube two fingerbreadths by two fingerbreadths by a height of two and seven tenths fingerbreadths. A fingerbreadth refers to the width of a thumb.

Thus an omer is a measure that is ten fingerbreadths by ten fingerbreadths by a height of approximately 3 and one ninth fingerbreadths. Similarly, a cube with each side six and seven ninths fingerbreadths produces a measure of an omer.

How much does this measure contain? The volume of 43 and 1/5 eggs. This is equivalent to the weight of 86 2/3 selaim of Egyptian wheat flour.49 This is equivalent to 520 zuz of Egyptian zuzim at present. A measure that comprises such a weight of wheat is used universally to measure for the separation of challah.

טו

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הָעִסָּה שֶׁחַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה. מְלֹא הָעֹמֶר קֶמַח בֵּין מֵאֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה מִינִים בֵּין מֵחֲמִשְׁתָּן כֻּלָּם מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר. וְכַמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר הָעֹמֶר שְׁנֵי קַבִּין פָּחוֹת חֹמֶשׁ. וְהַקַּב אַרְבָּעָה לוֹגִין. וְהַלּוֹג אַרְבַּע רְבִיעִיּוֹת וְהָרְבִיעִית אֶצְבָּעַיִם עַל אֶצְבָּעַיִם בְּרוּם אֶצְבָּעַיִם וַחֲצִי אֶצְבַּע וְחֹמֶשׁ אֶצְבַּע. וְכָל הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת הֵם רֹחַב גוּדָל אֶצְבָּעוֹת שֶׁל יָד. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁהַמִּדָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עֶשֶׂר אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל עֶשֶׂר אֶצְבָּעוֹת בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וְתֵשַׁע אֶצְבַּע בְּקֵרוּב הוּא הָעֹמֶר. וְכֵן מִדָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שֶׁבַע אֶצְבָּעוֹת פָּחוֹת שְׁנֵי תְּשִׁיעֵי אֶצְבַּע עַל שֶׁבַע אֶצְבָּעוֹת פָּחוֹת שְׁנֵי תְּשִׁיעֵי אֶצְבַּע בְּרוּם שֶׁבַע אֶצְבָּעוֹת פָּחוֹת שְׁנֵי תְּשִׁיעֵי אֶצְבַּע הִיא מִדַּת הָעֹמֶר. וּשְׁתֵּי הַמִּדּוֹת כְּאֶחָד הֵם עוֹלִים. וְכַמָּה מְכִילָה מִדָּה זוֹ כְּמוֹ אַרְבָּעִים וְשָׁלֹשׁ בֵּיצִים בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹת וְחֹמֶשׁ בֵּיצָה וְהֵם מִשְׁקַל שִׁשָּׁה וּשְׁמוֹנִים סְלָעִים וּשְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי סֶלַע מִקֶּמַח הַחִטִּים שֶׁבְּמִצְרַיִם. שֶׁהֵם מִשְׁקַל חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְעֶשְׂרִים זוּז מִזּוּזֵי מִצְרַיִם בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה. וּמִדָּה שֶׁמְּכִילָה כַּמִּשְׁקָל הַזֶּה מִקֶּמַח הַחִטִּים הַזֶּה בָּהּ מוֹדְדִין לְחַלָּה בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

16

It is forbidden for a person to make his dough less than the minimum measure50 in order to free it from the obligation of challah.51 When a person separates challah from a dough that is smaller than the prescribed measure, his actions are of no consequence and the dough is ordinary dough as before.

When a person made a dough that is less than the prescribed measure, baked it, and put the loaf in a basket, baked another loaf52 and put it in the basket, and [continued doing this] until a measure from which challah [must be separated] was collected in the basket, the basket joins them together [as a single entity, establishing an obligation for] challah.53 He must separate challah from the bread. This is derived [from the prooftext mentioned above]: "When you partake of the bread of the land." [The verse] teaches that one should separate [challah] from [bread] that is baked. An oven, [however,] does not join loaves together [to create an obligation to separate] challah.54

טז

אָסוּר לְאָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת עִסָּתוֹ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר כְּדֵי לְפָטְרָהּ מִן הַחַלָּה. וְהַמַּפְרִישׁ חַלָּה מֵעִסָּה שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִכַּשִּׁעוּר לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וַהֲרֵי הִיא חֻלִּין כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. עָשָׂה עִסָּה פְּחוּתָה מִכַּשִּׁעוּר וַאֲפָאָהּ וְנָתַן הַפַּת לַסַּל. וְחָזַר וְאָפָה פַּת אַחֶרֶת וְנָתַן לַסַּל אִם נִתְקַבֵּץ בַּסַּל שִׁעוּר חַלָּה הַסַּל מְצָרְפָן לְחַלָּה וּמַפְרֵשׁ הַחַלָּה מִן הַפַּת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו יט) "וְהָיָה בַּאֲכָלְכֶם מִלֶּחֶם הָאָרֶץ" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהוּא מַפְרִישׁ מִן הָאָפוּי. וְאֵין הַתַּנּוּר מְצָרְפָן לְחַלָּה:

17

If [small] loaves were joined together and a quantity equal to the measure of challah was gathered together, there is an obligation to separate challah.55 [This applies] even if they are not placed in a basket [together].56 If one baked loaves a little bit at a time and gathered together the entire quantity on a board that does not have a cavity,57 there is a doubt regarding [the matter].58 If [the obligation to separate] challah is of Rabbinic origin,59 one is not obligated to separate it until they are gathered in a container with a cavity.60

יז

הָיוּ הַכִּכָּרוֹת נוֹשְׁכוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ וְנִתְקַבֵּץ מִן הַכּל שִׁעוּר חַלָּה חַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן בַּסַּל. אָפָה מְעַט מְעַט וְקִבֵּץ הַכּל עַל לוּחַ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תּוֹךְ הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק. וְאִם חַלָּה שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם הִיא אֵינוֹ חִיֵּב לְהַפְרִישׁ עַד שֶׁיְּצָרֵף אוֹתוֹ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תּוֹךְ:

18

When flour was not sifted, but instead kneaded together with its bran, since the entire measure of the flour61 comprises an omer, there is an obligation [to separate] challah.62 If, however, one removed the bran from the flour and then completed the [required] measure of dough by returning the bran to the flour, there is no obligation to separate challah.63

יח

קֶמַח שֶׁלֹּא רִקְּדּוֹ אֶלָּא לָשׁוֹ בַּסֻּבִּין שֶׁלּוֹ. הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בְּכָל הַקֶּמַח עֹמֶר חַיָּב בְּחַלָּה. אֲבָל אִם נָטַל הַמֻּרְסָן מִן הַקֶּמַח וְחָזַר וְהִשְׁלִים שִׁעוּר הָעִסָּה בַּמֻּרְסָן שֶׁהֶחֱזִירוֹ לַקֶּמַח אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּחַלָּה:

19

When a baker64 makes a dough to become yeast and divide it up,65 there is an obligation [to separate] challah, for if it is not sold, he will use it as bread. If, however, one makes a dough to divide it while dough,66 it is exempt.

יט

נַחְתּוֹם שֶׁעָשָׂה עִסָּה לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ שְׂאוֹר לְחַלְּקָהּ חַיֶּבֶת בְּחַלָּה. שֶׁאִם לֹא תִּמָּכֵר יַעֲשֶׂנָּה פַּת. אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה עִסָּה לְחַלְּקָהּ בָּצֵק פְּטוּרָה:

20

[The following law applies when] women67 give flour to a baker to make yeast. If none of them individually [gave enough flour to make a dough] that comprises the required measure - even though [the dough made from the flour which] they all [gave] does - it is exempt.68

כ

נָשִׁים שֶׁנָּתְנוּ קֶמַח לְנַחְתּוֹם לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶם שְׂאוֹר. אִם אֵין בְּשֶׁל אַחַת מֵהֶן כַּשִּׁעוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּכְלָלָן כַּשִּׁעוּר פְּטוּרָה:

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Footnotes
1.

The commentaries raise a question concerning this ruling, because seemingly, the baker should separate challah himself. Moreover, because of the severity of the prohibition of challah, the common people were not considered suspect to refrain from making this separation.

The Radbaz explains that we are speaking about an instance where the baker told the purchaser to separate challah, alternatively, an instance where the baker is suspect not to separate challah. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the responsibility for the baker to separate challah applies only when the challah is ritually pure. Since it will be eaten by the priest, it is appropriate that the baker separate it. When, by contrast, it is impure and must be burnt, it should be separated by the purchaser.

2.

Difusim, translated as "trays," literally means "molds." In the Talmudic era, bread was baked in various molds so that the loaves would be shaped differently. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 1:3), the Rambam explains that there was an opinion which forbade separating challah from one tray for another lest the flour used to bake the different breads was from different years.

3.

I.e., whether the dough is made from each of the species individually or a combination of any of the five, as stated in Halachah 15.

4.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 1:1) derives this concept because there is an association between challah and matzah. Matzah may only be made from these five species, for they are the only species that can become leaven. Hence, it is these five to which the mitzvah of challah applies. See Halachah 11 which discusses the laws that apply when a dough is made using one of these grains and other species.

5.

These mitzvot refer to grain left for the poor.

6.

When the grain was left by its owner, it was ownerless and hence, there were no agricultural obligations incumbent upon it. Now, however, that someone took possession of it, those obligations do apply.

7.

Because at this point it is not considered as grain yet. See Hilchot Ma'aser 2:3-5. Nevertheless, since a dough made from such grain will become leaven, there is an obligation to separate challah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Bikkurim 1:4)].

8.

Before it was threshed; see Hilchot Terumah3:13, Hilchot Ma'aser 3:19.

9.

For as stated in Hilchot Terumah, op. cit., there is no obligation to separate terumah from such grain. And since there is no obligation to separate terumah, one might think that one is also exempt from the obligation to separate challah

10.

As explained in Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 7:11-12, three se'ah of barley would be harvested for the omer offering. That barley was then made into flour, sifted and refined until only an isaron (a far smaller measure) was selected for the omer offering. The remainder of the barley was redeemed and could be used for mundane purposes.

11.

This refers to the extra flour which had been set aside for the two loaves or the showbread, like the remainder of the barley mentioned in the previous note, it could be redeemed and then used for mundane purposes.

12.

In all these instances, since the dough was prepared after it was redeemed, it is considered as bread belonging to an ordinary person. Hence, the obligation to tithe it applies (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).

13.

Although produce of the second tithe is "the property of the Most High," in Jerusalem, it is permitted to be eaten by ordinary people. Hence, challah must be separated from the dough (Radbaz).

14.

Like the ownerless produce mentioned in the previous halachah, at present, it is the property of the person who took it as his own. Hence, there is an obligation to separate challah.

15.

Although there is a possibility that the produce is a mixture of terumah and ordinary produce which is exempt as stated in the following clause, there is also a possibility that this is only ordinary produce in which instance, an obligation does apply.

16.

The Radbaz states that this law applies only in the present era when the obligation to separate challah is of Rabbinic origin. In that instance, the prohibition of a mixture of terumah offsets the obligation to separate challah, for they are both Rabbinic safeguards. If, however, the obligation to separate challah is Scriptural in origin, it would take precedence.

17.

Together with the thanksgiving offering, 40 loaves (10 each of four types) were offered.

18.

Together with the ram a nazirite offered 30 loaves (10 each of three types) were offered. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:12-24 for a description of these loaves.

19.

To bring as part of his offering, rather than to sell to someone else.

20.

And challah need only be separated from a person's private property, not from consecrated property (Menachot 67a).

21.

This applies even if the dough is not large enough that each of the partners will receive a portion the size of an olive (Radbaz). Even though they intend to separate the bread after it is baked, as long as they do not intend to separate the dough, they are obligated to separate challah (Siftei Cohen 326:1).

22.

We are speaking about a situation where a person bakes bread in order to give it to many people. He does not, however, declare the bread ownerless. Were he to do so, there would be no obligation to separate challah, as stated in Chapter 8, Halachah 6.

23.

I.e., even though he should have separated the terumah before the dough was made, after the fact, his separation is effective

24.

The Radbaz questions why the Rambam does not mention the second tithe, for in the years that there is an obligation to separate it, one may not partake of the produce until it is separated.

25.

The Radbaz states that the law depends on the intent of the person making the dough and not what it is eventually used for.

26.

For the mitzvah applies only to dough prepared for human consumption.

27.

A dough made without bran being separated from the flour which is thus usually not intended for human consumption [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:8)].

28.

Since the shepherds also intend to partake of it, it is considered as intended for human consumption and challah must be separated from the entire dough, even from the portion intended for the dogs.

29.

Menachot 67a derives this from the fact that Numbers 15:20, the prooftext for the obligation of challah, speaks of "the first of your dough," i.e., the dough of a Jew and not of a gentile.

30.

The Radbaz maintains that the Jew mayt separate challah from the entire dough, even from the gentile's portion.

31.

Because there is no holiness associated with it.

32.

I.e., the Jew thought that if he gave the dough to a gentile to prepare, it would be exempt and the gentile desired to separate challah from it. The Radbaz states that although generally we do not suspect that a prohibition is being violated, there is room to do so in this instance, because otherwise, why would the gentile think of separating challah.

33.

As stated in Halachah 15.

34.

Or any other of the five species of grain mentioned in Halachah 2.

35.

The Turei Zahav 324:9 states this law applies to rice and not to other species, because rice takes on the flavor of wheat.

36.

This applies even if quantitatively, there is more rice than wheat. For the wheat is considered as dominant.

The Ra'avad states that this ruling applies only when there is enough wheat in the dough to establish an obligation. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that the Rambam does not make such a distinction. The difference of opinion between them centers on the interpretation of the Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 3:5). The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 324:9) quotes the Rambam's wording without any further qualification. There is a similar disagreement between the Rambam and the Ra'avad with regard to matzah made from wheat and rice. See Hilchot Chametz UMatzah 6:5.

37.

Yeast is singled out, because a small amount of yeast can affect an entire dough.

38.

The Ra'avad states that this applies when the yeast is taken from a dough from which challah had not been separated. The Radbaz, however, states that it is possible that the Rambam does not accept that conclusion. In this instance as well, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 324:10) quotes the Rambam's ruling without further qualification.

39.

All of the instances mentioned in the first clause of the halachah are not bread in the simple sense. Nevertheless, they are all considered as dough within the context of this mitzvah.

40.

Even though no water was mixed into it [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 329:9)].

41.

Since ultimately the dough was baked, the fact that the flour was boiled first is not significant (Siftei Cohen 329:8).

42.

Similarly, dough boiled in water is not considered as bread, but as cooked food.

43.

As long as there was an intent to use the dough for bread at one stage in its preparation, challah must be separated.

44.

A mixture of whey and bread crumbs used as a dip.

45.

This shape indicates that he may change his mind and serve the cakes as bread.

46.

This indicates that he is not intending to serve the strips as bread, but will indeed crumble them and use them for kutach.

47.

Our Sages derived this measure as follows: Numbers 15:19 states: "You shall separate the first of your dough as challah." As Exodus 16:16 relates the amount of manna allotted to each individual in the desert was an omer. Hence we use that as the size of the required measure of dough (Eruvin 83b).

48.

A revi'it is approximately 86cc according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 150 cc according to Chazon Ish. Thus a log is 344 or 600 cc, a kab 1376 or 2400 cc, and the measure of the dough from which challah must be separated is 2500 (because the above figures are approximations) or 4320 cc.

49.

Shiurei Torah writes that a blessing should be recited when separating challah from a dough made from 3 pounds and 10 ¾ ounces of flour and one should be stringent and separate challah from a dough made from 2 pounds and 10.1 ounces of flour.

50.

I.e., less than the measure described in the previous halachah.

51.

This applies even though he is ritually impure and he knows that he will be separating the dough to have it burnt (Challah 2:3). The Turei Zahav 324:17 and the Siftei Cohen 324:25 emphasize that this applies only when the person's intent in making the loaf small is that he will not have to separate challah. If he has another intent, his actions are not sanctioned.

52.

Which was also less than the prescribed measure.

53.

This applies even though the loaves themselves are not joined together. One of the examples of the separation of challah with which many are familiar - the separation of challah from matzah - employs this principle.

54.

I.e., if small loaves are baked together in an oven, but taken out separately, there is no obligation to separate challah.

55.

Even though at the time the dough was made, there was not a sufficient quantity to require the separation of challah.

56.

The fact that they are joined is sufficient for them to be considered as a singled entity.

57.

In contrast to the basket mentioned in the previous halachah.

58.

Pesachim 48b mentions an unresolved difference of opinion concerning this question among the Sages.

59.

Like the challah separated in the present era, as stated Chapter 5, Halachah 5.

60.

For we follow the principle: When there is a doubt regarding a Rabbinic obligation, we rule leniently (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 325:1) writes that if one places the bread on a board and then covers it with a cloth, there is an authority who requires the separation of challah. The Siftei Cohen 325:5 questions why the Shulchan Aruch uses the expression "there is an authority...," in as much as this principle is universally accepted.

61.

I.e., the flour together with the bran, even though the flour alone is not of sufficient quantity to require challah to be separated.

62.

For a poor person will eat bread made from coarse flour containing bran (Shabbat 76b).

63.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 2:6) explains that this is derived from Numbers 15:21 that speaks of "your dough," i.e., the way dough is ordinarily made.

64.

According to the Rambam, this halachah pertains to a baker and not to ordinary individuals. The laws pertaining to them are mentioned in the following halachah.

65.

To sell to others to use the yeast to leaven other doughs without this dough being baked.

66.

So that he will be baking smaller portions and not be obligated to separate challah.

67.

I.e., private individuals who will use the yeast for themselves and not for commercial purposes.

68.

Because the dough is not being made to be baked as bread, but to be divided as dough. Since it is being made for private individuals, the Rambam maintains that there is little likelihood that they will change their minds and have it baked. Even though the women did not give their flour to the baker together, the fact that he made a dough from them would have caused an obligation for challah had the intent been to bake the dough. Moreover, the Rama (Yoreh De'ah 326:3) rules that if the women consent to having their flour mixed in a larger dough, an obligation to separate challah is created.

The Ra'avad maintains that if one woman makes dough to use as yeast, the law mentioned with regard to a baker in the previous halachah applies to her and she is required to separate challah. Here the leniency is granted because several women are involved. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh argue against the Ra'avad's conclusion and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 326:2) states that the stringency applies to a baker and not to an ordinary person.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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