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Shevitat Yom Tov - Chapter One

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Shevitat Yom Tov - Chapter One

Introduction to Hilchos Shevitat Yom Tov

They contain twelve mitzvot: six positive commandments and six negative commandments. They are:

1) To rest on the first day of Pesach;
2) Not to perform work on it;
3) To rest on the seventh day of Pesach;
4) Not to perform work on it;
5) To rest on the festival of Shavuot;
6) Not to perform work on it;
7) To rest on Rosh HaShanah;
8) Not to perform work on it;
9) To rest on the first day of the festival of Sukkot;
10) Not to perform work on it;
11) To rest on the eighth day of that festival;
12) Not to perform work on it;

These mitzvot are explained in the chapters [that follow].

הלכות שביתת יום טוב

יש בכללן שתים עשרה מצות: שש מצות עשה, ושש מצות לא תעשה. וזהו פרטן:
א) לשבות בראשון של פסח.
ב) שלא לעשות בו מלאכה.
ג) לשבות בשביעי של פסח.
ד) שלא לעשות בו מלאכה.
ה) לשבות ביום חג השבועות.
ו) שלא לעשות בו מלאכה.
ז) לשבות בראש השנה.
ח) שלא לעשות בו מלאכה.
ט) לשבות בראשון של חג הסכות.
י) שלא לעשות בו מלאכה.
יא) לשבות בשמיני של חג.
יב) שלא לעשות בו מלאכה.
וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

The six days on which the Torah forbade work are the first and seventh days of Pesach, the first and eighth days of the festival of Sukkot, the festival of Shavuot, and the first day of the seventh month.1 They are referred to as holidays.

The [obligation to] rest is the same on all these days; it is forbidden to perform all types of servile labor,2 with the exception of those labors necessary for [the preparation of] food, as [implied by Exodus 12:16]: "Only that [labor] from which all souls will eat [may you perform]."

א

שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים הָאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֲסָרָן הַכָּתוּב בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה שֶׁהֵן רִאשׁוֹן וּשְׁבִיעִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְרִאשׁוֹן וּשְׁמִינִי שֶׁל חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וּבְיוֹם חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת וּבְאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין יָמִים טוֹבִים. וּשְׁבִיתַת כֻּלָּן שָׁוָה שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בְּכָל מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה חוּץ מִמְּלָאכָה שֶׁהִיא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב טז) "אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל נֶפֶשׁ" וְגוֹ':

2

Anyone who rests from "servile labor" on one of these days fulfills a positive commandment,3 for [the Torah] describes them as Sabbaths - i.e., days of rest.4

Whoever performs a labor that is not for the sake of [the preparation of] food on one of these days - e.g., he builds, destroys, weaves, or the like5 - negates [the performance of] a positive commandment and violates a negative commandment6, as [Leviticus 23:7] states: "You shall not perform any servile labor," and [Exodus 12:6] states: "You shall not perform any work on them."

If a person performs [a forbidden labor when observed] by witnesses and [after] receiving a warning, the Torah prescribes that he receive lashes [as punishment].7

ב

כָּל הַשּׁוֹבֵת מִמְּלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן הֲרֵי קִיֵּם מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן (ויקרא כג כד) (ויקרא כג לט) "שַׁבָּתוֹן" כְּלוֹמַר שְׁבֹת. וְכָל הָעוֹשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּנָה אוֹ הָרַס אוֹ אָרַג וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ הֲרֵי בִּטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה וְעָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כָּל מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ". (שמות יב טז) "כָּל מְלָאכָה לֹא יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם". וְאִם עָשָׂה בְּעֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה:

3

When a person performs several forbidden labors on a holiday after being warned once - e.g., he sows, builds, destroys, and weaves - after receiving a single warning,8 he receives only a single [set of] lashes. There is a distinction between the categories of forbidden labor on the Sabbath, but there is no such distinction on the holidays.9

ג

הָעוֹשֶׂה אֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת הַרְבֵּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב בְּהַתְרָאָה אַחַת כְּגוֹן שֶׁזָּרַע וּבָנָה וְסָתַר וְאָרַג בְּהַתְרָאָה אַחַת אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא אַחַת. חִלּוּק מְלָאכוֹת לְשַׁבָּת וְאֵין חִלּוּק מְלָאכוֹת לְיוֹם טוֹב:

4

A person may be [punished by] lashes for performing on a holiday any labor for which he is liable on the Sabbath, if it is not necessary for the preparation of food, with the exception of the transfer of articles from one domain to another and the burning of a fire.10

[With regard to these two forbidden labors, an exception is made.11] Since it is permitted to transfer articles for the sake of [the preparation of] food [on holidays], [this activity] was permitted even when it is not necessary for [the preparation of] food. Therefore, it is permitted to transfer an infant, a Torah scroll, a key, or the like from one domain to another. Similarly, it is permitted to burn a fire, even though it is not for the purpose of [the preparation of] food.12

With regard to the other forbidden labors, [the following principles apply:] Whenever the activity is necessary for [the preparation of] food - e.g., slaughter, baking, kneading, or the like - it is permitted. If it is not necessary for [the preparation of] food - e.g., writing, weaving, building, and the like - it is forbidden.

ד

כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם עָשָׂה אוֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה לוֹקֶה חוּץ מִן הַהוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת וְהַהַבְעָרָה שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הוֹצָאָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה הֻתְּרָה שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה. לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְהוֹצִיא קָטָן אוֹ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אוֹ מַפְתֵּחַ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַבְעִיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה. וּשְׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה מֻתָּר כְּגוֹן שְׁחִיטָה וַאֲפִיָּה וְלִישָׁה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה אָסוּר כְּגוֹן כְּתִיבָה וַאֲרִיגָה וּבִנְיָן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

5

Whenever it is possible to perform a labor on the day prior to the holiday without causing any loss or inadequacy, our Sages forbade13 performing such a labor on the holiday itself, even if it is performed for the sake of [the preparation of] food.

Why was this forbidden? This was a decree [instituted], lest a person leave for the holiday all the labors that he could have performed before the holiday, and thus spend the entire holiday performing those labors. Thus, he will be prevented from rejoicing on the holidays and will not have the opportunity to [take pleasure in] eating and drinking.14

ה

כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהֵעָשׂוֹת מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ הֶפְסֵד וְלֹא חֶסְרוֹן אִם נַעֲשֵׂית מִבָּעֶרֶב אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה. וְלָמָּה אָסְרוּ דָּבָר זֶה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָנִיחַ אָדָם מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב לְיוֹם טוֹב וְנִמְצָא יוֹם טוֹב כֻּלּוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בַּעֲשִׂיַּת אוֹתָן מְלָאכוֹת וְיִמָּנַע מִשִּׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ פְּנַאי לֶאֱכל:

6

For this very reason, [our Sages] did not forbid transferring articles on a holiday, although the transfer of all [articles] is a task that could be performed before the holiday.

Why was this not forbidden? To increase our festive joy, so that a person can send and bring anything he desires, and thus fulfill his wants, and not feel like someone whose hands are tied.15 With regard to other labors that are possible to be performed on the day before the holiday, since they involve [prolonged] activity, they should not be performed on a holiday.

ו

וּמִזֶּה הַטַּעַם עַצְמוֹ לֹא אָסְרוּ הַהוֹצָאָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַהוֹצָאָה הִיא מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְלָמָּה לֹא אֲסָרוּהָ כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּשִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב וְיוֹלִיךְ וְיָבִיא כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה וְיַשְׁלִים חֲפָצָיו וְלֹא יִהְיֶה כְּמִי שֶׁיָּדָיו אֲסוּרוֹת. אֲבָל שְׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן עֵסֶק אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

7

What is implied? On a holiday, we do not harvest, thresh, winnow, separate, or grind grain, nor do we sift [flour].16 For all these and any similar activities can be performed on the day prior to the holiday without causing any loss or inadequacy.

ז

כֵּיצַד. אֵין קוֹצְרִין וְלֹא דָּשִׁין וְלֹא זוֹרִין וְלֹא בּוֹרְרִין וְלֹא טוֹחֲנִין אֶת הַחִטִּים וְלֹא מְרַקְּדִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְאֵין בְּכָךְ הֶפְסֵד וְלֹא חֶסְרוֹן:

8

We may, however, knead, bake, slaughter, and cook on a holiday, since if these activities had been performed on the previous day, the taste would be adversely affected. For warm bread or food that is cooked today does not [taste] the same as bread or food that was cooked the day before. Similarly, meat that is slaughtered today does not [taste] the same as meat slaughtered on the previous day. The same rules apply in all analogous situations.17

Similarly, when it would be detrimental for subsidiary activities [involved in the preparation] of food to be performed on the day [before the holiday] - e.g., grinding spices and the like - they may be performed on the holiday.

ח

אֲבָל לָשִׁין וְאוֹפִין וְשׁוֹחֲטִין וּמְבַשְּׁלִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב. שֶׁאִם עָשָׂה אֵלּוּ מִבָּעֶרֶב יֵשׁ בְּכָךְ הֶפְסֵד אוֹ חֶסְרוֹן טַעַם. שֶׁאֵין לֶחֶם חַם אוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל הַיּוֹם כְּלֶחֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱפָה מֵאֶמֶשׁ וּכְתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל מֵאֶמֶשׁ. וְלֹא בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט הַיּוֹם כְּבָשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט מֵאֶמֶשׁ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. וְכֵן מַכְשִׁירֵי אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חֶסְרוֹן אִם נַעֲשׂוּ מִבָּעֶרֶב עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב. כְּגוֹן שְׁחִיקַת תַּבְלִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

9

It is forbidden to bake or cook food on a holiday [that one intends] to eat during the week,18 because work necessary for [the preparation of] food was permitted solely so that pleasure could be derived from it on a holiday. If, however, one [cooks food] to be eaten on the holiday, and there is food left over, the remainder may be eaten during the week.19

ט

אֵין אוֹפִין וּמְבַשְּׁלִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב מַה שֶּׁיֵּאָכֵל בְּחל. וְלֹא הֻתְּרָה מְלָאכָה שֶׁהִיא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. עָשָׂה כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְהוֹתִיר מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל הַמּוֹתָר בְּחל:

10

A woman may fill a pot with meat although she needs only one piece.20 A baker may fill an entire drum with water [to boil] although he needs only one jug.21 And a woman may bake an entire oven full of bread although she needs only a single loaf, for when there is a large quantity of bread in an an oven, it bakes better.22

[Similarly,] a person may salt several pieces of meat23 although he only needs one piece.24 The same applies in all similar situations.

י

מְמַלְּאָה אִשָּׁה קְדֵרָה בָּשָׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה אֶלָּא לַחֲתִיכָה אַחַת. מְמַלֵּא נַחְתּוֹם חָבִית שֶׁל מַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לְקִיתוֹן אֶחָד. וּמְמַלְּאָה אִשָּׁה תַּנּוּר פַּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה אֶלָּא לְכִכָּר אֶחָד. שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁהַפַּת מְרֻבָּה בַּתַּנּוּר הִיא נֶאֱפֵית יָפֶה. וּמוֹלֵחַ אָדָם כַּמָּה חֲתִיכוֹת בָּשָׂר בְּבַת אַחַת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לַחֲתִיכָה אַחַת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

When a person cooks or bakes on a holiday with the intent of eating the food on that day, or he has invited guests and they did not come, and cooked food or bread remains, [the food] is permitted to be eaten on the following day, whether it is a weekday or the Sabbath,25 provided one does not act with guile.26

If, however, one acts with guile, he27 is forbidden [to partake of the food], even on a Sabbath that follows the holiday. For greater stringency is shown with one who acts with guile than with one who violates the prohibition [against preparing food for the following day on a holiday] intentionally.28

יא

הַמְבַשֵּׁל אוֹ הָאוֹפֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם אוֹ שֶׁזִּמֵּן אוֹרְחִים וְלֹא בָּאוּ וְנִשְׁאַר הַתַּבְשִׁיל וְהַפַּת הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל לְמָחָר בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲרִים. וְאִם הֶעֱרִים אָסוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאַחַר יוֹם טוֹב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֶחְמִירוּ בְּמַעֲרִים יוֹתֵר מִן הַמֵּזִיד:

12

A person who has an animal that is dangerously ill29 should not slaughter it on a holiday unless he knows that he will be able to eat30 [at least] an olive-sized [portion] of roasted meat before the holiday is completed. [In this way,] he will not be slaughtering [an animal] on a holiday to partake of its meat on an ordinary day. The same principles apply in other similar situations.

יב

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ בְּהֵמָה מְסֻכֶּנֶת לֹא יִשְׁחֹט אוֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֶאֱכל מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיִת צָלִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁחֹט בְּיוֹם טוֹב מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל בְּחל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

13

We may not bake and cook on a holiday in order to feed gentiles31 or dogs, as [indicated by Exodus 12:16]:32 "This alone is permitted for you" - i.e., [the leniency is] "for you" and not for gentiles, "for you" and not for dogs.

For this reason, it is permitted to invite a gentile [to share one's meal] on the Sabbath, but not on a holiday, lest one add [more food] for him.33 If, however, a gentile comes [to a Jewish household on a holiday] on his own initiative, he may eat [the food] they eat together with them, for it has already been prepared.

יג

אֵין אוֹפִין וּמְבַשְּׁלִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּדֵי לְהַאֲכִיל כּוּתִים אוֹ כְּלָבִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב טז) "הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם" לָכֶם וְלֹא לְכוּתִים לָכֶם וְלֹא לִכְלָבִים. לְפִיכָךְ מְזַמְּנִין אֶת הַכּוּתִי בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין מְזַמְּנִין אוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ. אֲבָל אִם בָּא הַכּוּתִי מֵאֵלָיו אוֹכֵל עִמָּהֶן מַה שֶּׁהֵן אוֹכְלִין שֶׁכְּבָר הֱכִינוּהָ:

14

On a holiday, it is permissible to slaughter an animal that is owned partially by a Jew and partially by a gentile. [This is permitted although the gentile benefits,] because it is impossible [for the Jew] to partake of an olive-sized portion [of the meat belonging to him] without slaughtering the animal.

When, by contrast, dough is owned partially by a Jew and partially by a gentile, it is forbidden to bake it [on a holiday], because the dough can be divided.

[The following rule applies when] the soldiers [of a gentile army] give flour to a Jew and request that he bake them bread on a holiday: If they do not object to giving some of the bread to a baby, it is permitted for him to bake on the holiday. For every loaf of bread is fit to be given to the baby.34

When the shepherds also eat from the loaves they give to the dogs, these loaves may be baked on a holiday.35

יד

בְּהֵמָה שֶׁחֶצְיָהּ שֶׁל כּוּתִי וְחֶצְיָהּ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר לְשָׁחֳטָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱכל מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר בְּלֹא שְׁחִיטָה. אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁחֶצְיָהּ לְכוּתִים וְחֶצְיָהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר לֶאֱפוֹת אוֹתָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְחַלֵּק הַבָּצֵק. בְּנֵי הַחַיִל שֶׁנָּתְנוּ קֶמַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶם פַּת בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אִם כְּשֶׁנּוֹתְנִין פַּת מִמֶּנָּה לְתִינוֹק אֵין מַקְפִּידִין מֻתָּר לֶאֱפוֹתוֹ לָהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁכָּל פַּת וּפַת רָאוּי לַתִּינוֹק. עִסַּת הַכְּלָבִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָרוֹעִים אוֹכְלִין מִמֶּנָּה נֶאֱפֵית בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

15

A person who cooks on a holiday for gentiles, for an animal or to keep for a weekday should not be given lashes, because if guests came, the cooked food would be fit to serve them.36 If a person prepares [food] for himself and [food] remains, he is permitted to give it to a gentile or to an animal.

טו

הַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְכוּתִים אוֹ לִבְהֵמָה אוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ לְחל אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה שֶׁאִלּוּ בָּאוּ לוֹ אוֹרְחִים הָיָה אוֹתוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל רָאוּי לָהֶן. עָשָׂה לְנַפְשׁוֹ וְהוֹתִיר מֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִיל מִמֶּנּוּ לְכוּתִים וְלִבְהֵמָה:

16

Bathing and anointing37 oneself are considered in the general category of eating and drinking. They are permitted on a holiday [as indicated by Exodus 12:16]: "Only that [labor] from which all souls will eat [may you perform]" - i.e., all the needs of the body [are permitted].38

Therefore, one may heat water on a holiday and wash his hands and feet. It is, however, forbidden to wash one's entire body. This is a decree,39 [instituted to prevent the use of] bathhouses.40

When water was heated before the commencement of a holiday, one may wash one's entire body with it on the holiday.41 This was prohibited only on the Sabbath.42

טז

רְחִיצָה וְסִיכָה הֲרֵי הֵן בִּכְלַל אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב טז) "אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל נֶפֶשׁ" לְכָל שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הַגּוּף. לְפִיכָךְ מְחִמִּין חַמִּין בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְרוֹחֵץ בָּהֶן פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. אֲבָל כָּל גּוּפוֹ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרַת מֶרְחָץ. וְחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב רוֹחֵץ בָּהֶן כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עַל דָּבָר זֶה אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבַד:

17

All [activities] that are forbidden on the Sabbath, whether because they resemble a [forbidden] labor, might lead to a forbidden labor, or are placed in the category of sh'vut,43 are forbidden on a holiday unless they are necessary for the preparation of food and the like, or for other purposes that are permitted on a holiday, as will be explained in these laws.

Everything that is forbidden to be carried on the Sabbath,44 is forbidden to be carried on a holiday, except for the purpose [of the preparation] of food and the like. Whatever [activities] may be carried out on the Sabbath may be carried on the holidays. There is, however, [a category of prohibitions] that apply on the holidays, but do not apply on the Sabbath: the prohibitions against muktzeh.45

Muktzeh is forbidden on a holiday, but permitted on the Sabbath. [The rationale is] since the [restrictions pertaining to] the holidays are more lenient than those of the Sabbath, [our Sages] forbade muktzeh, lest one come to treat the holidays with disrespect.46

יז

כָּל שֶׁאָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא דּוֹמֶה לִמְלָאכָה אוֹ מֵבִיא לִידֵי מְלָאכָה בֵּין שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. אוֹ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם מֻתָּרִים בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בַּהֲלָכוֹת אֵלּוּ. וְכָל שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. וְכָל שֶׁמֻּתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְיֵשׁ בְּיוֹם טוֹב מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּשַׁבָּת אִסּוּר מֻקְצֶה שֶׁהַמֻּקְצֶה אָסוּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּמֻתָּר בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב קַל מִשַּׁבָּת אָסְרוּ בּוֹ הַמֻּקְצֶה שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא לְזַלְזֵל בּוֹ:

18

What is implied? When a chicken is set aside to lay eggs, an ox is set aside to plow, and doves in a dovecote47 or produce are set aside for sale, these and any similar articles are considered to be muktzeh and may not be eaten on a holiday.

[For them to be permitted,] it is necessary to prepare them on the previous day and have the intent that one will partake of them.48 On the Sabbath, by contrast, everything is considered to be prepared and there is no need for preparation.

Just as muktzeh is forbidden on a holiday, so too, an object that first came into existence on the holiday is forbidden.

יח

כֵּיצַד. תַּרְנְגלֶת הָעוֹמֶדֶת לְגַדֵּל בֵּיצִים וְשׁוֹר הָעוֹמֵד לַחֲרִישָׁה וְיוֹנֵי שׁוֹבָךְ וּפֵרוֹת הָעוֹמְדִין לִסְחוֹרָה כָּל אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֻקְצֶה הֵן וְאָסוּר לֶאֱכל מֵהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַד שֶׁיָּכִין אוֹתָם מִבָּעֶרֶב וְיַחֲשֹׁב עֲלֵיהֶם לַאֲכִילָה. אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת הַכּל מוּכָן אֵצֶל שַׁבָּת וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הֲכָנָה. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַמֻּקְצֶה אָסוּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב כָּךְ הַנּוֹלָד אָסוּר:

19

[Food] may be prepared49 on a weekday for the Sabbath and [food] may be prepared on a weekday for a holiday, but [food] may not be prepared on a holiday for the Sabbath, nor may [food] be prepared on the Sabbath for a holiday.

Therefore, an egg that was laid on a holiday that follows the Sabbath is forbidden50 - even though the chicken is set aside to be eaten51 - since the egg was finished on the previous day and thus the Sabbath would be preparing for a holiday.

[Our Sages] forbade [eating] an egg that was laid on any holiday. [This is] a decree, [lest one eat an egg laid] on a holiday that follows the Sabbath. Similarly, [our Sages] forbade [eating] an egg that was laid on any Sabbath. [This is] a decree, lest one eat an egg laid] on a Sabbath that follows a holiday.52

יט

חֹל מֵכִין לְשַׁבָּת וְחל מֵכִין לְיוֹם טוֹב אֲבָל אֵין יוֹם טוֹב מֵכִין לְשַׁבָּת וְלֹא שַׁבָּת מְכִינָה לְיוֹם טוֹב. לְפִיכָךְ בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת אֲסוּרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתַּרְנְגלֶת עוֹמֶדֶת לַאֲכִילָה. הוֹאִיל וּמֵאֶמֶשׁ נִגְמְרָה הַבֵּיצָה נִמְצָא שַׁבָּת מֵכִין אוֹתָהּ לְיוֹם טוֹב. וַאֲסָרוּהָ בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאַחַר שַׁבָּת. וְכֵן בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בְּכָל שַׁבָּת אֲסוּרָה גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם שַׁבָּת שֶׁאַחַר יוֹם טוֹב:

20

Just as it is forbidden to partake of this [egg], so too, is it forbidden to carry it.53 Even if it becomes mixed with a thousand [other eggs], they are all forbidden. For on the morrow, they will all be permitted, and [the existence of] any forbidden article that will ultimately become permitted is never considered inconsequential, even when mixed with thousands of thousands.54

When a person slaughters a chicken on a holiday and within the chicken finds eggs that already have a shell, it is permitted [to partake of] them, for this is not a frequent circumstance. And [our Sages] did not institute decrees regarding infrequent circumstances that occur only incidentally.55

כ

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ כָּךְ אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה בְּאֶלֶף כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי לְמָחָר יֻתְּרוּ הַכּל וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף אֲלָפִים אֵינוֹ בָּטֵל. הַשּׁוֹחֵט תַּרְנְגלֶת בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּמָצָא בָּהּ בֵּיצִים גְּמוּרוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת. שֶׁאֵין זֶה דָּבָר מָצוּי תָּמִיד וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי אֶלָּא אַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא לֹא גָּזְרוּ בּוֹ:

21

Our celebration of every holiday for two days in the diaspora is merely a custom.56 For the second day of the holiday is a Rabbinic institution, innovated during the exile. The inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael observe a holiday for two days only on Rosh HaShanah.57

In Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh in this volume the fundamental principles pertaining to this custom and the rationale why Rosh HaShanah is universally observed for two days will be explained.

כא

זֶה שֶׁאָנוּ עוֹשִׂין בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ כָּל יוֹם טוֹב מֵאֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי יָמִים מִנְהָג הוּא. וְיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הוּא וּמִדְּבָרִים שֶׁנִּתְחַדְּשׁוּ בַּגָּלוּת. וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין בְּנֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים אֶלָּא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה בִּלְבַד. וּבְהִלְכוֹת קִדּוּשׁ הַחֹדֶשׁ מִסֵּפֶר זֶה נְבָאֵר עִקַּר מִנְהָג זֶה וּמֵאֵי זֶה טַעַם עוֹשִׂין רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שְׁנֵי יָמִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

22

Although the second day of a holiday is merely a Rabbinic institution, everything that is forbidden on the first day is forbidden on the second. Whoever desecrates the second day of a holiday, even the second day of Rosh HaShanah,58 whether with regard to a prohibition in the category of sh'vut, the performance of a forbidden labor, or by proceeding beyond the [2000-cubit city] limits should be punished by stripes for rebelliousness or should be placed under a ban of ostracism,59 unless [the violator] was a student [of the Torah].60

Just as it is forbidden to deliver eulogies or to fast on the first day of a holiday and we are obligated to rejoice on that day,61 so too, [these same prohibitions and obligations apply] on the second day. There is no difference between them except with regard to [the care of] a corpse.

כב

יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר בָּרִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכָל הַמְחַלֵּל יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה בֵּין בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת בֵּין בִּמְלָאכָה בֵּין שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת אוֹ מְנַדִּין אוֹתוֹ אִם לֹא יִהְיֶה מִן הַתַּלְמִידִים. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר בַּהֶסְפֵּד וְתַעֲנִית וְחַיָּב בְּשִׂמְחָה כָּךְ הַשֵּׁנִי וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן הֶפְרֵשׁ אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן מֵת בִּלְבַד:

23

What is implied? On the first day of a holiday gentiles should be involved62 with the burial of a corpse,63 and on the second day these activities should be performed by a Jew.64

Everything necessary [for the burial] may be performed - e.g., making a bier, sewing shrouds, picking herbs, and the like. With regard to a corpse, the second day of a holiday is considered to be an ordinary weekday. This applies even to the second day of Rosh HaShanah.

כג

כֵּיצַד. הַמֵּת בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן יִתְעַסְּקוּ בִּקְבוּרָתוֹ הַכּוּתִים וּבְיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי יִתְעַסְּקוּ בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְעוֹשִׂין לוֹ כָּל צְרָכָיו כְּגוֹן עֲשִׂיַּת הַמִּטָּה וּתְפִירַת הַתַּכְרִיכִין וּקְצִיצַת הַבְּשָׂמִים וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי לְגַבֵּי הַמֵּת כְּחל הוּא חָשׁוּב וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה:

24

The two days observed in the diaspora are considered two separate expressions of holiness and are not considered to be a single [extended] day.65 Therefore, an entity that was considered muktzeh on the first day, or first came into existence on the first day, is permitted on the second day if it was designated [for use on that day].

What is implied? An egg that was laid on the first day of a holiday may be eaten on the second. [Similarly,] beast or fowl that were trapped on the first day may be eaten on the second day. [Produce] that was attached to the ground on the first day and separated from it [on that day] may be eaten on the second day. Similarly, one may paint one's eyes on the second day,66 even though one does not feel infirmity.

When does the above apply? To the second days of holidays observed [only] in the diaspora. The two days of Rosh HaShanah are considered to be a single expression of holiness; they are considered to be one [long] day67 with regard to all matters, with the exception of [burying] the dead. An egg that is laid on the first day of Rosh HaShanah is forbidden on the second day. The same applies in all similar instances.

When either the Sabbath or a holiday follows directly after the other, an egg laid on one is forbidden on the other. The same applies with regard to all similar situations.68 Even if an egg was laid on the second day [of a holiday, and that second day] is followed by the Sabbath, the egg should not be eaten on the Sabbath.

כד

שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת שְׁתֵּי קְדֻשּׁוֹת הֵן וְאֵינָן כְּיוֹם אֶחָד לְפִיכָךְ דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה מֻקְצֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁנּוֹלַד בָּרִאשׁוֹן אִם הֵכִין אוֹתוֹ לַשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. כֵּיצַד. בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בָּרִאשׁוֹן תֵּאָכֵל בַּשֵּׁנִי. חַיָּה וְעוֹף שֶׁנִּצּוֹדוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן יֵאָכְלוּ בַּשֵּׁנִי. דָּבָר הַמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר בָּרִאשׁוֹן יֵאָכֵל בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִכְחל אֶת הָעַיִן בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם חלִי. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת אֲבָל שְׁנֵי יָמִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה קְדֻשָּׁה אַחַת הֵן וּכְיוֹם אֶחָד הֵן חֲשׁוּבִים לְכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן הַמֵּת בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בָּרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֲסוּרָה בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. שַׁבָּת הַסְּמוּכָה לְיוֹם טוֹב וְנוֹלְדָה בֵּיצָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן אֲסוּרָה בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה וַאֲפִלּוּ נוֹלְדָה בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי לֹא תֵּאָכֵל בְּשַׁבָּת הַסְּמוּכָה לוֹ:

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Footnotes
1.

I.e., Rosh HaShanah, the first of Tishrei, which is the seventh month when counting from Nisan. Significantly, the name Rosh HaShanah is not mentioned in the Torah at all.

2.

Our interpretation of the words מלאכת עבודה as "servile labor" is based on the gloss of the Maggid Mishneh on Halachah 5. There he interprets it as referring to tasks that a person would hire a servant to do rather than perform himself.

In his commentary on the Torah (Leviticus 23:7), the Ramban explains that with the expression "servile labor," the Torah intends to distinguish between work performed to prepare food (which he terms "gratifying labor") and the other forms of labor. According to the Ramban, the Torah never forbade the performance of the activities included in the labors necessary for the preparation of food. Any restrictions placed on them are Rabbinic in nature.

The Ramban's conception is also reflected in the statements of Rashi (Beitzah 12a), who interprets the Talmud's ruling (see Halachah 4), "Since [these labors] were permitted for the sake [of preparing food], they are permitted even when [they are performed] without such an intent," as meaning that, according to the Torah, there is no prohibition against performing these labors at all.

Tosafot (Beitzah, loc. cit.) differs and explains that for the performance of a labor to be allowed by the Torah, it must in some way contribute to the pleasure of the holiday. Otherwise, it is forbidden. According to this conception, all the thirty-nine labors forbidden on the Sabbath are prohibited on the holidays as well. There is, however, special dispensation to perform these labors when doing so will increase our holiday pleasure.

The Maggid Mishneh interprets the Rambam's citation of the expression "servile labor" as an indication that he follows the perspective shared by Rashi and the Ramban. Other authorities (e.g., the Lechem Mishneh and the Pri Chadash) do not agree with the Maggid Mishneh's interpretation and explain that the Rambam favors the other position. [See also the Chemdat Yisrael, who explains that the Rambam's statements in Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandment 328) do not concur with the Maggid Mishneh's conception of the Rambam's position.] Note the treatment of this subject in the Or Sameach and in Likkutei Sichot, Vol. XI. (See also the notes on Halachah 4.)

3.

Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandments 159-160, 162-163, 166-167) and Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvot 297, 300, 308, 310, 318, 321) include these six in the reckoning of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

4.

Note Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 159), which in addition to the term shabbaton, "day of rest," also mentions the phrase mikra kodesh, "holy convocation," as indicating that one is commanded to sanctify the day by ceasing to perform labor.

5.

I.e., any of the 28 of the 39 labors forbidden on the Sabbath that do not involve the preparation of food. (See Hilchot Shabbat 7:1.)

6.

Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandments 323-326, 328-329) and Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvot 298, 301, 309, 311, 319 and 323) include these six in the reckoning of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

7.

This is the minimum punishment given for the violation of a negative commandment that involves a deed.

8.

Pesachim 48a, moreover, states that even if a person is given separate warnings for each forbidden labor, each activity is not considered to be a separate violation.

9.

The Rambam is referring to the ruling (Hilchot Shabbat 7:7-8) that requires a person who performs activities that fall into two different categories of forbidden labor on the Sabbath to bring two different sin offerings. The performance of an activity from each category of forbidden labor is considered to be a separate violation. Such a distinction does not apply with regard to the performance of forbidden labors on the holidays.

10.

The Maggid Mishneh explains the Rambam's position as follows: All the labors forbidden on the Sabbath that involve preparation of food are not prohibited on the holidays. In addition, there are two forbidden labors, burning a flame and transferring articles, which do not necessarily involve the preparation of food. Nevertheless, since they are sometimes necessary for the preparation of food, they are permitted without any restriction.

Other authorities (e.g., Pri Chadash, Pri Megadim) interpret the Rambam's statements as meaning that even the forbidden labors involved with the preparation of food are permitted only for that purpose. If, however, one performs one of these labors for other reasons - e.g., one cooks food solely to give to animals - one is liable. Moreover, if one performs a forbidden labor that is not usually involved in the preparation of food for the purpose of preparing food, one is liable.

There is a third interpretation, that of the Mabit. (In his Responsum 124, however, he follows the second view.) According to the view he expresses in Kiryat Sefer, even if one performs a forbidden labor (that is not usually involved in the preparation of food) for the purpose of preparing food, one is not liable. As proof, he cites the example of making cheese, an act that the Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 10:13) considers a derivative of the forbidden labor of building. Nevertheless, making cheese on a holiday is not considered a violation of a forbidden labor and is forbidden only as a sh'vut.

11.

The reason for these two exceptions is as follows: Both are often involved in the preparation of food. Alternatively, the transfer of articles is considered "an inferior labor" (Tosafot, Beitzah 12a), and Exodus 35:3: "Do not burn a fire... on the Sabbath day," is interpreted also as an exclusion, indicating that burning fire is forbidden on the Sabbath, but not on holidays.

12.

As mentioned in the notes on Halachah 1, Tosafot requires that the activity bring a person some pleasure. This view is also reflected in the Ra'avad's gloss.

13.

The Maggid Mishneh quotes the Ra'avad as stating that this prohibition has its source in the Torah itself. Indeed, the Jerusalem Talmud (Beitzah 1:10) and certain passages in the Babylonian Talmud (Shabbat 95a; Chaggigah 18a) support this view. Nevertheless, most later authorities accept the Rambam's view that the prohibition is Rabbinic in origin.

14.

The Ra'avad gives a different rationale: that the extra effort involved in the performance of these activities is out of place on a holiday.

15.

The Ra'avad differs with the extent of the leniency granted by the Rambam, restricting it to sending containers and food. He also differs regarding the rationale, explaining that sending the articles on the holiday is a greater expression of honor and respect. The Rambam's ruling is quoted by the later authorities.

16.

All these labors, although necessary for the preparation of food, are not intended for the preparation of a particular cooked dish or loaf of bread. Rather, one performs these activities for several days in advance. Therefore, our Sages desired that these activities should not be performed on the festival itself.

It must be noted that these forbidden labors are specifically mentioned in the passage from the Jerusalem Talmud cited above, which states that the prohibition against performing such activities stems from the Torah itself.

17.

The Rambam's rationale depends on the concept of freshness. Food that is not fresh loses a certain amount of its flavor. The Ra'avad questions this principle, noting that produce harvested today is also fresher and tastier than produce harvested on the day before. Several authorities offer different observations to counter the Ra'avad's thesis.

18.

See Tz'ror HaChayim, which mentions various opinions concerning whether this prohibition has its origin in the Torah itself or in Rabbinic decree. In conclusion, he favors the opinion that the prohibition is Scriptural in origin. (See also Halachah 15.) The doubt exists only with regard to the Rambam's position. Tosafot and others maintain that the prohibition is Scriptural in origin (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 503:1).

19.

If, however, one cooked food on a holiday with the intent of eating it on the following day, many authorities (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 503:13) allow the food to be eaten after the holiday. (See also Halachah 11 and notes.)

20.

The reason is that the meat is tastier when cooked with many pieces together (Maggid Mishneh).

21.

This gives us a second rationale for the leniency of preparing a larger quantity of food than one needs immediately: when, as in the instance mentioned, there is no extra work involved in preparing a large quantity as compared to a small quantity. If either of these two rationales applies, leniency may be taken and the extra amount prepared.

Once, however, the water is left to boil, an additional amount may not be added (Ramah, Orach Chayim 103:2).

22.

Rabbenu Yonah explains that this applied in Talmudic times, when the ovens were small. In such an instance, a large number of loaves were placed in the oven at the same time, and it took longer for them to bake, producing a better flavor. If, as was the case with regard to the larger ovens used in the medieval period, adding to the number of loaves does not increase the flavor, it is forbidden to do so. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 507:6.)

23.

The salting is intended to drain off the blood so that it is permitted to cook the meat, as stated in Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot, Chapter 6.

24.

Here, also, the leniency is granted because there is no additional difficulty in salting the other pieces. Alternatively, the leniency is allowed so that the remainder of the meat will not spoil. Compare to Chapter 3, Halachah 4.

25.

As explained in Chapter 6, just as it is forbidden to prepare food on a holiday for a weekday that follows, our Sages forbade preparing food on a holiday for a Sabbath that follows directly after the holiday, or for the second day of the holiday itself. Nevertheless, as explained in that chapter, our Sages did provide the leniency of establishing an eruv tavshilin.

26.

I.e., invite guests although he knows that they will not come, or prepare a large quantity of food when one knows that one will be unable to eat it all, and then use the remainder for the following day.

Shulchan Aruch HaRav 503:7 notes that it has become common practice to cook a meal for the night of the second day of a holiday on the afternoon of the first day, relying on the leniency that one will taste some of the food. He criticizes this practice and explains that women should be taught to discontinue it and prepare the food before the commencement of the holiday.

27.

He and the members of his family may not partake of it; other Jews, however, are not restricted (Mishnah Berurah 527:79).

28.

The rationale for this stringency is that the example shown by a person with guile might be copied by others, while few will emulate brazen transgression. Moreover, even with regard to the person himself, if he were not punished, a person who acts with guile would never really appreciate the seriousness of his transgression, and would repeat it. When, however, a person willfully violates the Sages' decree, he will not be able to rationalize his conduct. Hence, there is the possibility he will recognize his error (Rashi, Beitzah 17b; Mishnah Berurah 527:78).

29.

We are speaking about an instance where the person has already eaten, and hence would not ordinarily consider slaughtering the animal. Nevertheless, because it is dangerously ill, he fears that it will die before the conclusion of the holiday. Our Sages were fearful that he would slaughter the animal regardless, rather than suffer the loss of having it die without ritual slaughter. They therefore established directives that would allow slaughter in most instances (Maggid Mishneh; Rashi, Beitzah 25a). (See also Chapter 6, Halachah 10.)

30.

Although the Rambam's wording might be interpreted as indicating that it is necessary to eat at least this amount of meat, the Maggid Mishneh and the later halachic authorities (Shulchan Aruch Harav 498:11; Mishnah Berurah 498:34) explain that it is not necessary to partake of the meat on the holiday.

31.

See the Mishnah Berurah 512:2, which states that a Jew who worships false gods or desecrates the Sabbath is considered like a gentile in this regard.

32.

The Rambam's citation of a verse from the Torah as a proof-text for this prohibition is interpreted as an indication that he follows the position (see the notes on Halachot 1 and 4) that the labors necessary to prepare food are forbidden by the Torah on the holiday unless one is preparing food for a Jew. As mentioned, others consider the prohibitions to be Rabbinic in origin.

33.

This rationale is not applicable on the Sabbath, for then it is not permitted to cook at all.

34.

I.e., as long as a portion of the loaf can be given to a baby, one is not cooking solely for the gentiles.

The Maggid Mishneh notes that many (e.g., Tur, Orach Chayim 512) have objected to the Rambam's ruling, based on Beitzah 21a, which appears to establish a correlation between the permission to bake bread for these soldiers and the laws mentioned in the previous halachah regarding inviting gentiles as guests. It appears from that passage that the Sages who forbid inviting guests also forbid baking bread for the soldiers, for the same principle is involved: one is cooking additional food for a gentile.

The Maggid Mishneh, however, explains that there is no contradiction and that the two views can be reconciled. The Jew can be considered to be baking for the sake of the child. For if he did not bake for the soldiers, they would not allow him to bake for the child.

The Rishon LeTzion amplifies the difference between the two situations, explaining that because the person is not baking solely for the gentiles, the prohibition against doing so is merely Rabbinic in origin and can be waived with regard to baking for a gentile army, since the person could suffer substantial financial loss if he refused. In contrast, when inviting guests, one does so on one's own volition, with no loss involved.

As emphasized by Shulchan Aruch HaRav 512:6, this leniency was granted only in this situation, because of the risk of confrontation with the military authorities. One should not apply it to other circumstances. (See also Mishnah Berurah 512:15.)

35.

Here also, since one is not baking solely for the dogs, one may bake the bread on a holiday. Although one is adding to the loaf one is baking for the dogs, since it would be possible to satisfy them by giving them meat, it appears that the shepherds are baking the loaf because they want to partake of it themselves (Maggid Mishneh).

As emphasized by the Mishnah Berurah 512:22, this leniency applies even when one has no other food immediately available for the dogs.

36.

The Rambam's wording appears to indicate that although the activity is forbidden by the Torah, punishment is not given, because it is possible that his activity might ultimately serve a permitted purpose.

37.

The Maggid Mishneh states that anointing oneself is mentioned because it is often necessary to heat oil used to anoint oneself. Anointing oneself with cold oil for pleasure is permitted even on the Sabbath (Hilchot Shabbat 21:23).

38.

The Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Beitzah 2:5) explains that the Hebrew יאכל has the connotation of all physical pleasure, not necessarily merely eating or drinking. Note the explanation in Sefer HaMitzvot, negative commandment 187.(See also the Yereim, section 113.)

39.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Shabbat 3:3) appears to indicate that the prohibition has its source in the Torah itself. Although Tosafot (Shabbat 39b) accept this view, Rabbenu Yitzchak Alfasi and the Rashba differ and maintain that this prohibition is a Rabbinical decree.

40.

As the Rambam explains in Hilchot Shabbat 22:2, our Sages instituted restrictions against bathing on the Sabbath because the attendants would heat up the water on the Sabbath and claim that they had done so on the preceding day. On holidays, although the rules are more lenient, certain restrictions remain. For a discussion concerning the laws of ritual immersion on a holiday, see the notes on Hilchot Shabbat 23:8.

41.

Based on the position of Tosafot mentioned previously, the Ramah (Orach Chayim 511:2) forbids washing one's entire body on a holiday as a safeguard, even when the water was heated before the commencement of the holiday. The subsequent Ashkenazic authorities accepted the Ramah's ruling, but were slightly more lenient and allowed washing one's entire body, portion by portion. Greater leniency is, however, shown with regard to washing a baby.

42.

See Hilchot Shabbat, loc. cit.

43.

See Hilchot Shabbat, Chapters 21-23, which list activities forbidden by the Sages for every category of forbidden labor.

44.

See Hilchot Shabbat, Chapters 25 and 26.

45.

The term muktzeh as popularly used with regard to the Sabbath prohibitions is not a precise application of the term. Muktzeh literally means "set aside." As used in the context here, it applies to articles that a person did not intend to use on a holiday. Rather, he "set them aside" to be used in the future.

As the Rambam explains in the following halachah, on the Sabbath it is not necessary to have a specific intention to use an object on the Sabbath. As long as there is no reason that prevents one from using it on that day - e.g., the prohibitions mentioned in Hilchot Shabbat, Chapters 25 and 26 - one may carry it on the Sabbath.

46.

The Ra'avad differs and states that there are authorities who maintain that articles that are muktzeh are permitted to be carried on holidays. The Rambam's view is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 495:4), while the Tur and the Ramah cite the more lenient view. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 495:13 states that although it is customary to follow the more lenient view, it would be preferable to follow the more stringent ruling.

47.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 5.

48.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 9.

49.

The preparation we are speaking about here is preparation through natural means, and not preparation accomplished by man through performance of labor. As mentioned previously in the chapter, it is forbidden to perform any activities on a holiday that involve the preparation of food for the days that follow. (See the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Beitzah 1:1.)

50.

Based on Pesachim 47a, several Rabbis (Ramban; Shulchan Aruch HaRav 513:1; Mishnah Berurah 513:1) maintain that the prohibition against nolad is Scriptural in origin.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (loc. cit.), by contrast, the Rambam explicitly states that it is a Rabbinic decree. Nevertheless, since the Commentary on the Mishnah was not widely studied, different perspectives about the Rambam's view have been offered, including that of the Minchat Chinuch (Mitzvah 295), who states that the Rambam would require a person to be punished by lashes for eating such an egg.

51.

If the chicken is not set aside to be eaten on the holiday, the egg is forbidden regardless, because of the prohibition against muktzeh (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, loc. cit.).

52.

There is no prohibition against eating an egg laid on a weekday that follows a holiday or on a Sunday. Since weekday meals are not significant, we are not concerned that a holiday or a Sabbath prepares for them.

53.

The Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 513:1) state: "It is forbidden to touch it." Although the prohibition is ordinarily against moving muktzeh, and touching it is permitted, the prohibition is made more severe in the present instance because an egg is round, and even the slightest touch is likely to cause it to roll.

54.

Generally, when a forbidden substance becomes mixed with a permitted substance, the presence of the forbidden substance is considered inconsequential (and the mixture permitted) when the taste of the forbidden substance can no longer be recognized, or when it is mixed with more than sixty times its weight of permitted food.

More stringent rulings are made, however, with regard to a forbidden substance that will ultimately become permitted (davar sheyesh lo matirin). The rationale is that since the entire mixture will be permitted within a short time, there is no reason to seek leniencies and partake of it while a portion (although inconsequential) is forbidden (Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot, chapter 15).

55.

The decrees our Sages instituted were meant to serve as safeguards, and a safeguard is necessary only when a situation occurs frequently.

56.

See Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:5, which explains that in the time when the calendar was established on the basis of the testimony of witnesses, the observance of the second day of a holiday in the distant diaspora was necessary because of a doubt regarding the days on which the holidays were to be celebrated. Nevertheless, in the present era, when we use a fixed calendar, the observance of the second day of a holiday in the diaspora is merely a custom. (See also Chapter 6, Halachah 14.)

57.

As explained in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:7, even when the calendar was established on the basis of the testimony of witnesses, Rosh HaShanah was generally observed for two days throughout Eretz Yisrael. Since it is forbidden to travel beyond 2000 cubits on a holiday, only those living in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem had the possibility of knowing whether or not the new month had been sanctified.

58.

The word "even" has attracted the attention of the commentaries for, as mentioned in Halachah 24, the observance of the second day of Rosh HaShanah is more severe than that of the second day of other holidays. The Lechem Mishneh explains that the intent is that even the observance of the second day of Rosh HaShanah does not warrant a more severe punishment.

59.

See Hilchot Talmud Torah, Chapters 6 and 7.

60.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 496:1) quotes the Tur, who states "If [the violator] is a Torah scholar, we do not punish him so severely as to place him under a ban of ostracism. He is to be beaten." (See Sha'ar HaTziyun 496:5, which focuses on the difference between these two rulings.)

61.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 17.

62.

There is a difference of opinion among the Rabbis whether only the actual burial and those activities that involve performance of a forbidden labor must be performed by gentiles, or whether this involves all activities associated with the burial, including the ritual purification of the body, dressing it in shrouds and the like.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that all activities associated with the burial must be performed by a gentile. The Hagahot Maimoniot, by contrast, maintain that any activity that does not actually involve a forbidden labor should be performed by a Jew. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 526:1) follows this view.

63.

Rashi (Shabbat 139b) and the Baal Halachot Gedolot explain that the leniency of allowing gentiles to bury a Jew on a holiday was instituted as a token of respect for the human body, the repository of the soul. If the body were left unburied, it would decompose and become an aspersion to the dignity of mankind. Therefore, they maintain that if the corpse is not likely to decompose, it should not be buried by gentiles.

Rabbenu Asher and others differ and maintain that the mitzvah of burying the corpse on the day the person dies is the source for this ruling (see Hilchot Sanhedrin 15:8). Therefore, even when the body is not likely to decompose, it should be buried on the first day. The Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit. 526:1) follows this view.

64.

The Tur and the Ramah (loc. cit.:4) mention a custom practiced by Rabbenu Tam, which equates the first and second days of a holiday in this regard. The Ramah agrees to this custom when it is possible to find a gentile to perform these labors, but maintains that if it is impossible to perform these labors, they should be performed by Jews.

In practice at present, in some observant communities burials are conducted on the holidays. Nevertheless, the prevailing custom at large - particularly when burying the dead might lead to the unnecessary violation of the laws of the holidays by some - is to postpone the burial until the following day.

65.

Originally, the observance of the holidays for two days came as a result of doubt: If the first day was actually the holiday, the second day was an ordinary day. Conversely, if the second day was actually the holiday, the first day was an ordinary day. Therefore, they were considered to be two different expressions of holiness. (See Chapter 6, Halachah 12.)

66.

The Ramah (Orach Chayim 496:2) interprets this as referring to an irritation that does not involve any danger. As such, tending to it by a Jew is forbidden on the first day of a holiday. On the second day, because it brings a person relief from pain, leniency is shown. The same law applies to all other remedies of this nature.

67.

Since they were universally observed, even within Eretz Yisrael.

68.

I.e., all instances of nolad.

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

I.e., Rosh HaShanah, the first of Tishrei, which is the seventh month when counting from Nisan. Significantly, the name Rosh HaShanah is not mentioned in the Torah at all.

2.

Our interpretation of the words מלאכת עבודה as "servile labor" is based on the gloss of the Maggid Mishneh on Halachah 5. There he interprets it as referring to tasks that a person would hire a servant to do rather than perform himself.

In his commentary on the Torah (Leviticus 23:7), the Ramban explains that with the expression "servile labor," the Torah intends to distinguish between work performed to prepare food (which he terms "gratifying labor") and the other forms of labor. According to the Ramban, the Torah never forbade the performance of the activities included in the labors necessary for the preparation of food. Any restrictions placed on them are Rabbinic in nature.

The Ramban's conception is also reflected in the statements of Rashi (Beitzah 12a), who interprets the Talmud's ruling (see Halachah 4), "Since [these labors] were permitted for the sake [of preparing food], they are permitted even when [they are performed] without such an intent," as meaning that, according to the Torah, there is no prohibition against performing these labors at all.

Tosafot (Beitzah, loc. cit.) differs and explains that for the performance of a labor to be allowed by the Torah, it must in some way contribute to the pleasure of the holiday. Otherwise, it is forbidden. According to this conception, all the thirty-nine labors forbidden on the Sabbath are prohibited on the holidays as well. There is, however, special dispensation to perform these labors when doing so will increase our holiday pleasure.

The Maggid Mishneh interprets the Rambam's citation of the expression "servile labor" as an indication that he follows the perspective shared by Rashi and the Ramban. Other authorities (e.g., the Lechem Mishneh and the Pri Chadash) do not agree with the Maggid Mishneh's interpretation and explain that the Rambam favors the other position. [See also the Chemdat Yisrael, who explains that the Rambam's statements in Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandment 328) do not concur with the Maggid Mishneh's conception of the Rambam's position.] Note the treatment of this subject in the Or Sameach and in Likkutei Sichot, Vol. XI. (See also the notes on Halachah 4.)

3.

Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandments 159-160, 162-163, 166-167) and Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvot 297, 300, 308, 310, 318, 321) include these six in the reckoning of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

4.

Note Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 159), which in addition to the term shabbaton, "day of rest," also mentions the phrase mikra kodesh, "holy convocation," as indicating that one is commanded to sanctify the day by ceasing to perform labor.

5.

I.e., any of the 28 of the 39 labors forbidden on the Sabbath that do not involve the preparation of food. (See Hilchot Shabbat 7:1.)

6.

Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandments 323-326, 328-329) and Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvot 298, 301, 309, 311, 319 and 323) include these six in the reckoning of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

7.

This is the minimum punishment given for the violation of a negative commandment that involves a deed.

8.

Pesachim 48a, moreover, states that even if a person is given separate warnings for each forbidden labor, each activity is not considered to be a separate violation.

9.

The Rambam is referring to the ruling (Hilchot Shabbat 7:7-8) that requires a person who performs activities that fall into two different categories of forbidden labor on the Sabbath to bring two different sin offerings. The performance of an activity from each category of forbidden labor is considered to be a separate violation. Such a distinction does not apply with regard to the performance of forbidden labors on the holidays.

10.

The Maggid Mishneh explains the Rambam's position as follows: All the labors forbidden on the Sabbath that involve preparation of food are not prohibited on the holidays. In addition, there are two forbidden labors, burning a flame and transferring articles, which do not necessarily involve the preparation of food. Nevertheless, since they are sometimes necessary for the preparation of food, they are permitted without any restriction.

Other authorities (e.g., Pri Chadash, Pri Megadim) interpret the Rambam's statements as meaning that even the forbidden labors involved with the preparation of food are permitted only for that purpose. If, however, one performs one of these labors for other reasons - e.g., one cooks food solely to give to animals - one is liable. Moreover, if one performs a forbidden labor that is not usually involved in the preparation of food for the purpose of preparing food, one is liable.

There is a third interpretation, that of the Mabit. (In his Responsum 124, however, he follows the second view.) According to the view he expresses in Kiryat Sefer, even if one performs a forbidden labor (that is not usually involved in the preparation of food) for the purpose of preparing food, one is not liable. As proof, he cites the example of making cheese, an act that the Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 10:13) considers a derivative of the forbidden labor of building. Nevertheless, making cheese on a holiday is not considered a violation of a forbidden labor and is forbidden only as a sh'vut.

11.

The reason for these two exceptions is as follows: Both are often involved in the preparation of food. Alternatively, the transfer of articles is considered "an inferior labor" (Tosafot, Beitzah 12a), and Exodus 35:3: "Do not burn a fire... on the Sabbath day," is interpreted also as an exclusion, indicating that burning fire is forbidden on the Sabbath, but not on holidays.

12.

As mentioned in the notes on Halachah 1, Tosafot requires that the activity bring a person some pleasure. This view is also reflected in the Ra'avad's gloss.

13.

The Maggid Mishneh quotes the Ra'avad as stating that this prohibition has its source in the Torah itself. Indeed, the Jerusalem Talmud (Beitzah 1:10) and certain passages in the Babylonian Talmud (Shabbat 95a; Chaggigah 18a) support this view. Nevertheless, most later authorities accept the Rambam's view that the prohibition is Rabbinic in origin.

14.

The Ra'avad gives a different rationale: that the extra effort involved in the performance of these activities is out of place on a holiday.

15.

The Ra'avad differs with the extent of the leniency granted by the Rambam, restricting it to sending containers and food. He also differs regarding the rationale, explaining that sending the articles on the holiday is a greater expression of honor and respect. The Rambam's ruling is quoted by the later authorities.

16.

All these labors, although necessary for the preparation of food, are not intended for the preparation of a particular cooked dish or loaf of bread. Rather, one performs these activities for several days in advance. Therefore, our Sages desired that these activities should not be performed on the festival itself.

It must be noted that these forbidden labors are specifically mentioned in the passage from the Jerusalem Talmud cited above, which states that the prohibition against performing such activities stems from the Torah itself.

17.

The Rambam's rationale depends on the concept of freshness. Food that is not fresh loses a certain amount of its flavor. The Ra'avad questions this principle, noting that produce harvested today is also fresher and tastier than produce harvested on the day before. Several authorities offer different observations to counter the Ra'avad's thesis.

18.

See Tz'ror HaChayim, which mentions various opinions concerning whether this prohibition has its origin in the Torah itself or in Rabbinic decree. In conclusion, he favors the opinion that the prohibition is Scriptural in origin. (See also Halachah 15.) The doubt exists only with regard to the Rambam's position. Tosafot and others maintain that the prohibition is Scriptural in origin (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 503:1).

19.

If, however, one cooked food on a holiday with the intent of eating it on the following day, many authorities (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 503:13) allow the food to be eaten after the holiday. (See also Halachah 11 and notes.)

20.

The reason is that the meat is tastier when cooked with many pieces together (Maggid Mishneh).

21.

This gives us a second rationale for the leniency of preparing a larger quantity of food than one needs immediately: when, as in the instance mentioned, there is no extra work involved in preparing a large quantity as compared to a small quantity. If either of these two rationales applies, leniency may be taken and the extra amount prepared.

Once, however, the water is left to boil, an additional amount may not be added (Ramah, Orach Chayim 103:2).

22.

Rabbenu Yonah explains that this applied in Talmudic times, when the ovens were small. In such an instance, a large number of loaves were placed in the oven at the same time, and it took longer for them to bake, producing a better flavor. If, as was the case with regard to the larger ovens used in the medieval period, adding to the number of loaves does not increase the flavor, it is forbidden to do so. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 507:6.)

23.

The salting is intended to drain off the blood so that it is permitted to cook the meat, as stated in Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot, Chapter 6.

24.

Here, also, the leniency is granted because there is no additional difficulty in salting the other pieces. Alternatively, the leniency is allowed so that the remainder of the meat will not spoil. Compare to Chapter 3, Halachah 4.

25.

As explained in Chapter 6, just as it is forbidden to prepare food on a holiday for a weekday that follows, our Sages forbade preparing food on a holiday for a Sabbath that follows directly after the holiday, or for the second day of the holiday itself. Nevertheless, as explained in that chapter, our Sages did provide the leniency of establishing an eruv tavshilin.

26.

I.e., invite guests although he knows that they will not come, or prepare a large quantity of food when one knows that one will be unable to eat it all, and then use the remainder for the following day.

Shulchan Aruch HaRav 503:7 notes that it has become common practice to cook a meal for the night of the second day of a holiday on the afternoon of the first day, relying on the leniency that one will taste some of the food. He criticizes this practice and explains that women should be taught to discontinue it and prepare the food before the commencement of the holiday.

27.

He and the members of his family may not partake of it; other Jews, however, are not restricted (Mishnah Berurah 527:79).

28.

The rationale for this stringency is that the example shown by a person with guile might be copied by others, while few will emulate brazen transgression. Moreover, even with regard to the person himself, if he were not punished, a person who acts with guile would never really appreciate the seriousness of his transgression, and would repeat it. When, however, a person willfully violates the Sages' decree, he will not be able to rationalize his conduct. Hence, there is the possibility he will recognize his error (Rashi, Beitzah 17b; Mishnah Berurah 527:78).

29.

We are speaking about an instance where the person has already eaten, and hence would not ordinarily consider slaughtering the animal. Nevertheless, because it is dangerously ill, he fears that it will die before the conclusion of the holiday. Our Sages were fearful that he would slaughter the animal regardless, rather than suffer the loss of having it die without ritual slaughter. They therefore established directives that would allow slaughter in most instances (Maggid Mishneh; Rashi, Beitzah 25a). (See also Chapter 6, Halachah 10.)

30.

Although the Rambam's wording might be interpreted as indicating that it is necessary to eat at least this amount of meat, the Maggid Mishneh and the later halachic authorities (Shulchan Aruch Harav 498:11; Mishnah Berurah 498:34) explain that it is not necessary to partake of the meat on the holiday.

31.

See the Mishnah Berurah 512:2, which states that a Jew who worships false gods or desecrates the Sabbath is considered like a gentile in this regard.

32.

The Rambam's citation of a verse from the Torah as a proof-text for this prohibition is interpreted as an indication that he follows the position (see the notes on Halachot 1 and 4) that the labors necessary to prepare food are forbidden by the Torah on the holiday unless one is preparing food for a Jew. As mentioned, others consider the prohibitions to be Rabbinic in origin.

33.

This rationale is not applicable on the Sabbath, for then it is not permitted to cook at all.

34.

I.e., as long as a portion of the loaf can be given to a baby, one is not cooking solely for the gentiles.

The Maggid Mishneh notes that many (e.g., Tur, Orach Chayim 512) have objected to the Rambam's ruling, based on Beitzah 21a, which appears to establish a correlation between the permission to bake bread for these soldiers and the laws mentioned in the previous halachah regarding inviting gentiles as guests. It appears from that passage that the Sages who forbid inviting guests also forbid baking bread for the soldiers, for the same principle is involved: one is cooking additional food for a gentile.

The Maggid Mishneh, however, explains that there is no contradiction and that the two views can be reconciled. The Jew can be considered to be baking for the sake of the child. For if he did not bake for the soldiers, they would not allow him to bake for the child.

The Rishon LeTzion amplifies the difference between the two situations, explaining that because the person is not baking solely for the gentiles, the prohibition against doing so is merely Rabbinic in origin and can be waived with regard to baking for a gentile army, since the person could suffer substantial financial loss if he refused. In contrast, when inviting guests, one does so on one's own volition, with no loss involved.

As emphasized by Shulchan Aruch HaRav 512:6, this leniency was granted only in this situation, because of the risk of confrontation with the military authorities. One should not apply it to other circumstances. (See also Mishnah Berurah 512:15.)

35.

Here also, since one is not baking solely for the dogs, one may bake the bread on a holiday. Although one is adding to the loaf one is baking for the dogs, since it would be possible to satisfy them by giving them meat, it appears that the shepherds are baking the loaf because they want to partake of it themselves (Maggid Mishneh).

As emphasized by the Mishnah Berurah 512:22, this leniency applies even when one has no other food immediately available for the dogs.

36.

The Rambam's wording appears to indicate that although the activity is forbidden by the Torah, punishment is not given, because it is possible that his activity might ultimately serve a permitted purpose.

37.

The Maggid Mishneh states that anointing oneself is mentioned because it is often necessary to heat oil used to anoint oneself. Anointing oneself with cold oil for pleasure is permitted even on the Sabbath (Hilchot Shabbat 21:23).

38.

The Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Beitzah 2:5) explains that the Hebrew יאכל has the connotation of all physical pleasure, not necessarily merely eating or drinking. Note the explanation in Sefer HaMitzvot, negative commandment 187.(See also the Yereim, section 113.)

39.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Shabbat 3:3) appears to indicate that the prohibition has its source in the Torah itself. Although Tosafot (Shabbat 39b) accept this view, Rabbenu Yitzchak Alfasi and the Rashba differ and maintain that this prohibition is a Rabbinical decree.

40.

As the Rambam explains in Hilchot Shabbat 22:2, our Sages instituted restrictions against bathing on the Sabbath because the attendants would heat up the water on the Sabbath and claim that they had done so on the preceding day. On holidays, although the rules are more lenient, certain restrictions remain. For a discussion concerning the laws of ritual immersion on a holiday, see the notes on Hilchot Shabbat 23:8.

41.

Based on the position of Tosafot mentioned previously, the Ramah (Orach Chayim 511:2) forbids washing one's entire body on a holiday as a safeguard, even when the water was heated before the commencement of the holiday. The subsequent Ashkenazic authorities accepted the Ramah's ruling, but were slightly more lenient and allowed washing one's entire body, portion by portion. Greater leniency is, however, shown with regard to washing a baby.

42.

See Hilchot Shabbat, loc. cit.

43.

See Hilchot Shabbat, Chapters 21-23, which list activities forbidden by the Sages for every category of forbidden labor.

44.

See Hilchot Shabbat, Chapters 25 and 26.

45.

The term muktzeh as popularly used with regard to the Sabbath prohibitions is not a precise application of the term. Muktzeh literally means "set aside." As used in the context here, it applies to articles that a person did not intend to use on a holiday. Rather, he "set them aside" to be used in the future.

As the Rambam explains in the following halachah, on the Sabbath it is not necessary to have a specific intention to use an object on the Sabbath. As long as there is no reason that prevents one from using it on that day - e.g., the prohibitions mentioned in Hilchot Shabbat, Chapters 25 and 26 - one may carry it on the Sabbath.

46.

The Ra'avad differs and states that there are authorities who maintain that articles that are muktzeh are permitted to be carried on holidays. The Rambam's view is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 495:4), while the Tur and the Ramah cite the more lenient view. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 495:13 states that although it is customary to follow the more lenient view, it would be preferable to follow the more stringent ruling.

47.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 5.

48.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 9.

49.

The preparation we are speaking about here is preparation through natural means, and not preparation accomplished by man through performance of labor. As mentioned previously in the chapter, it is forbidden to perform any activities on a holiday that involve the preparation of food for the days that follow. (See the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Beitzah 1:1.)

50.

Based on Pesachim 47a, several Rabbis (Ramban; Shulchan Aruch HaRav 513:1; Mishnah Berurah 513:1) maintain that the prohibition against nolad is Scriptural in origin.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (loc. cit.), by contrast, the Rambam explicitly states that it is a Rabbinic decree. Nevertheless, since the Commentary on the Mishnah was not widely studied, different perspectives about the Rambam's view have been offered, including that of the Minchat Chinuch (Mitzvah 295), who states that the Rambam would require a person to be punished by lashes for eating such an egg.

51.

If the chicken is not set aside to be eaten on the holiday, the egg is forbidden regardless, because of the prohibition against muktzeh (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, loc. cit.).

52.

There is no prohibition against eating an egg laid on a weekday that follows a holiday or on a Sunday. Since weekday meals are not significant, we are not concerned that a holiday or a Sabbath prepares for them.

53.

The Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 513:1) state: "It is forbidden to touch it." Although the prohibition is ordinarily against moving muktzeh, and touching it is permitted, the prohibition is made more severe in the present instance because an egg is round, and even the slightest touch is likely to cause it to roll.

54.

Generally, when a forbidden substance becomes mixed with a permitted substance, the presence of the forbidden substance is considered inconsequential (and the mixture permitted) when the taste of the forbidden substance can no longer be recognized, or when it is mixed with more than sixty times its weight of permitted food.

More stringent rulings are made, however, with regard to a forbidden substance that will ultimately become permitted (davar sheyesh lo matirin). The rationale is that since the entire mixture will be permitted within a short time, there is no reason to seek leniencies and partake of it while a portion (although inconsequential) is forbidden (Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot, chapter 15).

55.

The decrees our Sages instituted were meant to serve as safeguards, and a safeguard is necessary only when a situation occurs frequently.

56.

See Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:5, which explains that in the time when the calendar was established on the basis of the testimony of witnesses, the observance of the second day of a holiday in the distant diaspora was necessary because of a doubt regarding the days on which the holidays were to be celebrated. Nevertheless, in the present era, when we use a fixed calendar, the observance of the second day of a holiday in the diaspora is merely a custom. (See also Chapter 6, Halachah 14.)

57.

As explained in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:7, even when the calendar was established on the basis of the testimony of witnesses, Rosh HaShanah was generally observed for two days throughout Eretz Yisrael. Since it is forbidden to travel beyond 2000 cubits on a holiday, only those living in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem had the possibility of knowing whether or not the new month had been sanctified.

58.

The word "even" has attracted the attention of the commentaries for, as mentioned in Halachah 24, the observance of the second day of Rosh HaShanah is more severe than that of the second day of other holidays. The Lechem Mishneh explains that the intent is that even the observance of the second day of Rosh HaShanah does not warrant a more severe punishment.

59.

See Hilchot Talmud Torah, Chapters 6 and 7.

60.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 496:1) quotes the Tur, who states "If [the violator] is a Torah scholar, we do not punish him so severely as to place him under a ban of ostracism. He is to be beaten." (See Sha'ar HaTziyun 496:5, which focuses on the difference between these two rulings.)

61.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 17.

62.

There is a difference of opinion among the Rabbis whether only the actual burial and those activities that involve performance of a forbidden labor must be performed by gentiles, or whether this involves all activities associated with the burial, including the ritual purification of the body, dressing it in shrouds and the like.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that all activities associated with the burial must be performed by a gentile. The Hagahot Maimoniot, by contrast, maintain that any activity that does not actually involve a forbidden labor should be performed by a Jew. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 526:1) follows this view.

63.

Rashi (Shabbat 139b) and the Baal Halachot Gedolot explain that the leniency of allowing gentiles to bury a Jew on a holiday was instituted as a token of respect for the human body, the repository of the soul. If the body were left unburied, it would decompose and become an aspersion to the dignity of mankind. Therefore, they maintain that if the corpse is not likely to decompose, it should not be buried by gentiles.

Rabbenu Asher and others differ and maintain that the mitzvah of burying the corpse on the day the person dies is the source for this ruling (see Hilchot Sanhedrin 15:8). Therefore, even when the body is not likely to decompose, it should be buried on the first day. The Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit. 526:1) follows this view.

64.

The Tur and the Ramah (loc. cit.:4) mention a custom practiced by Rabbenu Tam, which equates the first and second days of a holiday in this regard. The Ramah agrees to this custom when it is possible to find a gentile to perform these labors, but maintains that if it is impossible to perform these labors, they should be performed by Jews.

In practice at present, in some observant communities burials are conducted on the holidays. Nevertheless, the prevailing custom at large - particularly when burying the dead might lead to the unnecessary violation of the laws of the holidays by some - is to postpone the burial until the following day.

65.

Originally, the observance of the holidays for two days came as a result of doubt: If the first day was actually the holiday, the second day was an ordinary day. Conversely, if the second day was actually the holiday, the first day was an ordinary day. Therefore, they were considered to be two different expressions of holiness. (See Chapter 6, Halachah 12.)

66.

The Ramah (Orach Chayim 496:2) interprets this as referring to an irritation that does not involve any danger. As such, tending to it by a Jew is forbidden on the first day of a holiday. On the second day, because it brings a person relief from pain, leniency is shown. The same law applies to all other remedies of this nature.

67.

Since they were universally observed, even within Eretz Yisrael.

68.

I.e., all instances of nolad.

The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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