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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Shabbat - Chapter Thirty, Eruvin - Chapter One, Eruvin - Chapter Two

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Shabbat - Chapter Thirty

1

There are four [dimensions] to the [observance of] the Sabbath: two originating in the Torah, and two originating in the words of our Sages, which are given exposition by the Prophets. [The two dimensions originating] in the Torah are the commandments "Remember [the Sabbath day]"1 and "Observe [the Sabbath day]."2

[The two dimensions] given exposition by the Prophets are honor and pleasure3, as [Isaiah 58:13] states: "And you shall call the Sabbath 'A delight, sanctified unto God and honored.'

א

ארבעה דברים נאמרו בשבת שנים מן התורה ושנים מדברי סופרים והן מפורשין על ידי הנביאים. שבתורה זכור ושמור. ושנתפרשו על ידי הנביאים כבוד ועונג שנאמר וקראת לשבת עונג ולקדוש ה' מכובד:

2

What is meant by honor? This refers to our Sages' statement that it is a mitzvah4 for a person to wash his face, his hands, and his feet5 in hot water on Friday in honor of the Sabbath. He should wrap himself in tzitzit and sit with proper respect, waiting to receive the Sabbath as one goes out to greet a king.

The Sages6 of the former generations would gather their students together on Friday, wrap themselves [in fine robes] and say, "Come, let us go out and greet the Sabbath, the king.7

ב

איזהו כבוד זה שאמרו חכמים שמצוה על אדם לרחוץ פניו ידיו ורגליו בחמין בערב שבת מפני כבוד השבת ומתעטף בציצית ויושב בכובד ראש מיחל להקבלת פני השבת כמו שהוא יוצא לקראת המלך. וחכמים הראשונים היו מקבצין תלמידיהן בערב שבת ומתעטפים ואומרים בואו ונצא לקראת שבת המלך:

3

Among the ways of honoring the Sabbath is wearing a clean garment.8 One's Sabbath garments should not resemble one's weekday clothes. A person who does not have a different garment for the Sabbath should allow his robe to hang low,9 so that his [Sabbath] clothing will not resemble the clothes he wears during the week.

Ezra ordained that the people launder their clothes on Thursday10 as an expression of honor for the Sabbath.

ג

ומכבוד השבת שילבש כסות נקיה. ולא יהיה מלבוש החול כמלבוש השבת. ואם אין לו להחליף משלשל טליתו כדי שלא יהא מלבושו כמלבוש החול. ועזרא תיקן שיהו העם מכבסים בחמישי מפני כבוד השבת:

4

In respect for the Sabbath,11 it is forbidden to plan a meal or a winefest for Friday.12

[According to the letter of the law,] one may eat or drink until nightfall. Nevertheless, as an expression of honor for the Sabbath, a person should refrain from planning a meal13 for [mid]afternoon on,14 so that he will enter the Sabbath with an appetite.

ד

אסור לקבוע סעודה ומשתה בערב שבת מפני כבוד השבת. ומותר לאכול ולשתות עד שתחשך. ואע"פ כן מכבוד השבת שימנע אדם מן המנחה ולמעלה מלקבוע סעודה כדי שיכנס לשבת כשהוא מתאוה לאכול:

5

A person should prepare his table on Friday, even if he is [to partake] only [of an amount of food] equivalent to the size of an olive.15 Similarly, a person should prepare his table on Saturday night,16 even if he is [to partake] only [of an amount of food] equivalent to the size of an olive. [In this manner,] he shows his respect for the Sabbath when it enters and when it departs.

One should prepare one's house while it is still day as an expression of respect for the Sabbath.17 There should be a lamp burning,18 a table prepared [with food] to eat, and a couch bedecked with spreads.19 All of these are expressions of honor for the Sabbath.20

ה

מסדר אדם שולחנו בערב שבת ואף על פי שאינו צריך אלא לכזית. וכן מסדר שולחנו במוצאי שבת ואף על פי שאינו צריך אלא לכזית. כדי לכבדו בכניסתו וביציאתו. וצריך לתקן ביתו מבעוד יום מפני כבוד השבת. ויהיה נר דלוק ושולחן ערוך לאכול ומטה מוצעת שכל אלו לכבוד שבת הן:

6

Even a very important person who is unaccustomed to buying items at the marketplace or to doing housework is required to perform tasks to prepare by himself for the Sabbath. This is an expression of his own personal honor.21

The Sages of the former generations22 [would involve themselves in such activities]: There was one who would cook, one who would salt meat, one would braid wicks, and one who would kindle the lamps. Others would go out and purchase food and beverages for the Sabbath, even though this was not their ordinary practice. The more one involves oneself in such activities, the more praiseworthy it is.

ו

אע"פ שהיה אדם חשוב ביותר ואין דרכו ליקח דברים מן השוק ולא להתעסק במלאכות שבבית חייב לעשות דברים שהן לצורך השבת בגופו שזה הוא כבודו. חכמים הראשונים מהם מי שהיה מפצל העצים לבשל בהן. ומהן מי שהיה מבשל או מולח בשר או גודל פתילות או מדליק נרות. ומהן מי שהיה יוצא וקונה דברים שהן לצורך השבת ממאכל ומשקה אף על פי שאין דרכו בכך. וכל המרבה בדבר זה הרי זה משובח.

7

What is meant by [Sabbath] delight? This refers to our Sages' statement23 that a person must prepare a particularly sumptuous dish and a pleasantly flavored beverage for the Sabbath. All of this must be done within the context of a person's financial status.

The more one spends [both financially,] in expenses undertaken for the Sabbath and [in effort,] in the preparation of many good foods, the more praiseworthy it is.24 If, however, this is not within one's [financial] capacity, even if one merely stews food or the like in honor of the Sabbath, this is considered to be Sabbath delight.

One is not obligated to strain oneself25 or to borrow from others26 in order to prepare more food for the Sabbath. The Sages of the former generations said,27 "Make your Sabbaths as weekdays, but do not depend on others."

ז

איזהו עונג זהו שאמרו חכמים שצריך לתקן תבשיל שמן ביותר ומשקה מבושם לשבת הכל לפי ממונו של אדם. וכל המרבה בהוצאת שבת ובתיקון מאכלים רבים וטובים הרי זה משובח. ואם אין ידו משגת אפילו לא עשה אלא שלק וכיוצא בו משום כבוד שבת הרי זה עונג שבת. ואינו חייב להצר לעצמו ולשאול מאחרים כדי להרבות במאכל בשבת. אמרו חכמים הראשונים עשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות:

8

A person who is indulgent and wealthy and conducts all his days as Sabbaths must also partake of different foods on the Sabbath from those of which he partakes during the week. If [his fare] cannot be changed, he should [at least] change the time at which he eats [his meals]. [For example,] if he usually eats early, he should eat later.28 If he usually eats late, he should eat earlier.

ח

מי שהיה ענוג ועשיר והרי כל ימיו כשבת צריך לשנות מאכל שבת ממאכל החול. ואם אי אפשר לשנות משנה זמן האכילה אם היה רגיל להקדים מאחר ואם היה רגיל לאחר מקדים

9

A person is obligated to eat three meals on the Sabbath:29 one in the evening, one in the morning, and one in the afternoon.30 One should be extremely careful regarding these three meals, not to eat any less. Even a poor man who derives his livelihood from charity should eat three meals [on the Sabbath].31

[Nevertheless,] a person who is sick from overeating, or one who fasts constantly is not obligated to partake of three meals.32

All these three meals must be significant [sittings] at which wine is served;33 at each,34 one must break bread on two full loaves.35The same applies regarding the holidays.36

ט

חייב אדם לאכול שלש סעודות בשבת אחת ערבית ואחת שחרית ואחת במנחה. וצריך להזהר בשלש סעודות אלו שלא יפחות מהן כלל. ואפילו עני המתפרנס מן הצדקה סועד שלש סעודות. ואם היה חולה מרוב האכילה או שהיה מתענה תמיד פטור משלש סעודות. וצריך לקבוע כל סעודה משלשתן על היין ולבצוע על שתי ככרות. וכן בימים טובים:

10

Eating meat and drinking wine on the Sabbath is a form of pleasure for a person,37 provided this is within his [financial] capacity.38

On the Sabbaths and holidays, a significant meal at which wine will be served is forbidden to be scheduled for the time the house of study is in session.39 Instead, the practice of the righteous of the former generations would be as follows: A person would recite the morning service and the additional service in the synagogue. Afterwards, he would return home and partake of the second [Sabbath] meal. He would then proceed to the house of study, to read [from the Written Law] and to study [the Oral Law] until the afternoon, at which time he would recite the afternoon service. He would then [partake of] the third [Sabbath] meal, a significant [sitting] at which wine is served, and continue eating and drinking until the Sabbath passed.

י

אכילת בשר ושתיית יין בשבת עונג הוא לו. והוא שהיתה ידו משגת. ואסור לקבוע סעודה על היין בשבת ובימים טובים בשעת בית המדרש. אלא כך היה מנהג הצדיקים הראשונים מתפלל אדם בשבת שחרית ומוסף בבית הכנסת ויבוא לביתו ויסעוד סעודה שניה וילך לבית המדרש יקרא וישנה עד המנחה ויתפלל מנחה ואחר כך יקבע סעודה שלישית על היין ויאכל וישתה עד מוצאי שבת:

11

It is forbidden for a person to travel more than three parsa'ot from the beginning of the day on Friday. [This restriction was adopted] so that one will arrive home early in the day and prepare one's Sabbath meals. [One may not rely on] the members of one's household to prepare for him, [for they] do not know that one will arrive on this day.

Needless to say, [this restriction applies] when one is visiting others, since [by arriving unexpectedly,] one will embarrass them, for they will not have made the preparations appropriate for hosting guests.40

יא

אסור לו לאדם שיהלך בערבי שבתות יותר משלש פרסאות מתחלת היום כדי שיגיע לביתו ועוד היום רב ויכין סעודה לשבת. שהרי אין אנשי ביתו יודעין שהיום יבוא כדי להכין לו. ואין צריך לומר אם היה מתארח אצל אחרים שהוא מביישן מפני שלא הכינו להן דבר הראוי לאורחין:

12

It is forbidden to fast,41 to cry out [to God], to offer supplication, or to entreat [His] mercy on the Sabbath.42 Even when [a community is beset] by a distressing circumstance that would ordinarily require the community to fast and sound the trumpets,43we do not fast or sound the trumpets on the Sabbath or holidays.

[There are, however, exceptions. They include] a city surrounded by gentiles or a [flooding] river, and a ship sinking at sea. We may sound the trumpets on the Sabbath to summon help for them, offer supplications on their behalf, and ask for mercy for them.44

יב

אסור להתענות ולזעוק ולהתחנן ולבקש רחמים בשבת ואפילו בצרה מן הצרות שהצבור מתענין ומתריעין עליהן אין מתענין ולא מתריעין בשבת. ולא בימים טובים. חוץ מעיר שהקיפוה עובדי כוכבים ומזלות או נהר או ספינה המטרפת בים שמתריעין עליהן בשבת לעזרן ומתחננין ומבקשין עליהן רחמים:

13

We do not lay siege to gentile cities less than three days before the Sabbath, so that the minds of the warriors will become settled and they will not be agitated and preoccupied on the Sabbath.45

For this reason, we may not set sail on a ship less than three days before the Sabbath, so that one's mind will be settled before the Sabbath and one will not suffer excessive discomfort.46 For the sake of a mitzvah, however, one may set out on a sea journey even on Friday. One should enter into an agreement that [the ship] interrupt [its journey] on the Sabbath. [If, however,] this agreement is not kept [it is not of consequence].47

From Tyre to Sidon48 and the like, one may set out on Friday, even if the journey concerns one's personal affairs.49 In places where it is customary not to set out on a journey on Friday at all, one should refrain from travelling.

יג

אין צרין על עיירות של עובדי כוכבים ומזלות פחות משלשה ימים קודם השבת. כדי שתתישב דעת אנשי המלחמה עליהן ולא יהיו מבוהלים וטרודים בשבת. אין מפליגין בספינה פחות משלשה ימים קודם השבת כדי שתתישב דעתו עליו קודם השבת ולא יצטער יותר מדאי. ולדבר מצוה מפליג בים אפילו בערב שבת. ופוסק עמו לשבות ואינו שובת. ומצור לצידן וכיוצא בהן אפילו לדבר הרשות מותר להפליג בערב שבת. ומקום שנהגו שלא יפליג בערב שבת כלל אין מפליגין:

14

Sexual relations are considered a dimension of Sabbath pleasure.50 Therefore, Torah scholars who are healthy51 set aside Friday night as the night when they fulfill their conjugal duties.52

At the outset, it is permitted to engage in sexual relations with a virgin on the Sabbath. It is not [forbidden because] one is creating a wound,53 nor because of the pain the woman [feels].

יד

תשמיש המטה מעונג שבת הוא. לפיכך עונת תלמידי חכמים הבריאים משמשין מלילי שבת ללילי שבת. ומותר לבעול בתולה לכתחלה בשבת ואין בזה לא משום חובל ולא משום צער לה:

15

[The observance of] the Sabbath and [the prohibition against] worshiping false deities are each equivalent to [the observance] of all the mitzvot of the Torah.54 And the Sabbath is the eternal sign between the Holy One, blessed be He, and us.55

For this reason, whoever transgresses the other mitzvot is considered to be one of the wicked of Israel, but a person who violates the Sabbath is considered as an idolater. Both of them are considered to be equivalent to gentiles in all regards.56 Therefore, our prophets praise [Sabbath observance], saying [Isaiah 56:2]: "Happy is the man who does the following, and the mortal who holds fast to it, who keeps the Sabbath, without desecrating it...."

It is explicitly stated in our prophetic tradition that whoever observes the Sabbath according to law and honors it and delights in it according to his ability will receive reward in this world in addition to the reward that is preserved for the world to come,57 as [Isaiah 58:14]58 states: "'You will then delight in God. I will cause you to ride on the high places of the earth, and I will nourish you with the heritage of Jacob your ancestor'; thus has the mouth of God spoken."

טו

השבת ועבודת כוכבים ומזלות כל אחת משתיהן שקולה כנגד שאר כל מצות התורה. והשבת היא האות שבין הקב"ה ובינינו לעולם. לפיכך כל העובר על שאר המצות הרי הוא בכלל רשעי ישראל. אבל המחלל שבת בפרהסיא הרי הוא כעובד עבודת כוכבים ומזלות ושניהם כעובדי כוכבים ומזלות לכל דבריהם. לפיכך משבח הנביא ואומר אשרי אנוש יעשה זאת ובן אדם יחזיק בה שומר שבת מחללו וגו'. וכל השומר את השבת כהלכתה ומכבדה ומענגה כפי כחו כבר מפורש בקבלה שכרו בעולם הזה יתר על השכר הצפון לעולם הבא. שנאמר אז תתענג על ה' והרכבתיך על במותי ארץ והאכלתיך נחלת יעקב אביך כי פי ה' דבר

Footnotes
1.

This involves the sanctification of the Sabbath, as explained in the previous chapter.

2.

This involves the prohibition against labor on the Sabbath, as reflected in the first 24 chapters of this text.

In the Guide for the Perplexed (Vol. II, Chapter 31), the Rambam explains that the commandment to remember the Sabbath commemorates the Sabbath of creation and the holiness that the Sabbath brings into the world. The commandment to observe the Sabbath reflects the connection to the exodus from Egypt and thus emphasizes the dimension connected with the cessation of labor.

3.

The explanation of these two dimensions is the subject of this final chapter of the Sabbath laws.

The Ramban (in his commentary on Leviticus 23:3) considers the honor of the Sabbath and the delight in it as required by the Torah itself. For the Torah (ibid.) describes the Sabbath as a "holy convocation," and the Sifra explains that that term implies that the day must "be sanctified, honored... and delighted in."

4.

This is not an absolute obligation. One who fulfills it receives a reward, but one who does not is not punished (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 260:1; Mishnah Berurah 260:1).

5.

The Rambam's statements are based on Shabbat 25b. Note the Tur (Orach Chayim 260), which mentions that a person should wash his entire body. The Rambam's decision is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 260:1), while the Tur's ruling is quoted by the Ramah.

6.

Shabbat 119a describes Rabbi Chanina as following this practice.

7.

Our text of Shabbat 119a reads "Sabbath, the queen," and indeed, this analogy is employed extremely frequently. From the Maggid Mishneh's commentary, it appears that the Rambam's version of that passage reads, "Sabbath, the king." According to the kabbalah, the feminine term is more appropriate, because the Sabbath is associated with the sefirah of Malchut, which reflects a feminine dimension.

8.

See also the Sefer Chassidim (quoted in the Mishnah Berurah 262:6), which emphasizes that a person must also endeavor to keep his clothes clean. For example, he should not hold a child until he covers his clothes.

9.

As is the fashion of the wealthy. (See Hilchot De'ot 5:9.)

10.

But not on Friday, so that they will have time to engage in other Sabbath preparations (Magen Avraham 242:3).

11.

Two reasons are given: a) to enter Sabbath with an appetite (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 249:2), b) to allow oneself time for Sabbath preparations (Magen Avraham 249:4).

12.

I.e., one should not arrange to hold a feast on Friday that one would not hold ordinarily during the week (Maggid Mishneh). This includes even feasts associated with a mitzvah (Shulchan Aruch, loc. cit.). One may, however, hold a feast associated with a mitzvah that should be performed on that day - e.g., a circumcision or the redemption of the first-born (Ramah, loc. cit.). These feasts should be held as early as possible, and by no means should begin later than 3:00 PM (or the equivalent time according to the principle of "seasonal hours"), as will be explained.

Although the Ra'avad differs with the Rambam regarding this prohibition, the explanation offered above is accepted by most authorities.

13.

This refers to an ordinary meal that one might partake of during the week. Although one is not required to refrain from eating, one should preferably not plan to eat a meal at this time (Shulchan Aruch, loc. cit.).

14.

I.e., the prohibition begins nine "seasonal" hours after daybreak. Thus, on a day that begins at 6:00 AM and concludes at 6:00 PM, the time would be 3:00 PM. This time would be later in the summer and earlier in the winter.

15.

I.e., even if the quantity of food the person eats is not great, he should prepare his table as if he is to partake of a distinguished meal.

16.

This refers to the melaveh malkah meal that should be eaten at a table set in the same manner as at all the other Sabbath meals (Mishnah Berurah 300:1).

17.

Note the Nimukei Maharai, which emphasizes that כבוד ("honor") appears to refer to activities that are performed in preparation for the Sabbath, while ענג ("delight") to the appreciation of pleasure on the Sabbath itself. Note, however, the Ramah's gloss on the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 262:1). There the Ramah emphasizes that one should keep one's table attractively set throughout the entire Sabbath, implying that although honoring the Sabbath begins with preparing for it on Friday, the mitzvah continues throughout the day.

18.

See Chapter 5 for a detailed discussion of the mitzvah of lighting Sabbath lights.

19.

In Talmudic times, people would recline on couches while eating, and this is the intent here. The word מטה also means "bed," and the Mishnah Berurah 262:2 writes that it is appropriate that the beds of the house be made before the commencement of the Sabbath.

20.

Shabbat 119b relates that a person returning home from the synagogue is accompanied by two angels, one with positive tendencies and the other with negative tendencies. When they enter the home and see it prepared for the Sabbath, even the angel with negative tendencies is forced to give his blessing that this setting be repeated in the week to come.

21.

I.e., rather than think that involving himself in such activities will be demeaning, he should appreciate that these deeds will enhance his honor. Even if it is possible to have others perform these tasks for one, it is preferable to carry out certain deeds oneself. For there is nothing more honorable than to give honor to the Sabbath. In this context, Rabbenu Chanan'el refers to Kiddushin 41a, "It is more of a mitzvah [to perform a positive action] oneself, rather than [to charge] an agent [with its performance]."

22.

The examples quoted by the Rambam are taken from the description (Shabbat 119a) of the manner in which certain of the leading Sages of Babylonia would prepare for the Sabbath.

23.

As a source, the commentaries point to Shabbat 118b, which states: "How should one delight in the Sabbath? With a dish of beets, large fish, and garlic heads."

24.

One should not worry about the expense, for Beitzah 16a teaches that a person's income is fixed at the beginning of the year, with the exception of the money that he spends to honor the Sabbath and the festivals. A person need not be concerned with the cost of "honoring the Sabbath," since he will be recompensed for the expense by an increase in his earnings

25.

See the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 242:1), which states that one should earnestly endeavor to provide generously for the Sabbath and, if necessary, minimize one's expenditures during the week to do so.

26.

Note Shulchan Aruch HaRav 242:3 and the Mishnah Berurah 242:3, which state that if possible - even if this entails pawning property - one should borrow to enhance one's Sabbath meals. One may rest assured that ultimately one will be able to repay these debts. Beitzah 15b states that God promises, "Take a loan on My account. I will repay."

According to this view, the directive "Make your Sabbaths as weekdays..." applies only when a person has no property to pawn and will not be given a loan on any other terms.

27.

Pesachim 113a; Shabbat, loc. cit.

28.

He should not, however, delay his meals for a lengthy period of time, so that he will not experience discomfort on the Sabbath (Magen Avraham 288:12).

29.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Pe'ah 8:7), the Rambam cites Shabbat 117b, which states that this obligation stems from the fact that when describing the manna, Exodus 16:25 mentions the word היום, "today," three times. In the verse, "today" refers to the Sabbath, and its threefold repetition indicates that three meals should be eaten on that day.

30.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that with these words, the Rambam is emphasizing that a person who does not eat his meals at these times does not fulfill the mitzvah of eating three Sabbath meals. Although the Halachot Gedolot maintains that the times when one partakes of these meals is not significant, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 291:1) rules according to the concept explained by the Maggid Mishneh.

31.

This directive is addressed, not only to the poor person himself, but to the administrators of the communal charity funds, as reflected in the Rambam's ruling, Hilchot Matnot Ani'im 7:8.

32.

Since the obligation to eat stems from the command to delight in the Sabbath, it is not applicable to these individuals, who will suffer discomfort from eating further. Note, however, the wording of the Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.): "A person who cannot eat at all is not obligated to cause himself discomfort."

33.

Our translation is based on the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh, which differs with the Tur (Orach Chayim 291) in the interpretation of the Rambam's words. The Tur maintains that the Rambam requires the recitation of kiddush before the third meal as well. Almost all the commentaries accept the Kessef Mishneh's view.

34.

The rationale for this ruling is that the obligation to eat three meals is derived from a verse describing the manna, and the manna was described as "bread" (Exodus 16:15).

Although the Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.:4) quotes the Rambam's ruling, the Ramah adds in his gloss that there are opinions that maintain that a single complete loaf is sufficient. The Shulchan Aruch continues (loc. cit.:5), mentioning other views that allow one to fulfill his obligation by eating foods other than bread. Although the Shulchan Aruch favors the Rambam's ruling, the later authorities agree that a person who is unable to eat a third meal of bread may fulfill his obligation by eating other foods (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 291:7).

35.

This obligation stems from the fact that the manna did not descend on the Sabbath, and a double portion of manna descended on the previous day. To commemorate this lechem mishneh (Exodus 16:22), a double portion of bread is placed on the table on the Sabbath.

36.

Most authorities interpret the Rambam's intent to be that one is obligated to break bread on two complete loaves on the holidays. [The rationale being that the manna did not descend on the holidays as well, and a double portion of manna descended on the previous day (Mechilta).] The Tur, by contrast, interprets the Rambam as requiring one to partake of three meals on the holidays as well.

37.

Note Shulchan Aruch HaRav 242:2 and the Mishnah Berurah 242:1, which state that there is no obligation per se to partake of meat, fish, or wine on the Sabbath. The intent is to eat foods that give one pleasure. It has become customary to serve these foods because most people derive pleasure from them.

38.

This reiterates the theme mentioned in Halachah 7, that one should not overextend oneself financially to provide for the Sabbath. The wording used by the Rambam here also allows us to appreciate the rationale for this ruling: Since the person will be putting himself under undue financial pressure, he will not derive pleasure from this indulgence.

39.

This would prevent one from attending the house of study. (See Gittin 38b, which states that holding a meal at this time will lead to business misfortune.)

40.

In the present age, when travel and communication have advanced considerably, we need not hold rigidly to this halachah. The principle that it teaches, however - that one should not drop in suddenly on one's family and surely, on others - is definitely a significant ethical point.

Note, however, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 249:4 and the Mishnah Berurah 249:3, which state that at present, since people usually prepare generously for the Sabbath meals, there is no difficulty in coming unexpectedly if this cannot be avoided.

Another related point is also worth keeping in mind. Although long distance travel has been greatly facilitated in the present age, one should always plan to arrive several hours before the Sabbath, lest one be held back by forces beyond one's control.

41.

Note the Radbaz (Vol. IV, Responsum 1266), who quotes the Rashba as stating that this prohibition has its source in the Torah itself.

42.

In one of the Rambam's responsa, he explains that although prayer and supplication are revered media of divine service, on the Sabbath our service of God is channeled through a higher medium: rest and spiritual pleasure. As such, prayer and supplication are not appropriate.

43.

In Hilchot Ta'aniot 1:1, the Rambam writes that one of the Torah's commandments is to cry out to God and sound the trumpets at a time of communal distress. He continues in Halachah 4, stating that our Sages required the community to fast on such occasions. In addition to drought, the Rambam mentions several other situations in Hilchot Ta'aniot, Chapter 3, which are described as times of communal distress.

44.

This is a restatement of a law mentioned previously in Chapter 2, Halachah 24. Chapter 2 involves questions concerning pikuach nefesh, the threat to life, and that is the reason why exceptions are made in these instances.

45.

I.e., the siege must begin no later than Tuesday. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 248:1.) Note, however, the Mishnah Berurah 248:4, which cites other views that count the three days as beginning on Thursday. Thus, the siege may begin on Wednesday.

Although the army will still be in a state of war, and agitation will thus not have been eliminated entirely, since three days will have passed since the siege began, we can assume that much of the initial confusion and strain will have passed, and the situation will have settled into a routine.

As mentioned in Chapter 2, Halachah 25, we may wage war against gentiles on the Sabbath. Generally, the commentaries mention two reasons why a siege should not be initiated less than three days before the Sabbath: the reason stated by the Rambam, and also that the three days before the Sabbath are considered to be days of preparation. Hence, at this time, one is forbidden to put oneself in a situation where it will inevitably be necessary to violate the Sabbath laws because of pikuach nefesh, a threat to life. When, however, the siege is begun earlier, the situation will have already become part of the soldiers' functional reality before the preparations for the Sabbath have begun, and they will be permitted to violate the Sabbath laws, if necessary.

By mentioning this law in this context, the Rambam emphasizes that the issue with which he is concerned is ensuring, to the fullest extent possible, the soldiers' peace of mind.

46.

There are many people who get sea-sick on the first days of a journey. After three days have passed, however, they are likely to have grown accustomed to conditions aboard ship.

According to the Rambam, this prohibition applies only to ocean vessels, and not to river-boat traffic. There are, however, different rationales for the requirement to leave three days before the Sabbath. Among them:

a) By traveling on a ship, one goes beyond the Sabbath limits. Although there is an opinion that the Sabbath limits do not apply when one is ten handbreadths above the ground - as a ship usually is above the ocean or river bed - there is, nevertheless, no definitive ruling about the matter. (See Chapter 27, Halachah 3; see Maharik, Responsum 45.)

b) One may be forced to perform forbidden labor on the ship or, at the very least, have a gentile perform forbidden labors on one's behalf. (See Rivash, Responsum 152.)

With regard to both these matters, these follow the alternate view mentioned above: that within three days of the Sabbath, since the Sabbath preparations have begun, one is not allowed to put oneself into a situation where one will inevitably break the Sabbath laws. If, however, one has put oneself into such a situation before the commencement of the Sabbath preparations, the status is different.

In two of his responsa, the Rambam explains that the question of whether or not the Sabbath limits apply above ten handbreadths is relevant on dry land, but does not apply to water travel at all. Hence, it does not present a difficulty in the case at hand. His view is accepted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 248:2). Although the Ramah mentions objections, the later authorities (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 248:3-4) follow the Rambam's view.

With regard to the performance of work, the Radbaz writes that, according to the Rambam, one may never put oneself into a situation in which one knows that one will inevitably be forced to perform forbidden labors on the Sabbath. (See Be'ur Halachah 248.) The Ramah (Orach Chayim 248:2) and the subsequent Ashkenazic authorities definitely do not accept this position. Moreover. from the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.:4), it appears that the Sephardic community also agrees with the other view.

47.

See Chapter 24, Halachah 6 and notes, where this law was originally stated and explained. It is repeated here to emphasize that because there is a mitzvah, the discomfort that will be caused by the journey is overlooked.

48.

Two cities in Lebanon that are not far removed from each other.

49.

For such a short journey is not likely to disturb one's ordinary functioning.

50.

This applies to all people, not merely Torah scholars.

51.

And thus are not prevented from engaging in relations.

52.

Ketubot 62b interprets Psalms 1:3, "who gives its fruit in its season," as referring to a person who engages in sexual relations on Friday night and not on other occasions. This is the practice of Torah scholars, who generally engage in relations only once a week (Hilchot Ishut 14:1).

53.

For the hymenal blood is considered to be a distinct entity enclosed in the membrane, and thus this situation differs from others in which bleeding is caused (Rashi, Ketubot 7a).

Note the Magen Avraham 339:11, which mentions that witnesses should observe the yichud, the entry into a private chamber, of the bride and groom before the commencement of the Sabbath, so that all the contractual aspects of the marriage will have been completed at that time.

54.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Nedarim 3:9) derives the equivalence between the Sabbath and the entire Torah from Nechemiah 9:13-14: "On Mount Sinai You descended.... And You gave them straight judgments... and good statutes and commandments. And You informed them of Your holy Sabbath." The Maggid Mishneh explains that the Sabbath's central importance stems from the fact that it is a sign of God's constant renewal of creation.

Kinat Eliyahu explains the equivalence between the Sabbath and all the other mitzvot as follows: The dynamic spiritual activity of the Sabbath, carried out against a backdrop of rest and material satisfaction, reflects the goal and purpose of the totality of our Torah observance. It is for this reason that our Sages called the Sabbath "a microcosm of the world to come."

55.

The Rambam is borrowing the wording of Exodus 31:13,17.

56.

This ruling represents more than a moral condemnation. Not only is such a person not acceptable as a witness and ineligible to take an oath in court, but all the restrictions applied with regard to gentiles - e.g., the prohibitions against gentile wine, gentile milk, and gentile bread - are applied to him. Similarly, he may not be counted in a minyan, nor be given any honor in the synagogue. (See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:2.)

Many halachic authorities of the recent era (see Iggerot Moshe, Orach Chayim I, Responsum 33, and other sources) explain that there is room for leniency with regard to certain of these restrictions at present. Nevertheless, the overall attitude must still be one of stringency.

It must, however, be emphasized that the offspring of such Jews have a full portion in their Jewish heritage. Instead of shunning them, we must make every effort to draw them close to their spiritual roots. (See Hilchot Mamrim 3:3.)

57.

Which the Rambam considers to be the ultimate reward, as he writes in Hilchot Teshuvah, Chapter 8.

58.

It is the observance of the Sabbath that is described in the preceding verse in Isaiah, "And you shall call the Sabbath 'a delight...,' which makes one worthy of the rewards mentioned in this verse.

Eruvin - Chapter One

Introduction to Hilchos Eruvin

It contains one positive commandment of Rabbinic origin. It is not included in the reckoning [of the 613 mitzvot]. This mitzvah is explained in the chapters [that follow].

הלכות עירובין - הקדמה

מצוה עשה אחת והיא מדברי סופרים ואינה מן המנין: וביאור מצוה זו בפרקים אלו:

1

According to Torah law, when there are several neighbors dwelling in a courtyard, each in his private home, they are all permitted to carry within the entire courtyard, from the homes to the courtyard, and from the courtyard to the homes, because the entire courtyard is a private domain1 and it is permitted to carry within it in its entirety.

Similarly, regarding a lane that has a pole [positioned at its entrance] or a beam positioned [above it],2 all the inhabitants of the lane are permitted to carry3 in the entire [lane], and from the courtyards to the lane,4 and from the lane to the courtyards, for the entire lane is a private domain.

Similarly, all [the area within] a city that is surrounded by a wall that is [at least] ten handbreadths high and has gates that are locked at night5 is a private domain. This is the law of the Torah.

א

חצר שיש בה שכנים הרבה כל אחד מהם בבית לעצמו דין תורה הוא שיהיו כולן מותרין לטלטל בכל החצר ומבתים לחצר ומהחצר לבתים מפני שכל החצר רשות היחיד אחת ומותר לטלטל בכולה. וכן הדין במבוי שיש לו לחי או קורה שיהיו כל בני המבוי מותרים לטלטל בכולו ומחצרות למבוי וממבוי לחצרות שכל המבוי רשות היחיד הוא. וכן הדין במדינה שהיא מוקפת חומה גבוהה עשרה טפחים שיש לה דלתות וננעלות בלילה שכולה רשות היחיד היא. זה הוא דין תורה:

2

Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic decree, it is forbidden for the neighbors to carry within a private domain that is divided into different dwellings, unless all the inhabitants join together in an eruv before the commencement of the Sabbath.

This [restriction] applies to courtyards, lanes, and cities. It was instituted by [King] Solomon and his court.6

ב

אבל מדברי סופרים אסור לשכנים לטלטל ברשות היחיד שיש בה חלוקה בדיורין עד שיערבו כל השכנים כולן מערב שבת. אחד חצר ואחד מבוי ואחד המדינה. ודבר זה תקנת שלמה ובית דינו:

3

Similarly, people who dwell in tents,7 in booths, or in an encampment8 that is surrounded by a partition may not carry from tent to tent until they make an eruv. In contrast, [the members of] a caravan [who surround their encampment] with a partition are not required to [join in] an eruv.9 They may transfer articles from tent to tent without an eruv, for [the very nature of their circumstance] is considered to be an eruv, since these are not long-lasting dwellings.10

ג

וכן יושבי אהלים או סוכות או מחנה שהקיפוהו מחיצה אין מטלטלין מאהל לאהל עד שיערבו כולן. אבל שיירא שהקיפה מחיצה אין צריכין לערב אלא מוציאין מאהל לאהל בלא עירוב לפי שהן כולן מעורבין ואין אותן אהלים קבועים להן:

4

Why did [King] Solomon institute this [restriction]? So that the common people would not err and say, "Just as it is permitted to transfer articles from the courtyards to the streets of a city and its marketplaces, and to bring articles in [from these domains] to a courtyard, it is permitted to take articles from the city to the fields and from the fields to the city."

[Moreover, they would operate under the mistaken] impression that the marketplaces and streets - since they are the public domain - are like fields and deserts.11 [This would lead them to a further error, causing them to] say that only a courtyard is a private domain,12 and they would think that there is no prohibition against the transfer of articles, and that it is permitted to transfer articles from a private domain to a public domain [and from a public domain to a private domain].

ד

ומפני מה תיקן שלמה דבר זה. כדי שלא יטעו העם ויאמרו כשם שמותר להוציא מן החצרות לרחובות המדינה ושוקיה ולהכניס מהם לחצרות כך מותר להוציא מן המדינה לשדה ולהכניס מן השדה למדינה. ויחשבו שהשוקים והרחובות הואיל והן רשות לכל הרי הן כשדות וכמדברות ויאמרו שהחצרות בלבד הן רשות היחיד וידמו שאין ההוצאה מלאכה ושמותר להוציא ולהכניס מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים:

5

Therefore, [King Solomon] instituted [the following rules]: Whenever a private domain is divided into separate dwelling units that are considered the private property of the individuals, and an area remains that is the joint property of all individuals and all share in it equally - e.g., a courtyard with houses13 that open onto it - the area that is jointly owned is considered as a public domain. Similarly, every place that one of the neighbors owns as his private property and treats as his individual holding shall be considered as a private domain.

It is thus forbidden to transfer an article from a person's private property to the area that is owned jointly, just as it is forbidden to transfer from a private domain into the public domain. Instead, every person should contain his activities within his own property, unless an eruv is established, although [according to the Torah] the entire area is one private domain.

ה

לפיכך תיקן שכל רשות היחיד שתחלק בדיורין ויאחז כל אחד ואחד בה רשות לעצמו וישאר ממנה מקום ברשות כולן ויד כולן שוה בו כגון חצר לבתים. שנחשוב אותו המקום שיד כולן שוה בו כאילו הוא רשות לרבים. ונחשב כל מקום ומקום שאחז כל אחד מן השכנים וחלקו לעצמו שהוא בלבד רשות היחיד. ויהיה אסור להוציא מרשות שחלק לעצמו לרשות שיד כולם שוה בו. כמו שאין מוציאין מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים אלא ישתמש כל אחד ברשות שחלק לעצמו בלבד עד שיערבו כולן אף על פי שהכל רשות היחיד:

6

What is meant by an eruv? That all the individuals will join together in one [collection of] food before the commencement of the Sabbath. This serves as a declaration that they have all joined together and share food as one; none of them has [totally] private property. Instead, just as the jointly-owned area is the property of all, so too, everyone shares in the property that is privately owned. They are all joined in one domain.

[Performing] this act will prevent them from erring and thinking that it is permitted to transfer articles between a private domain and the public domain.

ו

ומה הוא העירוב הזה. הוא שיתערבו במאכל אחד שמניחין אותו מערב שבת. כלומר שכולנו מעורבין ואוכל אחד לכולנו ואין כל אחד ממנו חולק רשות מחבירו אלא כשם שיד כולנו שוה במקום זה שנשאר לכולנו כך יד כולנו שוה בכל מקום שיאחז כל אחד לעצמו והרי כולנו רשות אחד. ובמעשה הזה לא יבאו לטעות ולדמות שמותר להוציא ולהכניס מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים:

7

The eruv that the inhabitants of a courtyard make among themselves is referred to as eruvei chatzerot [the joining of the areas of courtyards]. [The joining together of] the inhabitants of a lane or of a city is referred to as shituf, [partnership].

ז

העירוב שעושים בני החצר זה עם זה הוא הנקרא עירובי חצירות. ושעושין אנשי מבוי זה עם זה או כל בני המדינה הוא הנקרא שתוף:

8

An eruv [joining together] the inhabitants of a courtyard may not be made with anything other than a whole loaf of bread.14 Even if a loaf of bread is a se'ah15 in size, but it is sliced, it may not be used for an eruv. If it is whole, even if it is as small as an isar,16 it may be used for an eruv.17

Just as an eruv may be made using a loaf of bread made from grain,18 so too, may it be made with a loaf of bread made from rice19 or lentils. A loaf of bread made from millet, by contrast, may not be used.20

The shituf [for a lane or for a city, by contrast, may be made using] either bread or other foods.21 For we may use any food for a shituf, with the exception of water and salt. Similarly, mushrooms and truffles may not be used for a shituf, because they are not considered to be foods.22

[The restriction against using water and salt applies only] when they are set aside as separate entities. If one mixes water and salt, this is considered to be brine, and may be used for a shituf.23

ח

אין מערבין בחצירות אלא בפת שלמה בלבד אפילו ככר מאפה סאה והיא פרוסה אין מערבין בה. היתה שלמה והיא כאיסר מערבין בה. וכשם שמערבין בפת תבואה כך מערבין בפת אורז ובפת עדשים אבל לא בפת דוחן. ושתוף בין בפת בין בשאר אוכלים. בכל אוכל משתתפין חוץ מן המים בפני עצמן או מלח בפני עצמו. וכן כמהין ופטריות אין משתתפין בהן שאינן חשובין כאוכלים. ערב מים עם מלח נעשה כמורייס ומשתתפין:

9

What quantity of food is necessary to establish a shituf? A measure equal to the size of a dried fig24 for every inhabitant of the lane or of the city, provided there are eighteen or less. If, however, there are more than [eighteen inhabitants], the minimum measure [of the shituf] is [an amount of] food [sufficient] for two meals - i.e., an amount equivalent to eighteen dried figs, which is equivalent to the measure of six medium-size eggs.25 Even if thousands and myriads of people desire to make use [of this shituf], [all that is necessary] is [an amount of] food [sufficient] for two meals.

ט

וכמה שיעור האוכל שמשתתפין בו כגרוגרת לכל אחד ואחד מבני המבוי או מבני המדינה. והוא שיהיו שמונה עשרה או פחות. אבל אם היו מרובים על זה שיעורו שתי סעודות שהן כשמונה עשרה גרוגרות שהן כשש ביצים בינוניות. אפילו היו המשתתפין אלפים ורבבות שתי סעודות לכולן:

10

When a shituf is made using any food that is eaten without further cooking - e.g., a loaf of bread, certain species of grain, or raw meat - the minimum measure is the [amount of] food [sufficient] for two meals.26

When the food in question is a side dish - i.e., something that people customarily eat together with bread - e.g., cooked wine, roasted meat, vinegar, fish brine, olives, and onion heads - the minimum measure is an amount sufficient to accompany two meals.27

י

כל אוכל שהוא נאכל כמות שהוא כגון פת ומיני דגן ובשר חי אם נשתתפו בו שיעורו מזון שתי סעודות. וכל שהוא לפתן ודרך העם לאכול בו פתן כגון יין מבושל ובשר צלי וחומץ ומורייס וזיתים ואמהות של בצלים שיעורו כדי לאכול בו שתי סעודות:

11

When fresh wine28 is used for a shituf, two revi'iot are required for every [participant]. Similarly, if beer is used, two revi'iot [are required].

If eggs are used, [the minimum measure] is two; they may be used for a shituf even when raw. [Other minimum measures are:] two pomegranates,29 one etrog, five nuts, five peaches, a Roman pound of vegetables - whether raw or cooked; if [the vegetables] are lightly, but not thoroughly, cooked, they may not be used;30 an uchla31 of spices, a kav of dates, a kav of dried figs, a maneh of crushed figs, a kav of apples, a handful of cuscuta,32 a handful of fresh beans, a Roman pound of lichen.33

Beets are considered vegetables and may be used for an eruv. Onion leaves may not be used for an eruv unless they are already grown, and the length of each leaf is at least that of a spread-out hand. If they are not this long, they are not considered to be food.34

All these types of food are considered to be side dishes; therefore, they have been given these measures. The same principles apply in other similar situations. All foods can be combined to reach the minimum measure required for a shituf.35

יא

נשתתפו ביין חי שיעורו שתי רביעיות לכולן. וכן בשכר שתי רביעיות. ביצים שתים ומשתתפין בהן ואפילו הן חיות. ורמונים שנים. אתרוג אחד. חמשה אגוזים. חמשה אפרסקים. ליטרא של ירק בין חי בין שלוק ואם היה בשיל ולא בשיל אין מערבין בו לפי שאין ראוי לאכילה. עוכלא תבלין. קב תמרים. קב גרוגרות. מנה דבילה. קב תפוחין. כשות כמלוא היד. פולין לחין כמלוא היד. חזין ליטרא. והתרדין הרי הן בכלל הירק ומערבין בהן. עלי בצלים אין מערבין בהן. אלא אם הבצילו ונעשה אורך כל עלה מהן זרת. אבל פחות מכאן אינו אוכל. וכל אלו הדברים האמורין כלפתן הן. ולפיכך נתנו בהן שיעורין אלו וכל כיוצא בהן וכל האוכלין מצטרפין לשיעור השיתוף:

12

Whenever the term Roman pound is mentioned, it refers to [a measure equal to] two36 full revi'iot.37 An uchla is half a revi'it; a maneh, one hundred dinarim; a dinar, six ma'ah; a ma'ah, the weight of sixteen barley corns;38 a sela, four dinarim.

A revi'it contains an amount of water or wine39 equivalent to approximately seventeen and one half dinarim. Thus, a Roman pound is equivalent in weight to 35 dinarim, and an uchla is equivalent in weight to eight and three-quarter dinarim.

יב

ליטרא האמורה בכל מקום מלא שתי רביעיות. ועוכלא חצי רביעית. ומנה האמורה בכל מקום מאה דינר. והדינר שש מעין. והמעה משקל שש עשרה שעורות. והסלע ארבעה דינרין. והרביעית מחזקת מן המים או מן היין משקל שבעה עשר דינרין וחצי דינר בקירוב. נמצא הליטרא משקל חמשה ושלשים דינר. והעוכלא משקל תשעה דינרין פחות רביע:

13

Whenever the term se'ah is mentioned, it refers to [a measure equal to] six kabbim. A kav is four logim, and a log is four revi'iot. We have already defined the measure and the weight of a revi'it.40 These measurements are necessary for a person to remember at all times.

יג

סאה האמורה בכל מקום ששת קבין. והקב ארבעה לוגין. והלוג ארבע רביעיות. וכבר בארנו מדת הרביעית ומשקלה. ואלו השיעורין שאדם צריך לזכור אותן תמיד:

14

[All] food that is permitted to be eaten, even if the person who uses it is forbidden to partake of it, may be used for an eruv41 or for a shituf.

What is implied? A nazirite42 may establish a shituf using wine, and an Israelite [may establish a shituf using] terumah.43 Similarly, a person who takes a vow or an oath not to partake44 of a particular food may use it for an eruv or a shituf. For if it is not fit for one person [to partake of], it is fit for another.

יד

אוכל שהוא מותר באכילה אף על פי שהוא אסור לזה המערב הרי זה מערב בו ומשתתף בו. כיצד משתתף הנזיר ביין וישראל בתרומה. וכן הנודר מאוכל זה או שנשבע שלא יאכלנו מערב בו ומשתתף בו. שאם אינו ראוי לזה הרי הוא ראוי לאחר:

15

A forbidden [food] - e.g., tevel,45 even food that is considered tevel only by Rabbinic decree46, the first tithe from which terumah was improperly taken,47 or the second tithe or consecrated articles that were not redeemed in the proper manner48 - by contrast, may not be used for an eruv or a shituf.

We may, however, use d'mai49 for an eruv or a shituf, since it is fit to be used by the poor. Similarly, we may use the first tithe after terumah was removed, and the second tithe or consecrated articles that were redeemed, even if the [additional] fifth of their value was not paid.50 For [failure to give] the [additional] fifth does not [void the redemption of these articles].

We may use the second tithe in Jerusalem, since it is fit to be eaten there, but [it may] not [be used] outside [that city].

טו

אבל דבר האסור לכל כגון טבל אפילו טבל של דברי סופרים. וכן מעשר ראשון שלא נטלה תרומתו כהוגן. וכן מעשר שני והקדש שלא נפדו כהלכה. אין מערבין ומשתתפין בהן. אבל מערבין ומשתתפין בדמאי מפני שראוי לעניים. ובמעשר ראשון שניטלה תרומתו ובמעשר שני והקדש שנפדו אע"פ שלא נתן את החומש שאין החומש מעכב. ומערבין במעשר שני בירושלים מפני שהוא ראוי שם לאכילה אבל לא בגבולין:

16

How is an eruv [joining the entire area of] a courtyard together established? We collect a complete loaf of bread from every house51 and place all [the loaves] in a single container52 in one of the houses of the courtyard.53 Even a granary, a barn, or a storehouse [is acceptable for this purpose]. If, however, the eruv was placed in a gatehouse - even a gatehouse belonging to a private individual - an exedra,54 a porch, or a house that is not four cubits by four cubits, it is not considered an eruv.

When the eruv is gathered together,55 one recites the blessing: "Blessed be You, God, our Lord, King of the Universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us56 concerning the mitzvah of the eruv." [Afterwards,] one says, "With this eruv, all the inhabitants of this courtyard will be permitted to bring objects in and out from one house to another."57

A minor may collect [the bread for] the eruv [joining the entire area of] a courtyard together. The house in which the eruv is placed need not give a loaf of bread.58 If [the inhabitants of a courtyard] ordinarily place [the eruv in one house], as an expression of "the ways of peace"59 it is proper that they should not change [to another home].

טז

כיצד מערבין בחצירות גובין חלה אחת שלימה מכל בית ובית ומניחין הכל בכלי אחד בבית אחד מבתי החצר אפילו בבית התבן או בבית הבקר או בבית האוצר. אבל אם נתנו בבית שער אפילו בית שער של יחיד או באכסדרה או במרפסת או בבית שאין בו ארבע אמות על ארבע אמות אינו עירוב. וכשמקבץ העירוב מברך ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות עירוב. ואומר בעירוב זה יהיה מותר לכל בני החצר להוציא ולהכניס מבית לבית בשבת. ויש לקטן לגבות עירובי חצרות. ובית שמניחין בו עירוב אינו צריך ליתן את הפת. ואם היו רגילין להניח בו אין משנין אותו מפני דרכי שלום:

17

How is a shituf established for a lane? We collect [an amount of food] equivalent to the size of a dried fig from each and every person - or less than this amount,60 if many people are involved. The entire amount is placed in a single container in one of the courtyards in the lane, or in one of the homes. [It is even acceptable] to place it in a small home, in an exedra, or in a porch. If, however, one leaves it in the open space of the lane, it is not acceptable.61

If one leaves the container in one of the courtyards, one must lift the container at least a handbreadth above the ground of the courtyard, so that it will be obvious.62 [When making the shituf,] one recites the blessing, "... concerning the mitzvah of the eruv,"63 and says, "With this shituf, it will be permitted for all the inhabitants of this lane to bring objects in and out - from the lane to the courtyard and from the courtyard to the lane - on the Sabbath."64

יז

וכיצד משתתפין במבוי. גובה אוכל כגרוגרת מכל אחד ואחד או פחות מכגרוגרת אם היו מרובין. ומניח הכל בכלי אחד בחצר מחצרות המבוי או בבית מן הבתים אפילו בית קטן או אכסדרה או מרפסת הרי זה שיתוף. אבל אם הניחו באויר מבוי אינו שיתוף. ואם הניח הכלי בחצר צריך להגביה הכלי מן הקרקע טפח כדי שיהיה ניכר. ומברך על מצות עירוב. ואומר בזה השיתוף יהיה מותר לכל בני המבוי להוציא ולהכניס מחצרות למבוי בשבת:

18

If one divides the eruv or the shituf, it is no longer effective. [This ruling applies] even if [all the portions of the eruv] are located in a single home. If, however, one fills a container with the eruv and there remains some food that one put in a second container, it is acceptable.65

יח

חלקו את העירוב או את השיתוף אף על פי שהוא בבית אחד אינו עירוב. אבל אם מלאו את הכלי מן העירוב ונשאר ממנו מעט והניחוהו בכלי אחר מותר:

19

The participants in a shituf in a lane must, nevertheless, also make an eruv in their [respective] courtyards, so that their children will not forget the laws of an eruv.66For this reason, if bread67 is used as a shituf in a lane, [the inhabitants] may rely on it, and are not required to make an eruv for the courtyards, for the children will take notice of the bread.68

If a group of people were participating in a feast together, and the Sabbath commenced, they may rely on the bread on the table before them as an eruv for the courtyard.69 If they desire to rely on this bread as a shituf for a lane,70 they may, even though they are dining in a courtyard.

יט

המשתתפין במבוי צריכים לערב בחצירות כדי שלא ישכחו התינוקות תורת עירוב. שהרי אין התינוקות מכירין מה נעשה במבוי. לפיכך אם נשתתפו במבוי בפת סומכין עליו ואין צריכין לערב בחצרות שהרי התינוקות מכירין בפת. בני חבורה שהיו מסובין וקדש עליהן היום פת שעל השלחן סומכין עליה משום עירובי חצירות. ואם רצו לסמוך עליה משום שיתוף סומכין אף על פי שהן מסובין בחצר:

20

[A person may establish an eruv on behalf of others. For example,] if one of the inhabitants of a courtyard takes bread and says, "Behold, this is for all the inhabitants of the courtyard," or he took an amount of food equivalent to two meals, and says, "This is for all the inhabitants of the lane," he does not have to collect food from each individual. He must, however, [give their portion] to another person,71 who will acquire it on their behalf.72

One's son or daughter who has reached majority,73 one's Hebrew servant,74 and one's wife may take possession on behalf of others. Neither a son nor a daughter below the age of majority, nor a Canaanite servant or maidservant has this prerogative, because they do not have independent financial status.75

Similarly, a Hebrew maidservant may take possession on behalf of others, even though she is below the age of majority,76 for a minor may take possession on behalf of others regarding a matter of Rabbinic law.

A person need not inform the inhabitants of a lane or a courtyard that he has granted them [a portion of food] and established an eruv for them, for these deeds are to their benefit, and a person may grant a colleague benefit without the latter's knowledge.77

כ

לקח אחד מבני החצר פת אחת ואמר הרי זו לכל בני החצר או שהוא אוכל כשתי סעודות ואמר הרי זה לכל בני המבוי אינו צריך לגבות מכל אחד ואחד. אבל צריך לזכות להן בו על ידי אחר. ויש לו לזכות על ידי בנו ובתו הגדולים ועל ידי עבדו העברי ועל ידי אשתו. אבל לא על ידי בנו ובתו הקטנים ולא על ידי עבדו ושפחתו הכנענים מפני שידן כידו. וכן יש לו לזכות להן על ידי שפחתו העברית אף על פי שהיא קטנה. שהקטן זוכה לאחרים בדבר שהוא מדברי סופרים. ואינו צריך להודיע לבני החצר או לבני המבוי שהרי זכה להן ועירב עליהן שזכות היא להן וזכין לו לאדם שלא בפניו:

21

Neither an eruv nor a shituf may be established on the Sabbath. Instead, they must be established before nightfall. One may, however, establish an eruv for a courtyard78 and a shituf for a lane beyn hash'mashot,79 even though there is a doubt whether that time period is considered to be part of the day or part of the night.

The eruv and the shituf must always be accessible, so that one may partake of it throughout the time of beyn hash'mashot.80 For this reason, if, before nightfall, an avalanche fell upon it, it was lost or burned, or it was terumah and became impure, it is not considered to be an eruv. If the above took place after nightfall, the eruv is acceptable. If one is in doubt when this took place, the eruv is acceptable, because whenever a doubt arises whether an eruv is acceptable or not, it is considered acceptable.81

כא

אין מערבין ולא משתתפין בשבת אלא מבעוד יום. ומערבין עירובי חצרות ושתופי מבואות בין השמשות אף על פי שהוא ספק מן היום ספק מן הלילה. ולעולם צריך שיהא העירוב או השיתוף מצוי ואפשר לאכלו כל בין השמשות. לפיכך אם נפל עליו גל או אבד או נשרף או שהיה תרומה ונטמאת מבעוד יום אינו עירוב. משחשיכה הרי זה עירוב. ואם ספק הרי זה עירוב שספק העירוב כשר:

22

[The following rules apply when] an eruv or a shituf was placed in a tower, [the tower] was locked, and the key was lost before nightfall: If it is impossible to remove the eruv without performing [a forbidden] labor82 beyn hash'mashot, it is considered as if it had been lost. Therefore, the eruv is not acceptable, for it is impossible for it to be eaten.

If a person separated terumat ma'aser83 or terumah, and made a stipulation that the sacred status not be conveyed [upon these entities] until nightfall, they may not be used for an eruv. [The reason is that] beyn hash'mashot, they are still tevel,84 and [the food used for an eruv must be fit to be eaten before nightfall.

כב

נתן העירוב או השיתוף במגדל ונעל עליו ואבד המפתח קודם שחשיכה אם אי אפשר לו להוציא העירוב אלא אם כן עשה מלאכה בין השמשות הרי זה כמי שאבד ואינו עירוב שהרי אי אפשר לאכלו. הפריש תרומת מעשר או תרומה גדולה והתנה עליה שלא תהיה תרומה עד שתחשך אין מערבין בה שעדיין היא טבל כל בין השמשות וצריך שתהיה סעודה הראויה מבעוד יום

Footnotes
1.

Included in this private domain are all the houses located in the courtyard.

2.

See Hilchot Shabbat 17:2,9.

3.

The Maggid Mishneh notes that according to Torah law [op. cit.; see also the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Eruvin 1:2) ], it is permitted to carry within a lane, even though it does not have a pole or a beam. Nevertheless, it is then considered a makom patur and not a private domain.

4.

As obvious from Hilchot Shabbat 17:2,8, a lane is an area enclosed by three walls and into which several courtyards open.

5.

Based on the Rambam's statements in Hilchot Shabbat 17:10, the Maggid Mishneh and the Radbaz (Vol. V, Responsum 1508) state that the gates of the city need not actually be locked at night; it is sufficient that they are able to be locked.

6.

Eruvin 21b states that when King Solomon instituted the requirement for eruvin, a heavenly voice resounded, quoting Proverbs 23:15: "My son, if your heart is wise, My heart will also rejoice."

Sefer HaMitzvot Gadol asks why this requirement was not instituted in an earlier time, and quotes a letter of Rav Hai Gaon that explains that prior to King Solomon's era, the Jews were very heavily involved in wars (to conquer the land of Canaan, and then to protect themselves from the Philistines and others). It was not until King Solomon's time that the land was blessed with peace. Since an army camp is not obligated to heed the restrictions of eruvin (Hilchot Melachim 6:13), the practice was not instituted until the age when peace became the norm in Eretz Yisrael.

7.

These all refer to dwellings that are intended to endure for an extended period (Maggid Mishneh).

8.

This refers to a camp other than an army camp, as mentioned in Note 6.

9.

The Rashba and the Ritba differ from the Rambam on this point and maintain that the travelers in a caravan are required to establish an eruv, and the dwellers of a camp are not. Note the explanation of their difference of opinion in the Be'ur Halachah 366.

10.

As mentioned in Halachah 2, the obligation to establish an eruv was instituted to apply to people living in separate dwellings in a single domain. Since these structures are not enduring by nature, the people are not considered to be living in separate dwellings, and the restriction against carrying is therefore not instituted. (See Mishnah Berurah 366:12.)

11.

See Hilchot Shabbat 14:1 and notes, which discuss the Rambam's opinion that deserts are a public domain.

12.

The Lechem Mishneh comments that according to this logic, it would be unnecessary to forbid taking articles out from homes to a courtyard. He continues, explaining that this restriction is also necessary so that children who are knowledgeable only about what goes on in their homes and the adjacent courtyard will be aware of the obligation of making an eruv.

13.

In this halachah, the Rambam is clarifying that the distinctions between different domains with regard to the laws of ownership could create confusion with regard to the domains of the Sabbath. As a safeguard, King Solomon instituted the laws of eruvin.

The Tosafot Yom Tov (Eruvin 7:1) maintains that it is the Rambam's view that a group of houses adjacent to each other without a courtyard does not require an eruv; that is necessary only when there is jointly owned property in the private domain. The Tosafot Yom Tov himself differs from this position and requires an eruv in such a situation. In practice, it is not customary to require an eruv unless there is jointly owned property in the domain.

14.

Eruvin 81a states that this law was instituted to prevent quarrels among neighbors that might arise if one gave a whole loaf and one gave only a portion of a loaf. As stated in Halachah 16, every family in the courtyard gives a whole loaf. (See the notes on that halachah.) The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 366:7) states, however, that if an eruv is established by one person on behalf of others, without collecting flour or loaves of bread from the other inhabitants of the courtyard, it is possible to use a loaf that is not whole.

15.

A large measure of grain, approximately 8 kilogram in contemporary measure.

16.

A small Italian silver coin, weighing four barley corns (Hilchot Shekalim 1:3).

17.

From the Rambam's wording, it would appear that there is no minimum measure required for the size of the loaf; as long as it is whole, it is sufficient, regardless of how many people dwell in the courtyard. Rav Moshe HaCohen and others differ, interpreting Eruvin 80b as requiring the loaf to be large enough to include a measure the size of a dried fig for each of the inhabitants (as the Rambam states in the following halachah regarding a shituf). It is Rav Moshe HaCohen's view that is accepted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 366:6, 368:3).

18.

I.e., wheat, barley, spelt, oats, and rye.

19.

Based on the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Sh'vi'it 2:7), we have translated אורז as rice, and דוחן as millet. There are, however, different opinions concerning this matter. (See Magen Avraham 208:9; Turei Zahav 208:11.)

20.

For it is not common to make bread from millet.

21.

Rashi (Eruvin 71b) explains the difference between the eruv established in a courtyard and the shituf established in a lane as follows: An eruv is necessary in order to consider all of the dwellings as the mutually-owned property of all the members of the courtyard. Since the establishment of a location as a dwelling is a significant halachic act, it is necessary to use a significant food, bread. In contrast, the shituf joining together different courtyards is a far looser arrangement. Hence, other foods are also acceptable.

22.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Eruvin 3:1), the Rambam explains that mushrooms and truffles are a very base type of food. Hence, they are not considered acceptable.

In his gloss on the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 386:5), the Vilna Gaon writes that the exclusion does not apply to cooked mushrooms and truffles, for they are considered foods of high quality. Sefer HaKovetz differs and refutes all the proofs brought by the Vilna Gaon.

23.

By themselves, these are considered to be fit to prepare food, but not to be foods themselves (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, loc. cit.). When mixed together as brine, they are suitable as a dip.

When quoting this ruling, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 386:5) mentions the opinion of Tosafot (loc. cit.) that the brine must also be mixed with oil. Without this, the brine is unfit for use as a dip.

24.

As stated in Hilchot Shabbat 18:1, one is liable for t ransferring an amount of food equal to the size of a dried fig from one domain to another. Therefore, this is the size of the measure chosen to establish a shituf. (See Eruvin 80b.)

25.

According to Shiurei Torah, the size of an egg is 57.6 milliliters.; according to the Chazon Ish, it is 100 milliliters.

See also the Kessef Mishneh, who notes that based on Eruvin 82b-83a, there is an apparent contradiction between the Rambam's ruling here and his ruling in Hilchot Tum'at Ochalin 4:1. Nevertheless, a deeper analysis of the text in Eruvin allows for a resolution of both decisions.

Note also the Shulchan Aruch HaRav 368:3 which mentions an opinion that the measure is slightly less than the size of eight eggs. Since there are many halachic factors dependent on this measure, e.g., the measure of כדי אכילת פרס, the ruling is very significant.

26.

The principle on which this halachah is based is expressed by Eruvin 29b: "For side dishes [that are eaten together with bread], the minimum measure is the amount [of these dishes] eaten at two meals. For food that is not a side dish, an amount large enough to eat two meals from it."

In Talmudic times, bread was the staple food that was generally served as the basis for a meal. Smaller quantities of other foods were also eaten at a meal, together with bread as "side dishes." Accordingly, if the food in question is usually eaten together with bread as a side dish, it is necessary to bring only the quantity that would usually be consumed as a side dish in a meal. If, however, the food is not usually eaten with bread, but instead is itself a staple that can be used as a staple instead of bread, the full amount necessary for two meals is required.

27.

The Rambam gives several examples of the minimum amounts required for side dishes in the following halachah.

28.

In contrast to the cooked wine mentioned in the previous halachah.

29.

See Hilchot Matnot Ani'im 6:8, which mentions this and several of the other measures cited by the Rambam in this halachah as "sufficient to satisfy" a poor man, and therefore fit to be given to him as "the tithe of the poor." Significantly, there it mentions "ten nuts," leading the Maggid Mishneh to consider amending the text here.

30.

Raw vegetables are eaten in salads, and cooked vegetables are eaten as foods, but partially cooked vegetables are not eaten at all. The Ra'avad maintains that this restriction applies only to beets, but the Maggid Mishneh explains that the same rationale - and therefore the same ruling - applies to other vegetables as well.

31.

The Rambam defines this and several of the other measures he mentions in the following halachah.

32.

A parasitic plant that grows on shrubs.

33.

A wild plant that is occasionally used for food. Some commentaries reverse the definitions of cuscuta and lichen.

34.

When the leaves grow long, they are called scallions and are edible. Before they grow long, however, they are bitter, and unfit to be used.

35.

The Rambam's statements are based on the statements of the Mishnah (Me'ilah 4:7), which he interprets as referring to both an eruv t'chumim (an eruv to extend the Sabbath boundaries) and a shituf. The Ra'avad differs and maintains that the reference is only to an eruv t'chumim. Significantly, in his Commentary on the Mishnah (Me'ilah, loc. cit.), the Rambam mentions only an eruv t'chumim, seeming to imply that he originally held the same view as the Ra'avad. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 386:4) follows the ruling of the Rambam in this halachah.

36.

Rashi differs and defines a Roman pound as equaling a log, four revi'iot.

37.

A revi'it, the measure on which all the other measures mentioned in this halachah is based, is 86.4 milliliters according to Shiurei Torah, and 150 milliliters according to the Chazon Ish.

38.

See also Hilchot Shekalim 1:3.

39.

Rav Moshe HaCohen objects to the Rambam's statements, because equal volumes of wine and water are not equal in weight.

40.

In Hilchot Tefillah 15:4, the Rambam defines a revi'it as the volume of an area two fingerbreadths by two fingerbreadths, which is two and seven tenths of a fingerbreadth high.

41.

This refers to an eruv t'chumim, for, as stated in Halachah 8, an eruv for a courtyard may be established only with bread.

42.

Who may not partake of wine (Numbers 6:3).

43.

Although it may be eaten only by a priest (Leviticus 22:10, Numbers 18:12).

Although this law is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 386:8), Shulchan Aruch HaRav 386:8 and the Mishnah Berurah 386:47 note that in the present age, even the priests are ritually impure, and are therefore forbidden to partake of terumah. Hence, terumah may no longer be used for an eruv.

44.

According to Rabbenu Asher and the Tur (Orach Chayim 386), the word "partake" is exact. Were a person to vow not to benefit from a food, he would be forbidden from using it for this purpose. (Others differ and maintain that since "the mitzvot were not given for our benefit," using the food for an eruv does not violate one's vow.) Shulchan Aruch HaRav, loc. cit., suggests that one should be stringent and follow the Tur's ruling.

45.

Food from which terumah and the tithes have not been separated, and that is hence forbidden to be eaten. The Rambam's choice of foods is based on Berachot 7:1, which mentions that a blessing should not be recited when partaking of the foods mentioned in the first grouping, because they are forbidden. In contrast, a blessing should be recited over those in the second grouping. (See also Hilchot Berachot 1:19-20.)

46.

E.g., produce that grows in containers (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Berachot, loc. cit.).

47.

This refers to an instance in which the first tithe was separated before terumah. Before it is permitted to partake of the tithe, it is necessary to separate terumah from it (ibid.).

48.

The second tithe may be eaten only in Jerusalem, and consecrated a rticles may not be used for mundane purposes. These articles may be redeemed and then used for mundane purposes. In this instance, however, we are speaking about a situation where the redemption was improperly performed - e.g., one used uncoined metal (ibid.).

49.

Produce from which we are unsure whether the tithes were separated or not. (See Hilchot Ma'aser 9:1.)

50.

When the second tithe or consecrated articles are being redeemed, it is necessary to add an additional fifth of the article's value. Nevertheless, once the value of the article itself is paid, even though the additional fifth is still outstanding, the article is considered redeemed and may be used for mundane purposes. (See Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 5:12.)

51.

The Ra'avad and Rav Moshe HaCohen differ with the Rambam and state that it was customary to collect a portion of flour from all the houses in the courtyard and then to bake a single loaf from it. Others mention the custom that one person would bake a loaf from his own flour and grant everyone a portion in it. (See Ramah, Orach Chayim 366:6.)

52.

See Halachah 18.

53.

The place where the eruv is stored must be fit to serve as a dwelling. All the examples that the Rambam mentions as acceptable can serve as a dwelling if necessary. By contrast, all those that he mentions as unacceptable are not fit to serve as a dwelling.

The Ramah (loc. cit.:3) states that since, at present, since a shituf is established for a larger area, it is unnecessary to be placed in a dwelling. For this reason, it is permitted - and this is indeed the custom - to place the eruvin in the synagogue.

54.

A Greek architectural structure with two or three walls.

55.

For the blessing should be recited before the mitzvah is carried out. The Beit Yosef (Orach Chayim 395) states that it is preferable to recite the blessing before one begins gathering the bread or the flour from each household. The later authorities, however, state that one may recite the blessing after completing the collection (Shulchan Aruch Harav 366:18; Mishnah Berurah 366:81).

56.

Even though the mitzvah of establishing an eruv was ordained by our Sages, it is proper to praise God when fulfilling His commandments, because carrying out the decrees of the Sages also fulfills God's commandments (Hilchot Berachot 11:3).

57.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 366:15) states that one should add "And from the courtyard to the houses and from the houses to the courtyard."

58.

Eruvin 49a explains that by having the loaf of bread they gave for the eruv located in a house, the other people who join in the eruv show that they have the right to dwell in that house. The person who actually dwells in the house where the eruv is kept, by contrast, does not need any further indication that it is his home.

59.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Gittin 5:8), the Rambam explains that since the person in whose home the eruv is kept benefits (for he does not have to contribute toward it), it is proper to continue offering him this benefit. The commentaries note that this interpretation appears to differ from that of the Talmud (Gittin 60b), which states that it should be kept in the original house because of "suspicion." (According to Rashi, this means the suspicion that will arise when people enter the house where the eruv is usually held, and see that there is no eruv there; according to Tosafot, it is intended to belie the suspicion that the place of the eruv was changed because the person in whose house it was kept stole from it.)

60.

See Halachah 9.

61.

I.e., the governing principle is that the shituf must be kept in a protected place. A courtyard is acceptable for this purpose, because it is the private property of the inhabitants of the houses that adjoin it. The lane itself, however, is public property, and therefore unacceptable.

62.

The Maggid Mishneh quotes geonim who agree with the Rambam, but also other authorities who state that lifting up the container is necessary only when the container belongs to another person and he is granting the inhabitants of the lane the right to use it. To manifest their acquisition, they are required to lift it up a handbreadth above the ground.

In the Kessef Mishneh, Rav Yosef Karo explains that, according to the Rambam, it makes no difference if the container is held in a courtyard or in a home; it should always be lifted a handbreadth above the ground so that it will be obvious. Nevertheless, in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 386:9), Rav Karo quotes the other opinion mentioned by the Maggid Mishneh.

63.

One may use the term eruv, which means "joining," since a shituf also involves a joining together of all the courtyards in the lane (Mishnah Berurah 395:2). Even when one fails to recite the blessing, the shituf is still effective (Ramah, Orach Chayim 395:1).

64.

The Ramah (loc. cit.) states that one should also add "from the courtyards to the houses" in this statement. (See Halachah 19 and notes.)

65.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that both these containers must be located in the same house. This stipulation is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 366:4).

Commenting on this ruling, the Mishnah Berurah notes that when a shituf is made for an entire community, it should be placed in one synagogue. It is not proper to divide it and place a portion in each of the community's synagogues.

66.

Although a lane is a private domain according to the Torah, and one might therefore assume that a single shituf would be sufficient, Eruvin 71b requires that the inhabitants of the courtyards establish eruvin. Otherwise, it is possible that their children will grow up and carry in a courtyard without establishing either a shituf or an eruv because of their ignorance of the matter.

67.

The bread must be a whole loaf, and it must be placed within a house. Otherwise, it is unacceptable for use as an eruv (Mishnah Berurah 387:6).

It is customary to use bread (more particularly, matzah) as a shituf and to place the shituf for the entire community in the synagogue. This creates a slight difficulty, because a synagogue may not be used as a dwelling. The Ramah (366:3, 387:1) uses this as support for his thesis that at present, once a shituf is made, there is no need for the courtyards to make eruvin. (See also Chapter 5, Halachot 13-14.)

68.

Since bread is the staple of our diet, it will be noticed by the children (Beit Yosef, Orach Chayim 387).

69.

Provided they are eating within a house (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 366:11).

70.

The Maggid Mishneh states that this law applies regardless o f whether the food was owned mutually, or belonged to one person. For, as stated in the following halachah, a person may grant others a portion in his food, and establish an eruv or a shituf on this basis.

71.

In the Kessef Mishneh, Rav Yosef Karo mentions opinions that require the person who receives the food on behalf of the inhabitants of the courtyard or the lane to live there himself, as well. He, however, appears to reject this view and does not mention it in the Shulchan Aruch.

72.

I.e., the person gives the bread or the food to the recipient and asks him to take possession of it on behalf of all the inhabitants of the courtyard or the lane. Afterwards, since they have a share in the food, it is considered as though they had contributed toward the eruv.

73.

In this ruling, the Rambam follows the simple interpretation of the Mishnah (Eruvin 7:6). Tosafot (Eruvin 79b) differs and interprets the words קטנים and גדולים in terms of financial dependence. קטנים refers to children dependent on their parents even if they are past the age of majority. גדולים refers to children independent of their parents even if they are below the age of majority.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 366:10) states that at the outset, it is desirable to satisfy both views. After the fact, as the Ramah states explicitly, as long as a person made an eruv in accordance with either of these opinions, it is acceptable.

74.

Because the financial status of a Hebrew servant is independent of that of his master.

75.

The Hebrew term for this expression (quoted by the Rambam from Eruvin, loc. cit.) is ידם כידו - literally, "their hand is like his hand." Since they have no independent financial status, it is as if the article has never left the possession of its original owner.

76.

Although she is a minor, her status differs from that of the owner's children, because she is not at home.

77.

This principle applies in several different financial contexts. If a person takes possession of an article on behalf of a colleague, it becomes the latter's property even though he himself is unaware of the transaction. (See also Chapter 5, Halachot 4 and 23.)

78.

An eruv extending one's Sabbath boundaries, by contrast, s hould be established before sunset. (See Chapter 6, Halachah 13.)

79.

The time between sunset and the appearance of three stars.

80.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 14.

81.

Since the requirement to establish an eruv is a Rabbinic institution, we follow the principle: Whenever a doubt arises regarding a question of Rabbinic law, the more lenient option is followed.

82.

This refers to a labor forbidden by the Torah itself. If the act is forbidden merely by Rabbinic law, the eruv is acceptable, for a sh'vut is not forbidden beyn hash'mashot (Maggid Mishneh). (See Chapter 6, Halachah 10, and Hilchot Shabbat 24:10.)

83.

The tenth of the tithe, which the Levites must give to the priests.

84.

I.e., it is as if the terumah or the terumat ma'aser had not been separated at all. (See also Chapter 6, Halachah 16.)

Eruvin - Chapter Two

1

When all the inhabitants of a courtyard, with one exception, have established an eruv, this individual [causes carrying] to be forbidden.1 [This rule applies regardless of whether the person failed to join the eruv] because of a willful decision2 or because of an oversight. [In such a situation,] it is forbidden for all the inhabitants to transfer articles from their homes to the courtyard or from the courtyard to their homes.

Should the person who did not join in the eruv subordinate3 the ownership of merely [his share] of the courtyard [to the others],4 they are permitted to carry from their homes to the courtyard and from the courtyard to their homes.5 [They may not,] however, carry to the home [of this individual].

If he subordinates the ownership of his house and [of his share] of the courtyard [to the others], they are all permitted to carry. The others are permitted, because he subordinated the ownership of his house and [of his share] of the courtyard to them. He is also permitted to carry, because he no longer owns a domain. Therefore, he is considered to be [the others'] guest, and the presence of a guest does not [cause carrying] to be forbidden [in a courtyard].6

א

אנשי החצר שעירבו כולן חוץ מאחד מהן שלא עירב עמהן בין מזיד בין שוכח הרי זה אוסר עליהן. ואסור לכולן להוציא מבתיהן לחצר או מחצר לבתיהן. ביטל להן זה שלא עירב רשות חצרו בלבד הרי אלו מותרין להוציא ולהכניס מבתיהן לחצר ומחצר לבתיהן אבל לביתו אסור. ביטל להן רשות ביתו ורשות חצרו הרי כולם מותרין הן מפני שעירבו והרי ביטל להן רשות ביתו וחצרו. וגם הוא מותר מפני שלא נשאר לו רשות והרי הוא כאורח אצלם והאורח אינו אוסר:

2

When a person subordinates the ownership of his property without specifying his intent, it is presumed that he has subordinated the ownership [of his share] of the courtyard, but not the ownership of his house. When a person subordinates the ownership of his domain, he must make an explicit statement to that effect to every inhabitant of the courtyard, saying, "My domain is subordinated to you, and to you, and to you."7

An heir may subordinate the ownership of a domain. Even when the testator dies on the Sabbath itself, the heir is empowered to act in place of the testator in all matters.8

Ab initio, it is permitted to subordinate the ownership of one's domain on the Sabbath itself.9

ב

המבטל רשותו סתם רשות חצרו ביטל רשות ביתו לא ביטל. והמבטל רשותו לבני חצר צריך לבטל לכל אחד ואחד בפירוש ואומר רשותי מבוטלת לך ולך ולך. והיורש מבטל רשות אף על פי שמת מורישו בשבת שהיורש קם תחת מורישו לכל דבר. וביטול רשות בשבת מותר לכתחלה:

3

[If, conversely,] those who joined in the eruv subordinate the ownership of their domain to the person who did not join, he is permitted [to carry] - for he remains the sole [owner of property] - but they are forbidden to carry, for they no longer own property. We do not say that they are considered to be his guests, because many people cannot become the guests of a single individual.10

ג

בטלו אלו המערבין רשותן לזה שלא עירב. הוא מותר שהרי נשאר לבדו. והם אסורין שלא נשאר להן רשות. ואין אומרים יהיו כאורחים אצלו שאין רבים אורחין אצל אחד:

4

[The following rules apply when] there are two or more individuals who do not participate in the eruv: If they subordinate the ownership of their domain to those who participated in the eruv, those who participated in the eruv are permitted [to carry], and those who did not participate are not permitted [to carry].11 Those who participated in the eruv are not able to subordinate the ownership of their domain to the two who did not participate, because each of them causes the other to be forbidden to carry.12

Even if one of those who did not participate subordinates the ownership of his domain to the other person who did not participate, they are still forbidden to carry, since at the time when the others subordinated the ownership of their domain to him, he was forbidden to carry.

[When there are only two people sharing a courtyard,] and one makes an eruv, he may not subordinate the ownership of his domain to the other person who did not join in the eruv. Conversely, however, the person who did not join in the eruv can subordinate the ownership of his domain to the person who made the eruv.13

ד

היו אלו שלא עירבו שנים או יתר. אם בטלו רשותם למערבין המערבין מותרין ואלו שלא עירבו אסורין. ואין המערבין יכולים לבטל רשותם לשנים שלא עירבו שכל אחד מהן אוסר על חבירו. ואפילו חזר האחד שלא עירב וביטל רשותו לשני שלא עירב הרי זה אוסר שבשעה שבטלו לו המערבין אסור היה. אחד שעירב אינו מבטל רשותו לאחד שלא עירב אבל האחד שלא עירב מבטל רשותו לאחד שעירב:

5

Just as one homeowner can subordinate the ownership of his domain to another homeowner in a single courtyard, so too, [the inhabitants of] one courtyard can subordinate the ownership of their domain to [the inhabitants of] another courtyard.14

[After a person has subordinated his domain,] the recipient can, in turn, subordinate it [to its original owner]. What is implied? If two people are living together in a courtyard, and neither has made an eruv, the first may subordinate the ownership of his domain to his colleague, thus allowing the second colleague to carry within the domain that the first subordinated to him until he completes what he must do. Afterwards, the second colleague may subordinate ownership of the domain to the first. Indeed, this exchange may take place several times [on one Sabbath].

One may subordinate one's ownership of a ruin in the same manner in which one subordinates one's ownership of a courtyard.15

ה

כשם שבעל הבית זה מבטל רשותו לבעל הבית זה בחצר אחת כך מבטלין מחצר לחצר ומבטלין וחוזרין ומבטלין. כיצד שנים ששרויים בחצר ולא עירב אחד מהן מבטל רשותו לשני ונמצא השני מטלטל ברשותו שביטל לו חבירו עד שיעשה צרכיו. וחוזר השני ומבטל רשותו לראשון ומטלטל הראשון ברשותו שביטל לו. וכן כמה פעמים. ויש ביטול רשות בחורבה כדרך שהוא בחצר:

6

[The following rules apply when] a person who subordinated the ownership of his domain transfers an article to or from the domain that he subordinated: If he willingly transfers the article, his act causes the others to be forbidden [to carry],16 for he did not maintain his commitment.17 If he transfers the article unknowingly, he does not cause the others to be forbidden [to carry], for he maintained his commitment.

When does the above apply? When the others did not make use of the privilege granted them first. If, however, the others made use of the privilege granted them first,18 his act does not cause the others to be forbidden [to carry],19 regardless of whether he transferred the article willingly or unknowingly.

ו

מי שביטל רשותו וחזר וטלטל ברשותו שביטל. אם במזיד הוציא הרי זה אוסר עליהן שהרי לא עמד בביטולו. ואם בשוגג הוציא אינו אוסר שהרי הוא עומד בבטולו. במה דברים אמורים שלא קדמו והחזיקו אלו שביטל להן. אבל אם קדמו והחזיקו והוציאו אם חזר הוא והוציא בין בשוגג בין במזיד אינו אוסר עליהן:

7

When there are two houses on opposite sides of a public domain, and gentiles have surrounded [the area] with a partition on the Sabbath,20 the owners of the homes may not subordinate the ownership of their domain to each other, because it was impossible to establish an eruv before [the commencement of] the Sabbath.21

[The following rules apply when] one of the inhabitants of the courtyard dies and his estate is left to someone living elsewhere: If [the owner] died before the commencement of the Sabbath, since the heir is not an inhabitant of the courtyard, he causes carrying to be forbidden.22 If [the owner] dies after the commencement of the Sabbath, [the presence of] the heir who is not an inhabitant of the courtyard does not cause carrying to be forbidden.23

[The following rules apply when] a person who lives outside the courtyard,24 [but who owns a house within the courtyard] dies and leaves his domain to one of the inhabitants of the courtyard: If [the owner] died before the commencement of the Sabbath, carrying is not forbidden, because all [the inhabitants of the courtyard] participate in the eruv.25 If [the owner] dies after the commencement of the Sabbath, carrying is forbidden26 until [the heir] subordinates the ownership of the domain that he inherited to the others.

ז

שני בתים בשני צדי רשות הרבים והקיפום נכרים מחיצה בשבת אין מבטלין זה לזה הואיל ואי אפשר להם לערב מאמש. אחד מבני חצר שמת והניח רשותו לאחד מן השוק. אם מת מבעוד יום הרי היורש שאינו מבני החצר אוסר עליהם. ואם מת משחשיכה אינו אוסר עליהם. ואחד מן השוק שמת והניח רשותו לאחד מבני החצר. אם מבעוד יום מת אינו אוסר עליהם שהרי כולן מעורבים. ואם מת משחשיכה אוסר עליהם עד שיבטל רשות מורישו להן:

8

[The following rule applies when] a Jew and an [heirless] convert27 are dwelling in a cave, and the convert dies before the commencement of the Sabbath:28 If another Jew takes possession of the convert's property29 - even if he does not take possession before nightfall - the person who takes possession causes carrying to be forbidden until he subordinates [the property of which he took possession], for he is considered to be an heir.30

If the convert dies after nightfall, even if another Jew takes possession of his property, he does not cause carrying to be forbidden. Instead, the license initially granted continues.31

ח

ישראל וגר ששרויים במערה אחת ומת הגר מבעוד יום אע"פ שלא החזיק ישראל אחר בנכסיו עד שחשיכה הרי זה המחזיק אוסר עד שיבטל שהרי הוא כיורש. ואם מת הגר משחשיכה אע"פ שהחזיק ישראל אחר בנכסיו אינו אוסר עליו אלא בהיתרו הראשון הוא עומד:

9

When a Jew dwells together with a gentile or a resident alien32 in a courtyard, the presence of the non-Jew does not cause carrying to be forbidden, for [in a halachic sense] a dwelling of a non-Jew is insignificant. His presence is like the presence of animal.

When, however, two Jews share a courtyard with a gentile, his presence causes carrying to be forbidden.33 This is a decree so that they do not dwell together with a gentile, lest they emulate his conduct. Why was such a decree not issued regarding a single Jew and a single gentile? Because this is very uncommon,34 for the Jew will fear that the gentile will [find an opportunity] to be alone together [with him] and kill him. The Sages previously forbade being alone with a gentile.35

ט

ישראל הדר עם העובד כוכבים ומזלות או עם גר תושב בחצר אינו אוסר עליו שדירת העובד כוכבים ומזלות אינה דירה אלא כבהמה הוא חשוב. ואם היו שני ישראלים או יתר ועובד כוכבים ומזלות שכן עמהן הרי זה אוסר עליהם. ודבר זה גזירה שלא ישכינו עובד כוכבים ומזלות עמהן שלא ילמדו ממעשיו. ולמה לא גזרו בישראל אחד ועובד כוכבים ומזלות אחד. מפני שאינו דבר מצוי. שהרי יפחד שמא יתיחד עמו ויהרגנו וכבר אסרו להתיחד עם העובד כוכבים ומזלות:

10

When two Jews and a gentile live in [separate] homes in a single courtyard, and the Jews establish an eruv, their actions are of no consequence. Similarly, if they subordinate the ownership of their domain to the gentile, he subordinates the ownership of his domain to them, or one of the Jews subordinates the ownership of his domain to the other so that they are as a single aggregate [living together] with the gentile, their deeds are of no consequence.

For an eruv may not be established where a gentile is present, nor is the subordination of one's domain effective when a gentile is present. There is no alternative other than renting36 the gentile's domain,37 so that he becomes [the Jews'] guest, as it were. Similarly, if many gentiles are present,38 they must rent their domains to the Jews, and afterwards the Jews establish an eruv.39 [Only then] may they carry.

When one Jew rents a gentile's domain, he may then establish an eruv with the other Jews,40 allowing them all to carry. It is not necessary for every individual to enter into a [separate] rental agreement with the gentile.

י

שני ישראלים ועובד כוכבים ומזלות אחד השוכנים בחצר אחת ועירבו הישראלים לעצמן לא הועילו כלום. וכן אם בטלו לעובד כוכבים ומזלות או בטל להן או בטלו הישראלים זה לזה ונעשו כיחיד עם העובד כוכבים ומזלות לא הועילו כלום. שאין עירוב מועיל במקום עובד כוכבים ומזלות. ואין ביטול רשות מועיל במקום עובד כוכבים ומזלות. ואין להן תקנה אלא שישכרו ממנו רשותו ויעשה העובד כוכבים ומזלות כאילו הוא אורח עמהן. וכן אם היו עובדי כוכבים ומזלות רבים משכירין רשותם לישראלים והישראלים מערבין ומותרין. וישראל אחד ששכר מן העובד כוכבים ומזלות מערב עם שאר הישראלים ויותרו כלם. ואין כל אחד צריך לשכור מן העובד כוכבים ומזלות:

11

[The following rule applies when] there are two courtyards, one leading to the other: If a Jew and a gentile live in the inner courtyard and another Jew lives in the outer courtyard, or a Jew and a gentile live in the outer courtyard and another Jew lives in the inner courtyard, [the gentile's presence] causes carrying to be forbidden in the outer courtyard until [the Jews] rent his domain,41 since it is used by two Jews and a gentile.42 [The Jew who lives] in the inner courtyard, by contrast, may carry in the inner courtyard.43

יא

שתי חצרות זו לפנים מזו וישראל ועובד כוכבים ומזלות דרים בפנימית וישראל אחר בחיצונה. או שהיה ישראל ועובד כוכבים ומזלות בחיצונה וישראל אחר בפנימית הרי זה אוסר על החיצונה עד שישכור ממנו. שהרי רגלי שני ישראלים ועובד כוכבים ומזלות מצויים שם. והפנימי מותר בפנימית:

12

We may enter into a rental agreement with a gentile [for this purpose] on the Sabbath itself.44 For this rental arrangement is comparable to the subordination of a domain; [i.e.,] it is done to make a distinction and not as a [hard and fast] rental agreement. For this same reason, one may rent the gentile's domain for less than the value of a prutah.45

A gentile's wife can rent out [his domain] without his knowledge.46 Similarly, [the gentile's] hired workers or his servants can rent out [his domain] without his knowledge. [This applies even when these] hired workers or servants are Jewish.

If a person asked a gentile permission to use a place in the gentile's domain to store some of his possessions, and the gentile agreed, he is considered as being a partner in the gentile's domain. Accordingly, he may rent out [the gentile's domain on his behalf] without his knowledge.47 If a gentile has many workers, servants, or wives, it is sufficient if one rents out his domain from one of them.

יב

שוכרין מן העובד כוכבים ומזלות אפי' בשבת. שהשכירות כביטול רשות היא שאינה שכירות ודאית אלא היכר בלבד. לפיכך שוכרין מן העובד כוכבים ומזלות אפילו בפחות משוה פרוטה. ואשתו של עובד כוכבים ומזלות משכרת שלא לדעתו. וכן שכירו ושמשו משכירין שלא לדעתו. ואפילו היה שכירו או שמשו ישראלי הרי זה משכיר שלא לדעתו. שאל מן העובד כוכבים ומזלות מקום להניח בו חפציו והשאילו הרי נשתתף עמו ברשותו ומשכיר שלא לדעתו. היו לעובדי כוכבים ומזלות זה שכירים או שמשים או נשים רבים אם השכיר אחד מהן דיו:

13

When two Jews and a gentile are living in the same courtyard, and [only] one of the Jews rented the gentile's domain on the Sabbath, he may subordinate the ownership of his domain to the other.48 [This causes carrying] to be permitted.49 Similarly, if the gentile dies on the Sabbath, one Jew may subordinate the ownership of his domain to the other, and thus cause carrying to be permitted.

יג

שני ישראלים ועובד כוכבים ומזלות הדרים בחצר אחת ושכרו מן העובד כוכבים ומזלות בשבת חוזר האחד ומבטל רשותו לשני ומותר. וכן אם מת העובד כוכבים ומזלות בשבת מבטל הישראלי לישראל האחר ויהיה מותר לטלטל:

14

[The following rule applies when] one gentile rents his property to another:50 If it is impossible for the owner to evict the second gentile until the conclusion of his rental contract, we must rent [the domain] from the second gentile,51 for he takes the place of the owner.

When, in contrast, the owner can evict the renter whenever he desires - if the renter is not present,52 the Jews are permitted to carry if they rent the property from its original owner.

יד

עובד כוכבים ומזלות שהשכיר לעובד כוכבים ומזלות אם אין הראשון יכול להוציא העובד כוכבים ומזלות השני עד שישלים זמן שכירותו שוכרין מזה העובד כוכבים ומזלות השני שהרי נכנס תחת הבעלים. ואם יש רשות לראשון להוציא העובד כוכבים ומזלות השוכר ממנו בכל עת שירצה. אם לא היה השני עומד ושכרו הישראלים מן הראשון הרי אלו מותרין:

15

[The following rules apply when] there are several Jews and a gentile living in the same courtyard, and there are windows leading from one Jew's house to another Jew's house. If they have established an eruv via the windows, and thus they are permitted to transfer articles from house to house via the windows, the gentile's presence causes them to be forbidden to transfer articles via the entrances unless they rent from him. For whenever a gentile is present, we do not consider a group of people who joined together through an eruv as a single individual.53

טו

חצר שישראלים ועובד כוכבים ומזלות שרויין בה והיו חלונות פתוחות מבית ישראלי זה לבית ישראלי זה ועשו עירוב דרך חלונות. אע"פ שהן מותרין להוציא מבית לבית דרך חלונות הרי הן אסורין להוציא מבית לבית דרך פתחים מפני העובד כוכבים ומזלות עד שישכיר שאין רבים נעשים בעירוב כיחיד במקום העובד כוכבים ומזלות:

16

When a Jew desecrates the Sabbath publicly or worships false gods, he is considered as a gentile regarding all things.54 We may not include him in an eruv, nor may he subordinate the ownership of his domain. Rather, we must rent his domain55 as [we rent the domain of] a gentile.56

[Different rules apply with regard] to a non-believer, one who does not worship false gods or desecrate the Sabbath - e.g., the Sadducees, the Boethusists, and all those who deny the Oral Law.57 The general principle is that whoever does not acknowledge the mitzvah of an eruv may not participate in one, for he denies [its basis]. Nor may we rent his property, for he is not considered to be a gentile. The alternative is for him to subordinate the ownership of his domain to a Jew whose conduct is acceptable.

Similarly, if a Jew whose conduct is acceptable lives together with this Sadducee in a courtyard, the presence of the Sadducee causes carrying to be forbidden [in the courtyard] unless he subordinates the ownership of his domain to his colleague.

טז

ישראל שהוא מחלל שבת בפרהסיא או שהוא עובד עבודת כוכבים ומזלות הרי הוא כעובד כוכבים ומזלות לכל דבריו. ואין מערבין עמו ואינו מבטל רשות אלא שוכרין ממנו כעובד כוכבים ומזלות. אבל אם היה מן האפיקורוסין שאין עובדין עבודת כוכבים ומזלות ואין מחללין שבת כגון צדוקין וביתוסין וכל הכופרים בתורה שבעל פה. כללו של דבר כל מי שאינו מודה במצות עירוב. אין מערבין עמו לפי שאינו מודה בעירוב. ואין שוכרין ממנו לפי שאינו כעובד כוכבים ומזלות. אבל מבטל הוא רשותו לישראל הכשר וזו היא תקנתו. וכן אם היה ישראל אחד כשר וזה הצדוקי בחצר הרי זה אוסר עליו עד שיבטל לו רשותו

Footnotes
1.

Rather than consider a courtyard as being divided into small portions belonging to each of the homeowners, we consider the entire courtyard to be the joint property of all the inhabitants. Therefore, if one of them does not participate in the eruv, it is forbidden to carry within the courtyard as a whole.

It must be emphasized that this halachah and those that follow apply only in a situation where the person establishing the eruv did not grant all other inhabitants in the city, lane, or courtyard a share, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 20. Today, this granting of a share is standard practice, and so it is unlikely that such situations would arise.

2.

Eruvin 6:3, the source for this halachah, mentions only an accidental oversight. The consensus is that according to the development of the concept in the Gemara, the same rules apply regarding a willful decision.

3.

The subordination (ביטול in Hebrew) of the ownership of one's domain is a halachic institution devised by our Sages for situations of this nature. It gives the others the formal rights of ownership. After the person has subordinated his ownership, there no longer exists a person with a share in the courtyard who is not participating in the eruv.

4.

Rashi and Rabbenu Asher (Eruvin 79b) maintain that in addition to subordinating the ownership of his share in the courtyard, the person who did not participate in the eruv must lock the door of his home so that he will not be tempted to transgress and take articles out. He may open the door to leave, but must lock it immediately thereafter.

Rav Yosef Karo mentions this view in the Kessef Mishneh and in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 380:1). Shulchan Aruch HaRav 380:2 states that one may rely on the Rambam's ruling.

5.

Similarly, they may carry within the courtyard itself. The person who did not participate in the eruv may also carry within the courtyard and to and from the homes of the others, because he is considered as a guest (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 380:1).

6.

Since the guest does not own a share of the domain, his participation or lack of participation in the eruv is of no consequence.

7.

The Turei Zahav 380:1 explains that the Rambam's intent is that if he merely said "I subordinate my domain to all of you," one might interpret his intent as "to most of you." Therefore, it is necessary to be more specific.

Rashi (Eruvin 26b) differs and maintains that it is sufficient for the person to say, "I subordinate my domain to all of you," without explicitly mentioning each person. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 380:1) mentions both opinions. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 380:1 and the Mishnah Berurah 380:5 state that one may rely on the more lenient view.

8.

Although the heir would not have been able to subordinate the domain before the Sabbath began, should he consent to do so on the Sabbath itself, the eruv is acceptable. (See also Halachah 7.)

9.

This ruling is the subject of a debate between the School of Shammai and the School of Hillel (Eruvin 6:4). The School of Shammai maintains that subordinating one's domain is comparable to a transfer of property, and therefore requires that it be performed before the commencement of the Sabbath. The School of Hillel differs, explaining that it is considered to be merely the removal of one's authority, and hence may be performed on the Sabbath itself (Eruvin 71a).

10.

Needless to say, should one have actual guests, the fact that many guests stay in one home does not affect whether or not one is allowed to carry. When, however, we are speaking about guests merely in the halachic sense of the word, many persons are not considered the guests of one individual (Mishnah Berurah 380:18).

11.

Since they did not participate in the eruv, they may not benefit from it. Nor can they be considered to be guests, for the halachic conception of a guest does not apply when more than one individual is involved.

12.

There will still be two individuals who have a share in the courtyard and are not partners in the eruv. Hence, carrying in the courtyard is forbidden.

13.

Note the Ra'avad, who questions why the Rambam does not explain, as does Eruvin 70a, the source for this halachah, that this refers to an instance when a courtyard was shared by three people, two made an eruv, but not the third. On the Sabbath, one of the two who participated in the eruv died, and one of the two remaining desired to subordinate the ownership of his domain to his colleague.

14.

If two adjoining courtyards open up to each other and both open up to the public domain, it is forbidden to carry from one to the other unless an eruv is made. Nevertheless, even if an eruv was not made, the inhabitants of one courtyard (A) may allow the inhabitants of the other (B) to carry within courtyard (A) by subordinating their ownership of their domain. In such an instance, the inhabitants of courtyard (A) may not carry within their domain.

These principles also apply when one courtyard leads to another, which ends in a cul-de-sac. (See the Maggid Mishneh and Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 381:2.)

15.

The Maggid Mishneh and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 381:3) explain that this refers to a situation in which a ruin lies between two houses. If an eruv is not made, the two can carry in the area of the ruin by subordinating their rights to each other.

16.

The Magen Avraham 381:1 states that when the person subordinates the ownership of his share of the courtyard, but not his house, this restriction applies only when the person takes an article from his house to the courtyard. If he takes an article from the courtyard to his house - although he is forbidden to do so - his act does not nullify his subordination of the ownership of his property. The rationale is that since he no longer has a share in the courtyard, it can be understood that he desired to remove his property from there. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 381:1 accepts the Magen Avraham's ruling, while the Mishnah Berurah 381:3 does not.

17.

It appears that the Rambam's intent is that by carrying, he makes it obvious that he no longer abides by his commitment to subordinate the ownership of his property. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav, loc. cit., which states that the reason why the others are prohibited to carry is that the person's act shows that his commitment was not genuine at the outset.)

18.

Rashi (Eruvin 61b) states that this rule applies when, after the commencement of the Sabbath, the inhabitants of the courtyard make use of the domain that was subordinated. The Tur and others differ and maintain that even if they make use of the domain before the commencement of the Sabbath, it is acceptable. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 381:1) mentions both views, but appears to favor the Tur. Shulchan Aruch HaRav (loc. cit.) and the Mishnah Berurah (381:6) state that Rashi's view should be followed. After the fact, however, Shulchan Aruch HaRav maintains that we may rely on the Tur's ruling.

19.

Eruvin, loc. cit., states that Rabban Gamliel related the following incident: A Sadducee was living in the same lane as his family. One Sabbath, the Sadducee consented to subordinate the ownership of his domain. Rabban Gamliel's father told him to hurry and take some of their property out to the lane, so that the Sadducee would not be able to nullify his commitment.

20.

As mentioned in Hilchot Shabbat 16:22, a partition erected on the Sabbath itself is considered valid and establishes an area as a private domain. Nevertheless, although according to the Torah one would be allowed to carry in this domain, it is forbidden by Rabbinic law to do so unless an eruv is established. That must be done before the commencement of the Sabbath.

21.

Accordingly, since it was forbidden to carry within this area for a portion of the Sabbath, it remains forbidden for the entire Sabbath.

22.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that this refers to a situation in which the original owner joined in an eruv for the Sabbath in question. If the heir lived outside the courtyard and did not participate in the eruv, he causes carrying to be forbidden, because at the commencement of the Sabbath the owner of this dwelling did not participate in the eruv.

The Maggid Mishneh also clarifies that, as reflected in Chapter 4, Halachot 1 and 6, this restriction applies only when the heir comes to dwell in the house for the Sabbath. He also notes that, as stated in Halachah 2, the heir may subordinate his ownership of the domain on the Sabbath. These rulings are quoted in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 371:4).

23.

Since it was permitted to carry for a portion of the Sabbath, it is permitted to carry for the entire Sabbath (Maggid Mishneh).

24.

And therefore did not join in the eruv of the courtyard.

25.

The heir's participation in the eruv for the sake of his own home is also effective regarding the home that he inherits.

26.

For the dwelling inherited by the heir was not included in the eruv at the commencement of the Sabbath.

27.

Upon the death of a convert who has not fathered any children born after his conversion, his property is ownerless and is acquired by the first Jew who takes possession of it (Hilchot Zechiyah UMatanah 1:6).

28.

Both clauses of the halachah refer to a situation in which the original Jew and the convert had made an eruv previously.

29.

If, however, the convert's dwelling remains ownerless, the other individual may carry on the Sabbath (Mishnah Berurah 271:27).

30.

Since the dwelling was ownerless at the commencement of the Sabbath, there is room for the supposition that one should be allowed to carry throughout the Sabbath. Nevertheless, since it was fit for another person to take possession of it at the commencement of the Sabbath, our Sages considered it to be a separate domain (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 271:4; Mishnah Berurah 271:28).

31.

For, as stated above, once an eruv is considered effective at the beginning of the Sabbath, it remains effective throughout the Sabbath, unless the fence surrounding the domain is opened.

32.

A gentile who accepts the observance of the seven universal laws commanded to Noah and his descendants (Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 10:6; Hilchot Melachim 8:10-11).

33.

As reflected by Chapter 5, Halachah 16, this restriction applies only when the two Jews do not share a single dwelling themselves. It is only when they would require an eruv themselves that the presence of a gentile makes it forbidden to carry. (See Maggid Mishneh; Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 382:1.)

34.

And the Sages did not institute decrees governing uncommon situations.

35.

See Hilchot Rotzeach UShemirat HaNefesh 12:7.

36.

The Sages made renting the only alternative, because they knew that this would not be easily accepted by the gentiles. They hoped that the difficulty and inconvenience this would cause would prevent Jews from living together with gentiles.

37.

The Rashba mentions, however, that if the gentile is renting property from a Jew, it is not necessary to rent the property back from him when establishing an eruv. On the contrary, it is considered an implicit condition of the rental agreement with the gentile that his ownership not prevent the Jews from establishing an eruv. This ruling is quoted by the Ramah (Orach Chayim 382:1).

38.

The laws applying to the establishment of an eruv in a city inhabited by Jews and gentiles are discussed in Chapter 5, Halachah 23.

39.

The Be'ur Halachah 382 states that the Rambam's wording implies that the sequence is significant. First, the gentile's property must be rented, and then the eruv established. If the sequence is reversed, the eruv is not effective. Nevertheless, in conclusion, he writes that with regard to practice, an eruv is acceptable even if the order was reversed.

40.

Sha'ar HaTziyun 382:31 emphasizes that it is not necessary for the individual to act as an agent for the rest of the Jews living in the courtyard. Even if he rents the gentile's property on his own initiative alone, it is sufficient.

41.

When quoting this law, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 382:17) mentions another instance when the same ruling applies: when the two Jews share the outer courtyard and the gentile lives in the inner courtyard alone. Since the gentile must pass through the outer courtyard, he is considered to have a share in it that must be rented.

42.

Hence, it is necessary for the Jews to rent it, as reflected in the previous two halachot.

43.

In this instance, either the Jew is living alone in the inner courtyard or he alone is sharing it with the gentile (in which case carrying would be permitted, as stated in Halachah 9).

44.

Although making business agreements including rentals is normally forbidden on the Sabbath (Hilchot Shabbat 23:12).

45.

Regarding business agreements among Jews, a monetary value worth less than a prutah is insignificant. From Eruvin 62a, it would appear that the rationale for this ruling is that regarding business agreements among gentiles, a monetary value worth less than a prutah is significant. (See Hilchot Melachim 9:9.)

The Rambam's wording, however, suggests a second rationale - that since the agreement is more of a Rabbinic requirement than a business arrangement, an agreement which does not comply entirely with contractual law is also acceptable. The Or Sameach explains that the concept stated by the Rambam is necessary. Otherwise, the rental agreement would not be strong enough to have bearing on halachic questions involving a Jew.

46.

Based on Eruvin 80a, the Maggid Mishneh maintains that it is possible to rent the gentile's domain from his wife even though he himself refuses to agree to such an arrangement.

47.

Eruvin 63b-64a mentions that a gentile once refused to rent out his property, and the Rabbis were able to secure permission to carry in the courtyard through such an arrangement.

48.

Since neither had rented the gentile's property before the commencement of the Sabbath, it was impossible for them to establish an eruv (Halachah 9). As stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 21, an eruv must be established before the commencement of the Sabbath. Hence, in this instance, the only alternative is for one to subordinate the ownership of his domain to the other.

49.

More specifically, the person to whom the domain was subordinated may carry. The person who himself subordinated the domain may not carry unless his colleague subordinates his domain to him, as stated in Halachah 5. Nevertheless, what is significant about this halachah is that it shows that although carrying was forbidden in the courtyard at the commencement of the Sabbath, it may be permitted later on.

50.

This halachah is based on actual incident that occurred concerning Resh Lakish and his student, Rabbi Chanina, when they were on a journey (Eruvin 65b).

51.

If, however, the original owner retains the right to store some of his goods on the property or use it in any way, we may rent it from him (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 382:18).

52.

Even if the tenant is present, the property may be rented from the original owner (Mishnah Berurah 382:62).

53.

I.e., since the Jews established an eruv via the windows, it is possible to suppose that all the Jews would be considered to be a single entity. This, in turn, would cause them to be allowed to carry, as stated in Halachah 9. Nevertheless, the Rabbis did not allow for this leniency.

54.

See Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 2:4 and Hilchot Shabbat 30:15. As mentioned in Iggerot Moshe, Vol. III, Responsa 12, 21, and 22 (see also Be'ur Halachah 385), there are certain leniencies regarding the status of a person who publicly violates the Sabbath laws at present. Nevertheless, the overall attitude must still be one of stringency.

It must, however, be emphasized that the offspring of such Jews have a full portion in their Jewish heritage. Instead of shunning them, we must make every effort to draw them close to their spiritual roots. (See Hilchot Mamrim 3:3.)

55.

Sefer HaKovetz and the Tzafenat Paneach state that, in contrast to a rental from a gentile, the rental fee must be equal at least to the value of a prutah. Nevertheless, the Rambam's wording does not indicate such a ruling.

56.

At present, the eruvim established in most modern communities include many Jews whose conduct does not, as yet, reflect complete observance of the Sabbath laws. These eruvim are acceptable, because, as is explained at the conclusion of Chapter 5, they are established with the consent of the local government, which acts on behalf of all the inhabitants of the city and grants the Jewish community permission to establish an eruv.

57.

See Hilchot Teshuvah 3:8 and the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Avot 1:3), which explain that Tzadok and Boethus were talented students of Antigonus of Socho. Disillusioned with their master's teachers, they started splinter groups with the intent of swaying the people from the observance of the mitzvot. When they saw the people's loyalty, they adopted a new tactic, claiming that only the Written Law was divine in origin; the Oral Law, they maintained, was a human invention.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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