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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Terumot - Chapter 15

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Terumot - Chapter 15


A sealed barrel [of wine that is terumah] makes a mixture miduma whatever the ratio [between it and the other barrels].

What is implied? When a sealed barrel [of wine] that is terumah becomes mixed with several thousand sealed barrels [of ordinary wine], the entire mixture becomes miduma.1 If the barrels are opened, [the presence of the terumah] is nullified when 101 times its contents are present.2


חָבִית סְתוּמָה מְדַמַּעַת בִּכָל שֶׁהוּא. כֵּיצַד. חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים חָבִיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת נִדְמַע הַכּל. נִפְתְּחוּ הֶחָבִיּוֹת תַּעֲלֶה בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה:


When a sealed barrel [that contains terumah] becomes mixed with 100 barrels and then one falls into the Mediterranean Sea, they are all permitted. We assume that it is the one that is terumah that fell in. This is not the case when a fig falls into 100 figs. In the latter instance, it is necessary to set aside one [fig].3 [The rationale for the distinction is] that a barrel that falls into the sea is noticeable. A fig and the like which fall are not noticeable.


חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בַּמֵּאָה חָבִיּוֹת וְנָפְלָה אַחַת מֵהֶם לַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל הֻתְּרוּ כֻּלָּן וְאוֹמְרִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הִיא שֶׁנָּפְלָה. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּתְאֵנָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה וְנָפְלָה אַחַת מֵהֶן לַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ אַחַת. לְפִי שֶׁהֶחָבִית נְפִילָתָהּ נִכֶּרֶת וּתְאֵנָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אֵין נְפִילָתָהּ נִכֶּרֶת:


When a sealed barrel [that contains terumah] becomes mixed with 100 barrels and one of them is opened,4 he should remove one hundredth of it,5 and then he may drink the barrel.6 The other barrels are, however, forbidden until they are opened. Whenever any one of them is opened, he should remove the percentage that causes the mixture to be miduma and drink the remaining hundred portions.

If a barrel [containing terumah] became mixed with 150 barrels and 100 of them were opened, one should remove the percentage that causes the mixture to be miduma, i.e., one barrel and drink [the remaining barrels]. The remaining 50 are still forbidden; we do not presume that the barrel that was terumah was among the majority [that were opened].7 Even if there are several thousand barrels, they are all considered miduma. Whenever any one is opened, he should remove one hundredth of it and then he may drink the remainder [of that barrel]. The other barrels, however, are miduma,


חָבִית סְתוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּמֵאָה חָבִיּוֹת וְנִפְתְּחָה אַחַת מֵהֶן נוֹטֵל מִמֶּנָּה אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה וְשׁוֹתֶה אוֹתָהּ הֶחָבִית. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הֶחָבִיּוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּפָּתְחוּ. וְכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת שֶׁתִּפָּתַח מֵהֶן נוֹטֵל מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי דִּמּוּעָהּ וְשׁוֹתֶה הַמֵּאָה הַשְּׁאָר. נִתְעָרְבָה חָבִית בְּמֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים חָבִיּוֹת וְנִפְתְּחוּ מֵהֶם מֵאָה נוֹטֵל מֵהֶם כְּדֵי דִּמּוּעַ חָבִית אַחַת וְשׁוֹתֶה הַמֵּאָה וּשְׁאָר הַחֲמִשִּׁים אֲסוּרוֹת וְאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין לְאוֹתָהּ חָבִית שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁהִיא בְּרֹב אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ כַּמָּה אֲלָפִים חָבִיּוֹת כֻּלָּן מְדֻמָּע וְכָל מַה שֶּׁיִּפְתַּח נוֹטֵל הֵימֶנּוּ אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה וְהַשְּׁיָרִים שׁוֹתֶה וְהַשְּׁאָר מְדֻמָּע:


We have already explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot8 that a leavening agent or a spice9 causes a mixture to be forbidden regardless of how small the amount is mixed in.10 Therefore if a person pureed an apple that was terumah and put it in a dough and it caused [the dough] to leaven, the entire dough becomes miduma and is forbidden to non-priests.


כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹת שֶׁהַמְחַמֵּץ וְהַמְתַבֵּל אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. לְפִיכָךְ אִם רִסֵּק תַּפּוּחַ שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וּנְתָנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה וְהֶחְמִיצָה כָּל הָעִסָּה מְדֻמַּעַת וַאֲסוּרָה לְזָרִים:


When an egg, even its yolk,11 was flavored with spices that are terumah, it is forbidden, because it absorbs.


בֵּיצָה שֶׁנִּתְבְּלָה בְּתַבְלִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אֲפִלּוּ חֶלְמוֹן שֶׁלָּהּ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בּוֹלֵעַ:


When yeast that is terumah fell into a dough and it was removed and afterwards, the mixture became leavened, [the dough] is permitted.12


שְׂאוֹר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְחַמְּצָה הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת:


We have already explained13 that if terumah becomes mixed with a substance of a different type, [the mixture is forbidden if the terumah] imparts its flavor [to the mixture]. Therefore, [the following laws apply when] a diced onion is cooked together with other food. If the onion is terumah and the other food is ordinary produce and it is flavored by the onion, the other food is forbidden to non-priests. If the onion is ordinary produce and the cooked food is terumah and the flavor of the cooked food was imparted to the onion, the onion is forbidden [to non-priests].14


כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאִם נִתְעָרֵב (תְּרוּמָה) מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם לְפִיכָךְ בָּצָל מְחֻתָּךְ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל עִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל אִם הַבָּצָל תְּרוּמָה וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל חֻלִּין וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם הַבָּצָל הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר לְזָרִים. וְאִם הַבָּצָל חֻלִּין וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל תְּרוּמָה וְנִמְצָא טַעַם הַתַּבְשִׁיל בַּבָּצָל הֲרֵי הַבָּצָל אָסוּר:


[The following laws apply if] lentils were cooked and then a dry onion was placed among them: If the onion was whole, it is permitted.15 If it was diced, [the ruling depends on whether] its flavor was imparted.16 If he cooked the onion with the lentils, whether it is whole or diced, we estimate whether it imparted its flavor.17 With regard to the remainder of the cooked food,18 regardless of whether the onion was placed upon it after it was cooked or cooked with it, or whether it was whole or diced, we estimate whether it imparted its flavor.19

Why do we not estimate [whether flavor was imparted] when a whole onion was placed among cooked lentils? Because it does not absorb from them, for it is whole, nor does it impart [flavor] to them, because they have already been cooked. If the onions were soft,20 it is considered as if they were diced. Similarly, if its tip or its outer shell21 was removed or it was moist, it is considered as if it was diced. Wild onions, whether moist or dry, whether whole or diced, we see if they have imparted their flavor.


עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִיךְ לְתוֹכָן בָּצָל יָבֵשׁ אִם הָיָה שָׁלֵם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְאִם הָיָה מְחֻתָּךְ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל הַבָּצָל עִם הָעֲדָשִׁים בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין מְחֻתָּךְ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל בֵּין שֶׁהִשְׁלִיךְ הַבָּצָל אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בֵּין שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ עִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין מְחֻתָּךְ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה בָּצָל שָׁלֵם לְתוֹךְ עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ אֵין מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתוֹ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹאֵב מֵהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא שָׁלֵם וְלֹא פּוֹלֵט לְתוֹכָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ. וְאִם הָיוּ בְּצָלִים רַכִּים הֲרֵי הֵן כִּמְחֻתָּךְ. וְכֵן אִם נוֹטֵל פִּטְמָתוֹ וּקְלִפָּתוֹ הַחִיצוֹנָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לַח הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְחֻתָּךְ. וְהָקַפְלוּט בֵּין לַח בֵּין יָבֵשׁ בֵּין שָׁלֵם בֵּין מְחֻתָּךְ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם:


When one pickles vegetables that are ordinary produce with those of terumah, they are permitted to non-priests22 with the exception of onions, scallions, and garlic.23 [With regard to these species,] if one pickled vegetables that are ordinary produce with onions that are terumah or onions that are ordinary produce with onions that are terumah, they are forbidden to non-priests. If one pickled vegetables that are terumah with an onion that is ordinary produce, the onion is permitted to non-priests.24


הַכּוֹבֵשׁ יָרָק שֶׁל חֻלִּין עִם יָרָק שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְזָרִים. חוּץ מִמִּינֵי בְּצָלִים וְחָצִיר וְשׁוּמִים. שֶׁאִם כָּבַשׁ יָרָק שֶׁל חֻלִּין עִם בְּצָלִים שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אוֹ בְּצָלִים חֻלִּין עִם בְּצָלִים שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. כָּבַשׁ יָרָק שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה עִם בָּצָל שֶׁל חֻלִּין הֲרֵי הַבָּצָל מֻתָּר לְזָרִים:


[The following rules apply when] olives that are ordinary produce were pickled together with olives that are terumah. If they were both crushed, or the ordinary olives were crushed, but those which were terumah were whole,25 or they were pickled in brine that was terumah, they are forbidden to non-priests.26 If, however, they were both whole or the olives that were terumah were crushed and those that were ordinary produce were whole, they are permitted, because those that are crushed absorb from those which are whole.


זֵיתֵי חֻלִּין שֶׁכְּבָשָׁן עִם זֵיתֵי תְּרוּמָה. אִם הָיוּ פְּצוּעִין אֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ חֻלִּין פְּצוּעִין וְשֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שְׁלֵמִין. אוֹ שֶׁכְּבָשָׁן בְּמֵי תְּרוּמָה. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן שְׁלֵמִין. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ זֵיתֵי תְּרוּמָה פְּצוּעִין וְזֵיתֵי הַחֻלִּין שְׁלֵמִין. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין לְפִי שֶׁהַפְּצוּעִין שׁוֹאֲבוֹת מִן הַשְּׁלֵמִין:


Water in which terumah was pickled or cooked is forbidden to non-priests.27


מֵי כְּבָשִׁים וּמֵי שְׁלָקוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין לְזָרִים:


The laws governing terumah apply to anise as long as it has not yet flavored a dish [of food].28 Once it has flavored a dish, the laws of terumah no longer apply.


הַשֶּׁבֶת עַד שֶׁלֹּא נָתְנָה טַעַם בַּקְּדֵרָה יֵשׁ בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה. מִשֶּׁנָּתְנָה טַעַם בַּקְּדֵרָה אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה:


[The following laws apply when a person] removes a warm loaf of bread [from the oven] and places it over a barrel of wine that is terumah. If the loaf is from wheat, it is permitted.29 If it is from barley, it is forbidden, because it draws forth [the wine itself].30


הָרוֹדֶה פַּת חַמָּה וּנְתָנָהּ עַל פִּי חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין תְּרוּמָה. אִם הָיְתָה פַּת חִטִּים הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת. וְשֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים אֲסוּרִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשּׁוֹאֲבוֹת:


When an oven has been heated with cumin that is terumah, the bread is permitted. For it does not have the flavor of the cumin, only its fragrance and fragrance does not create a prohibition.31


תַּנּוּר שֶׁהִסִּיקוֹ בְּכַמּוֹן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה וְאָפָה בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת הַפַּת מֻתֶּרֶת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ טַעַם כַּמּוֹן אֶלָּא רֵיחוֹ וְהָרֵיחַ אֵינוֹ אָסוּר:


When barley that is terumah falls into a cistern of water, the water is permitted even if [the barley] spoils the flavor of the water, for food that imparts an undesirable flavor does not bring about a prohibition.32


שְׂעוֹרִין שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְבוֹר שֶׁל מַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִבְאִישׁוּ מֵימָיו הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרִין שֶׁאֵין נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם אוֹסֵר:


[The following law applies when] chilba33 that is terumah and its plant fall into a cistern of wine. If the chilba seed itself34 is of sufficient quantity to impart its flavor to the wine, the wine is forbidden to non-priests.


תִּלְתָּן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה הוּא וְעֵצוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ בּוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן אִם יֵשׁ בְּזֶרַע הַתִּלְתָּן כְּדֵי לִתֵּן לְבַדּוֹ טַעַם בַּיַּיִן הֲרֵי הַיַּיִן אָסוּר לְזָרִים:


When there are two cups of wine: one of terumah and one of ordinary wine35 and they were each mixed with water and then combined, we consider it as if the ordinary wine was not present and as if the wine that was terumahwas mixed with the water alone, for water is not of its type. If that water is sufficient to nullify the taste of the terumah wine in the mixture, the entire mixture is permitted to non-priests. If not, it is forbidden, for as we have explained,36 water does not nullify wine.


שְׁנֵי כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן אֶחָד תְּרוּמָה וְאֶחָד חֻלִּין מָזַג כָּל אֶחָד בְּמַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ עֵרְבָן. רוֹאִין אֶת יֵין הַחֻלִּין כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ וּכְאִלּוּ יֵין הַתְּרוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמַיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. אִם רָאוּי אוֹתוֹ הַמַּיִם לְבַטֵּל טַעַם יֵין הַתְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הַכּל מֻתָּר לְזָרִים. וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר. שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם מַעֲלִין אֶת הַיַּיִן:


When wine that is terumah falls on produce, one may wash the fruits and they are permitted.37 Similarly, when oil that is terumah falls on produce, one may wash the fruits and they are permitted.38

When oil [that is terumah] falls on [ordinary] wine, one should make it coagulate39 and the wine is then permitted to non-priests. If [oil that is terumah] mixes with brine, it should be made to coagulate, then the upper layer of the brine should be removed40 so that all the brine that has the taste of oil will be removed.


יַיִן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי פֵּרוֹת יְדִיחֵם וְהֵם מֻתָּרוֹת. וְכֵן שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי פֵּרוֹת יְדִיחֵם וְהֵם מֻתָּרוֹת. נָפַל הַשֶּׁמֶן עַל גַּבֵּי יַיִן יַקְפֶּה אוֹתוֹ וְהַיַּיִן מֻתָּר לְזָרִים. נָפַל עַל גַּבֵּי הַצִּיר יַקְפֶּה אוֹתוֹ וְיִטּל קְלִפָּה מֵעַל הַצִּיר כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּסִיר כָּל הַצִּיר שֶׁבּוֹ טַעַם הַשֶּׁמֶן:


A pot in which terumah was cooked should not be used to cook ordinary produce. If it was cooked in it, it causes it to be forbidden if its flavor is recognizable. If he washes out the pot with wine or with water, it is permitted to cook in it.41 If he cooked [terumah] in part of the pot, it is not necessary to wash out the entire pot, only the place where it was cooked.42


קְדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ תְּרוּמָה לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ חֻלִּין. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם. וְאִם שָׁטַף הַקְּדֵרָה בְּמַיִם אוֹ בְּיַיִן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְבַשֵּׁל בָּהּ. בִּשֵּׁל בְּמִקְצָת הַכְּלִי אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁטֹף אֶת כֻּלּוֹ אֶלָּא שׁוֹטֵף מְקוֹם הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּלְבַד:


The great terumah, terumat ma'aser, challah,43 and the first fruits are all referred to as terumah.44 With regard to terumat ma'aser, [Numbers 18:26] states: "And you shall remove the terumah of G‑d from it" and [ibid. 15:20] states that it should be "like the terumah of your grain heap."45

With regard to challah, [ibid.] states: "You shall separate challah as terumah." And [Deuteronomy 12:17]: "You may not eat in your gates the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil,... and the terumah of your hand." Now there are no substances that are required to be brought [to Jerusalem to be eaten] that are not explicitly mentioned in the verse except the first fruits. Thus the phrase "the terumah of your hand" can be applied to them. Thus we see that they are [also] called terumah.


תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְהַחַלָּה וְהַבִּכּוּרִים כֻּלָּן נִקְרְאוּ תְּרוּמָה. בִּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר נֶאֱמַר (במדבר יח כו) "וַהֲרֵמֹתֶם מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמַת ה'" וְאוֹמֵר (במדבר טו כ) "כִּתְרוּמַת גֹּרֶן". וּבְחַלָּה נֶאֱמַר (במדבר טו כ) "חַלָּה תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה". וְנֶאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב יז) "וּתְרוּמַת יָדְךָ". וְאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁטָּעוּן הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרְטוֹ בְּפָסוּק זֶה חוּץ מִן הַבִּכּוּרִים וּבָהֶן נֶאֱמַר וּתְרוּמַת יָדְךָ הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁהֵן קְרוּאִין תְּרוּמָה:


Therefore the laws regarding partaking of all four types of substances and mixtures of them and other substances are the same. All can be nullified in a mixture of 101 times the original substance. They are also all combined with each other.46 If they become impure, they should all be burnt. The laws that apply to terumat ma'aser that is demai,47 are the same that apply to terumat ma'aser separated from produce [from which the tithes were] definitely [not separated]. It is only that its violation is not punishable by lashes.


לְפִיכָךְ דִּין אַרְבַּעְתָּן לְעִנְיַן אֲכִילָה וְדִמּוּעַ אֶחָד הוּא כֻּלָּן עוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאִם נִטְמְאוּ יִשָּׂרְפוּ. וְדִין תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל דְּמַאי בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּרָכִים כִּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל וַדַּאי אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹקִין עַל אֲכִילָתָהּ:


Anyone who partakes of terumah should recite the blessing for that particular food and then recite the blessing:48 "[Blessed are You... who has sanctified us with the holiness of Aaron and commanded us to partake of terumah."49 We have received the tradition and observed that people would recite this blessing even when partaking of challah separated in the Diaspora.50 For even partaking of sacred foods from the boundaries [of our Holy Land] is like service [in the Temple],51 as [Numbers 18:7] states: "I have granted you your priestly service as a gift."


כָּל הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה מְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת אוֹתוֹ מַאֲכָל וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן וְצִוָּנוּ לֶאֱכל תְּרוּמָה. וְכָךְ קִבַּלְנוּ וְרָאִינוּ אוֹתָם מְבָרְכִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַלַּת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁגַּם אֲכִילַת קָדְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל כַּעֲבוֹדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח ז) "עֲבוֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם": סָלִיק הִלְכוֹת תְּרוּמוֹת בְּסִיַעְתָּא דִּשְׁמַיָּא

Blessed be the Merciful One who grants assistance.

סליק הלכות תרומות:

Test Yourself on This Chapter


This follows the principle devar shebiminyan lo betal: "The presence of an object that is sold by number is never considered insignificant." Since these objects are sold by number, each one is considered important and it is not appropriate to say that one is insignificant (Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 16:1-3).


For once the barrels are opened, they are no longer considered as important. It is, however, forbidden to open the barrels, for this would be considered as purposefully nullifying a forbidden substance and that is prohibited (Radbaz).


And give it to a priest. The Jerusalem Talmud (Terumot 4:7) records a difference of opinion concerning this matter between Reish Lakish and Rabbi Yochanan. Reish Lakish's opinion is the one cited by the Rambam. Rabbi Yochanan, however, differs and maintains that the same law applies even with regard to figs. The Rambam rules according to Reish Lakish's opinion, for the Babylonian Talmud (Zevachim 74b) mentions his view only and not that of Rabbi Yochanan. See also Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 7:10 where the Rambam issues a similar ruling.

The Ra'avad does not accept this ruling. He maintains that the Babylonian Talmud mentions Reish Lakish's opinion only in connection with the discussion of another minority view. Hence, it is not necessary to mention Rabbi Yochanan's view.


Inadvertently. It is forbidden to open such a barrel intentionally.


More precisely, 1/101. I.e., the percent of the mixture that is terumah. This is given to a priest.


It is true that this ruling is somewhat problematic. For if the barrel is in fact terumah, the entire barrel, not only the hundredth portion, must be given to the priest. And if it is not terumah, it is permitted to drink it in its entirety. Nothing need be given to the priest.

The Ma'aseh Rokeach explains the reason for the stringency. Were this safeguard not taken, one might permit the barrels even when they were all opened.


Although when considering those barrels, it is necessary to give a barrel to a priest because of the suspicion that one is terumah, we are still stringent regarding those remaining.


Chapter 16, Halachah 1.


Based on Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 16:26, the Radbaz states that this same law applies if terumah is used to cause cheese to harden.


I.e., the standard ration of 1/101 is not effective to nullify the terumah. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Orlah 2:4; Terumot 10:2), the Rambam explains that since the effects of the terumah are evident in the food - it rises or it is spiced because of it - we cannot say that the terumah is nullified.


We are speaking about a situation where the egg is cooked whole. Thus despite the fact that the yolk is on the inside and covered by the whites, a spice intended for it can cause it to be forbidden, because it absorbs (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).


Since the yeast was removed, we do not say that it caused the dough to rise. Instead, we assume that the dough rose on its own accord (Radbaz).


Chapter 13, Halachah 2; Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:1,6.


How do we know whether the flavor of the terumah was imparted to the mixture. We give it to a priest to taste (ibid. 15:29).


In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 10:1), the Rambam explains that this applies whether the onion is terumah and the lentils ordinary produce or the reverse. In both instances, since the lentils are already cooked and the onion is whole, there is little likelihood that one will absorb the flavor from the other.


Here also the same principle applies whether it is the onion or the lentils which are terumah. Since the onion is diced, it will both impart and absorb flavor easier.


Since the onion is cooked, even if it is whole, it can both impart and absorb flavor easily.


I.e., in addition to the lentils.


As the Rambam proceeds to explain, lentils are considered as being unique. Once they are cooked, they do not absorb flavor from other foods easily. Other foods are more absorbent. Even after they have been cooked, they may absorb the flavor of the onion.


The Kessef Mishneh suggests that the text should read rabbim, "many," instead of rachim, "soft;" i.e., one onion that is whole will not impart that much flavor, but several onions will.


Once the tip or the outer shell is removed, its flavor will be imparted easily even though it is still whole.


In certain contexts (see Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:34), pickling is considered as cooking. Nevertheless, in this instance, the Rambam rules leniently.


Because their sharp and pungent taste nature causes their flavor to be imparted to any vegetables pickled with them [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 10:10)].


For the onion will not absorb the flavor of the other produce.


When olives are crushed, they will absorb easier [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 10:7)].


For the brine imparts its flavor to the objects pickled in within it.


For it has absorbed the flavor of the terumah.


Anise is used as flavoring. Once it has flavored other foods, it is discarded. Hence, until it has flavored other foods, it is significant and the laws of terumah apply. Afterwards, it is considered as a wasteproduct (Radbaz).


Even though the bread may absorb the fragrance of the wine, it does not absorb its substance and the fragrance alone is of no consequence. This is a general principle that applies with regard to all prohibited foods; see Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:33.


It is considered as the actual substance of the wine has been imparted to the bread.


In Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 16:22, the Rambam writes that when an oven is heated with shells of produce that is orlah or mixed species in a vineyard, whatever is cooked in the oven is forbidden. The commentaries note, however, that there is a fundamental distinction between the two instances. It is forbidden to benefit from - not only to eat - the prohibited substances mentioned in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot. It is, by contrast, permitted to benefit from terumah.


This concept also applies with regard to all the Torah's prohibitions; see Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:28.


A pungent herb.


I.e., without the influence of the plant whose flavor is similar to that of the seeds. The rationale is that the plant is not considered as terumah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 10:5)]. See also Chapter 2, Halachah 4.


And the ordinary wine is less than 100 times the amount of terumah wine.


See Chapter 13, Halachah 9, which explains that the water is not combined with the ordinary wine to create a mixture 100 times the amount of the terumah.


The Radbaz notes that in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 16:32, the Rambam writes a similar law with regard to wine associated with idol worship that fell on produce. There, however, he rules stringently, stating that the fruits are forbidden if the wine is poured upon them while they are broken open. The Radbaz explains that the Rambam did not mention the point here, because he relied on what he had stated earlier. Indeed, if the fruit was broken open and the wine improved its flavor, it should be sold to a priest at the price of terumah.


Even though oil is more likely to cling to fruit than wine, it is sufficient to wash the fruit. Generally, oil does not improve the taste of fruit (Radbaz).


For in this way, the oil can be removed without it mixing with the wine. Similarly, oil impairs the flavor of wine (ibid.).


This stringency is necessary, because oil improves the flavor of brine (ibid.).


The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling, asking why this instance is different from the laws involving non-kosher food absorbed in a utensil. In that instance, it is not sufficient to wash out the utensil, one must perform hagalah, boiling water in the utensil to purge the absorbed matter. The Radbaz explains that the Rambam maintains that this concept applies with regard to sanctified foods and other prohibitions, but not with regard to terumah. The rationale is that if the priests consider the terumah insignificant - as would be the case with regard to terumah absorbed in a pot - it is no longer of consequence. He draws support for this explanation from the mishnah in Terumot 11:8 (quoted in Chapter 11, Halachah 15) which states that after one pours out the contents of a jug of wine of terumah, one can pour ordinary wine into the container even if there is a small amount of residue from the previous wine. This explanation is also given in one of the responsa ascribed to the Rambam in a response to a question concerning this subject by the sages of Lunil. The Kessef Mishneh also cites these ideas and states that the reason the Rambam requires that the pot be washed out is because the contents are being cooked. If they were not to be cooked, even washing would not be necessary.


This leniency applies only with regard to terumah and not to prohibited food absorbed in a utensil. The rationale is the same as in the previous note: Since the priests consider this terumah insignificant, we do not show concern about it (Radbaz).


The portion of dough that must be separated and given to a priest.


See Chapter 10, Halachah 4.


This verse refers to challah; or it is comparing challah to the great terumah. Perhaps a scribal error crept into the text and this was intended as support for the following clause. The Radbaz, however, gives an explanation why it was included here.


I.e., to cause a mixture to be forbidden to non-priests.


Produce from which we are unsure that the tithes have been separated.


For partaking of terumah is a mitzvah and we are required to recite a blessing before the observance of all mitzvot (Kessef Mishneh).


See Hillchot Bikkurim 1:2.


Even though it is only a Rabbinic commandment.


Pesachim 72b relates that one day Rabbi Tarfon did not come to the House of study. Rabban Gamliel rebuked him for his absence. Rabbi Tarfon answered that he was carrying out priestly worship. Rabban Gamliel asked him how that was possible, for they lived in the era of the Temple's destruction. Rabbi Tarfon replied that partaking of terumah was equivalent to serving in the Temple.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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