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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Eruvin - Chapter Six, Eruvin - Chapter Seven, Eruvin - Chapter Eight

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Eruvin - Chapter Six

1

When a person leaves a city on Friday afternoon and deposits food for two meals at a distance from the city,1 but within its Sabbath limits,2 and by doing so establishes this as his place for the Sabbath, it is considered as if his base for the Sabbath is the place where he deposited the food for two meals, even if he returns to the city [before the commencement of the Sabbath] and spends the night in his home. This is called an eruv t'chumin.3

א

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַמְּדִינָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְהִנִּיחַ מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת רָחוֹק מִן הַמְּדִינָה בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וְקָבַע שְׁבִיתָתוֹ שָׁם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר לַמְּדִינָה וְלָן בְּבֵיתוֹ נֶחְשָׁב אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ שָׁבַת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַסְּעֻדּוֹת. וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין:

2

On the following day, the person may walk two thousand cubits4 from [the place of] his eruv in all directions.5 Accordingly, when a person walks two thousand cubits from his eruv on the following day within his city, he may walk only to the end of his limit. If, however, the entire city is included within his limit, the city is considered as if it were only four cubits, and he may continue to the end of his limit beyond the city.6

ב

וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ לְמָחָר אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ לְמָחָר אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדִינָה אֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמְּדִינָה אֶלָּא עַד סוֹף מִדָּתוֹ. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּדִינָה מֻבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ מִדָּתוֹ תֵּחָשֵׁב הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּהּ כְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְיַשְׁלִים מִדָּתוֹ חוּצָה לָהּ:

3

What is implied? When a person places his eruv one thousand cubits to the east of his house in a city, he may walk two thousand cubits eastward from the place of his eruv on the following day. He may also walk two thousand cubits to the west, one thousand from the eruv to his house, and one thousand from his house westward. He may not walk to the end of the city [limits, if they are] beyond the thousand cubits.

If there are less than one thousand cubits from his house to the boundaries of the city7 - even if his Sabbath limits end one cubit outside the city - the entire city is considered to be four cubits, and he may proceed 996 cubits beyond it to complete [his Sabbath limits of] two thousand [cubits].

ג

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ אֶת עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק אֶלֶף אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁבַּמְּדִינָה לְרוּחַ מִזְרָח נִמְצָא מְהַלֵּךְ לְמָחָר מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְמִזְרָח. וּמְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְמַעֲרָב. אֶלֶף שֶׁמִּן הָעֵרוּב עַד בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶלֶף אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּדִינָה. וְאֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמְּדִינָה אֶלָּא עַד סוֹף הָאֶלֶף. הָיָה מִבֵּיתוֹ עַד סוֹף הַמְּדִינָה פָּחוֹת מֵאֶלֶף אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת מִדָּתוֹ כָּלְתָה חוּץ לַמְּדִינָה תֵּחָשֵׁב הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּהּ כְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וִיהַלֵּךְ חוּצָה לָהּ תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שֵׁשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים אַמָּה תַּשְׁלוּם הָאַלְפַּיִם:

4

According [to this principle], if a person placed his eruv two thousand cubits [towards the east] of his house in a city, he would lose [the possibility of walking] throughout the entire [area of] the city [to the west]. Thus, he would be permitted [to walk] two thousand cubits from his house to his eruv and from his eruv two thousand cubits further. He may not walk even one cubit to the west of his house in the city.8

When a person places his eruv in a private domain - even if it is a metropolis like Nineveh, the ruins of a city, or a cave that is fit to be used as a dwelling - he is permitted to walk throughout its entire area and two thousand cubits beyond it in all directions.9

ד

לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁבַּמְּדִינָה הִפְסִיד אֶת כָּל הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּהּ. וְנִמְצָא מְהַלֵּךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ עַד עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה וּמֵעֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם וְאֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ בַּמְּדִינָה לְרוּחַ מַעֲרָב אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת. הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה מְדִינָה גְּדוֹלָה כְּנִינְוֵה וַאֲפִלּוּ עִיר חֲרֵבָה אוֹ מְעָרָה הָרְאוּיָה לְדִיּוּרִין מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ:

5

If a person deposits his eruv within the city in which he is spending the Sabbath, his actions are of no consequence and his [Sabbath limits] should not be measured from his eruv.10 Instead, he is like the other inhabitants of the city, and may proceed two thousand cubits in all directions outside the city.

If a person deposits his eruv in the outlying areas that are included within the city's boundaries, and the calculation of [the city's] Sabbath limits begins beyond these areas,11 it is as if he had deposited it within the city [proper].

If a person deposits his eruv beyond the city's Sabbath limits, it is not considered to be a [valid] eruv.12

ה

הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּדִינָה שֶׁשָּׁבַת בָּהּ לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וְאֵין מוֹדְדִין לוֹ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כִּבְנֵי הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ חוּץ לַמְּדִינָה. וְכֵן אִם נָתַן עֵרוּבוֹ בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הַמִּצְטָרְפִין לָעִיר שֶׁמּוֹדְדִין הַתְּחוּם חוּץ מֵהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנוֹתְנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר. נָתַן עֵרוּבוֹ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב:

6

An eruv t'chumin should be established only for a purpose associated with a mitzvah13 - e.g., a person who desires to go to the house of a mourner, to a wedding feast, to greet his teacher or to greet a colleague returning from a journey, or the like.14

[Similarly, one may establish an eruv t'chumin] out of fear - e.g., a person who seeks to flee from gentiles, from thieves or the like. If a person establishes an eruv for other reasons,15 his eruv is still valid.16

ו

אֵין מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא לִדְבַר מִצְוָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה רוֹצֶה לֵילֵךְ לְבֵית הָאָבֵל אוֹ לְמִשְׁתֶּה שֶׁל נִשּׂוּאִין אוֹ לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי רַבּוֹ אוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַיִּרְאָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה רוֹצֶה לִבְרֹחַ מִן הָעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים אוֹ מִן הַלִּסְטִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם עֵרֵב שֶׁלֹּא לְאֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא לְדִבְרֵי הָרְשׁוּת הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

7

All foods that may be used for a shituf may also be used for an eruv t'chumin.17 Similarly, all foods that may not be used for a shituf are also unacceptable for an eruv t'chumin.

What is the minimum measure of food acceptable for an eruv t'chumin? The [amount of] food [sufficient] for two meals for every individual.18 When the food in question is a side dish,19 the minimum measure is an amount sufficient to accompany two meals - [i.e., it is governed by] the same [laws] as a shituf.

ז

כָּל שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִין בּוֹ מְעָרְבִין בּוֹ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בּוֹ אֵין מְעָרְבִין בּוֹ תְּחוּמִין. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּר עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. וְאִם הָיָה לִפְתָּן כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת. כְּמוֹ הַשִּׁתּוּף:

8

It is necessary for [the place where] a person [intends to spend the Sabbath]20 and his eruv to be in the same domain, so that it is possible for him to partake of it beyn hash'mashot.21

Therefore, if the person intends to spend the Sabbath in a public domain and places his eruv in a private domain, or if he [intends to spend the Sabbath in a] private domain and places his eruv in a public domain, the eruv is not valid. For it is impossible to transfer articles from a private domain to a public domain without performing a transgression.

ח

וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הוּא וְעֵרוּבוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֶלָּא בַּעֲבֵרָה:

9

If, however, a person intends to spend the Sabbath in a private domain or in a public domain, and he places his eruv in a carmelit, or he intends to spend the Sabbath in a carmelit, and he places his eruv in a private domain or in a public domain, the eruv is acceptable. For during beyn hash'mashot, the time when the eruv is established, it is permitted to transfer articles from either of these domains to a carmelit for the sake of a mitzvah.

All the [prohibitions] instituted because of a Rabbinic decree were not applied beyn hash'mashot in a situation involving a mitzvah22 or in a case of urgent need.23

ט

אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בְּכַרְמְלִית וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב שֶׁהוּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִכָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי הָרְשׁוּיוֹת לְכַרְמְלִית לִדְבַר מִצְוָה. שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק:

10

[The following rule applies when a person] places his eruv in a closet, locks it, and then loses the key: If he can remove his eruv without performing a labor that is forbidden by the Torah, it is valid.24

If a person places his eruv at the top of a reed or a shaft that grows from the earth, it is not valid. This is a decree, lest he break off [the reed].25 If [these articles] were already detached and were implanted [in the ground], the eruv is valid.26

י

נְתָנוֹ בְּמִגְדָּל וְנָעַל וְאָבַד הַמַּפְתֵּחַ אִם יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּלֹא עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁאֵין אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה אֶלָּא מְלָאכָה. נְתָנוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ הַקָּנֶה אוֹ הַקֻּנְדָּס הַצּוֹמְחִין מִן הָאָרֶץ אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְלֹשׁ. וְאִם הָיוּ תְּלוּשִׁין וּנְעוּצִין הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

11

Whenever a person deposits an eruv, he is granted four cubits [in which to carry] at the place of the eruv. Thus, if a person places an eruv t'chumin at the end of the Sabbath limits, and then the eruv rolled two cubits beyond the Sabbath limits,27 the eruv is valid; it is not considered to have left its [original] place.

If, however, the eruv rolls more than two cubits [beyond the Sabbath limits], it is not valid, for it is beyond the Sabbath limits. And [as stated previously,]28 when an eruv is placed beyond a person's Sabbath limits, it is invalid, since the person is unable to reach his eruv.

יא

כָּל הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ יֵשׁ לוֹ בִּמְקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין שֶׁלּוֹ בְּסוֹף הַתְּחוּם וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הָעֵרוּב וְיָצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּתוֹךְ שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ. וְאִם יָצָא חוּץ לִשְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְהַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ אֶל עֵרוּבוֹ:

12

The following rules apply when] an eruv rolled [more] than two cubits beyond the Sabbath limits,29 it became lost or burned, or it contained terumah and it became impure:30 If this occurred before the commencement of the Sabbath, the eruv is invalid. If it occurred after nightfall, it is valid. For an eruv is established beyn hash'mashot.31

If one is in doubt [when the above occurred], the eruv is valid, for when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable.32 Therefore, if the eruv was eaten beyn hash'mashot, it is acceptable.

יב

נִתְגַּלְגֵּל הָעֵרוּב וְיָצָא שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אוֹ אָבַד אוֹ נִשְׂרַף אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה תְּרוּמָה וְנִטְמֵאת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁקְּנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. וְאִם סָפֵק הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב שֶׁסְּפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נֶאֱכַל הָעֵרוּב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

13

[The above rules are relevant in the following situation:] Two individuals told a person,33 "Go and establish an eruv on our behalf." He established an eruv for one before the commencement of the Sabbath, and for the other, beyn hash'mashot. The eruv that was established before the commencement of the Sabbath was eaten beyn hash'mashot, and the eruv that was established beyn hash'mashot was eaten after nightfall.34

[The ruling is that] both eruvin are valid.35 For [the halachic status of] beyn hash'mashot is a matter of doubt,36 and when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable.37 Nevertheless, if there is a question whether or not it is past nightfall, at the outset one should not proceed to establish an eruv.38 [After the fact,] if one established an eruv, it is valid.

יג

אָמְרוּ לוֹ שְׁנַיִם צֵא וְעָרֵב עָלֵינוּ. אֶחָד עֵרֵב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְאֶחָד עֵרֵב עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. וְזֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם נֶאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְזֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת נֶאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה שְׁנֵיהֶם קָנוּ עֵרוּב. שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת סָפֵק הוּא וּסְפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר. אַף עַל פִּי כֵן סָפֵק חֲשֵׁכָה סָפֵק לֹא חֲשֵׁכָה אֵין מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה וְאִם עֵרֵב הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

14

Although an avalanche falls on an eruv before the commencement of the Sabbath, it remains acceptable provided it can be removed without performing a [forbidden] labor. For it is permissible to remove it beyn hash'mashot,39, which is the time when the eruv is established.

If the avalanche fell on it after nightfall, it is also valid, even if it cannot be removed without performing a [forbidden] labor.40 If there is a doubt whether [the avalanche] fell before the commencement of the Sabbath or after nightfall, it is acceptable, because when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable.

יד

נָפַל עַל הָעֵרוּב גַּל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אִם יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּלֹא עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהִיא שְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב. וְאִם נָפַל עָלָיו גַּל מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ אֶלָּא בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה. סָפֵק מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם נָפַל אוֹ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁסְּפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר:

15

If, however, one established an eruv with terumah concerning which there was a doubt about its ritual purity,41 the eruv is invalid, for the meal is not fit to be eaten.42

[Similarly, an eruv is invalid in the following situation]: A person possessed two loaves of bread that were terumah. One of them was pure and one was impure, but he did not know which was pure and which was impure. Although he said, "The [loaf] that is pure, whichever it is, will serve as my eruv," the eruv is invalid, for the meal is not fit to be eaten.43

טו

אֲבָל אִם עֵרֵב בִּתְרוּמָה שֶׁהִיא סָפֵק טְמֵאָה אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב שֶׁאֵינָהּ סְעֵדָּה הָרְאוּיָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אַחַת טְהוֹרָה וְאַחַת טְמֵאָה וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן וְאָמַר עֵרוּבִי בַּטְּהוֹרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. שֶׁאֵין כָּאן סְעֻדָּה הָרְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה:

16

If a person said: "This loaf of bread is not consecrated today, but it will be consecrated tomorrow," [and uses the loaf for an eruv,] the eruv is valid. For beyn hash'mashot, it had not as yet become definitely consecrated, and thus it was fit to be eaten before commencement of the Sabbath.

If, however, he said, "Today it is consecrated, and tomorrow it is not consecrated," it may not be used for an eruv, for it is fit [to be eaten] only after nightfall.44

Similarly, if one set aside terumah and made a stipulation that it will not become terumah until nightfall, it may not be used for an eruv. For throughout beyn hash'mashot it is tevel45 [which may not be eaten], and it is necessary for the meal [set aside as the eruv] to be fit to be eaten before the commencement of the Sabbath.46

טז

אָמַר כִּכָּר זֶה הַיּוֹם חֹל וּלְמָחָר קֹדֶשׁ וְעֵרֵב בָּהּ הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְקַדְּשָׁה וַדַּאי וּרְאוּיָה הָיְתָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וּלְמָחָר חֹל אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ. וְכֵן אִם הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה וְהִתְנָה עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה תְּרוּמָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא טֶבֶל כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַסְּעֻדָּה רְאוּיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:

17

When an eruv is placed in a cemetery, it is invalid. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to derive benefit from a cemetery.47 Since the person desires that the eruv be preserved there after it was established, he is deriving benefit [from the cemetery].48

If the eruv is placed in a beit hap'ras,49 it is valid. This applies even to a priest, for he can enter [the beit hap'ras in an elevated [closed] compartment,50 or he may sift through its earth51 [and proceed to his eruv].

יז

הַנּוֹתֵן עֵרוּבוֹ בְּבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב לְפִי שֶׁבֵּית הַקְּבָרוֹת אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרוֹצֶה בְּקִיּוּם הָעֵרוּב שָׁם אַחַר קְנִיָּה הֲרֵי נֶהֱנֶה בּוֹ. נְתָנוֹ בְּבֵית הַפְּרָס הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כֹּהֵן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִכָּנֵס שָׁם בְּמִגְדָּל הַפּוֹרֵחַ אוֹ שֶׁיְּנַפֵּחַ וְהוֹלֵךְ:

18

[These rules should be followed when] many desire to join together in an eruv t'chumin: They should each contribute enough food for two meals52 and place [the food] in a single container in [whichever] place they choose.53

If one person desires to make an eruv on behalf of many others, he must grant them a share by means of another person54 and notify them. [This is necessary because] an eruv t'chumin may not be established on a person's behalf unless he consents,55 since it is possible that he will not desire to have the eruv made in the direction chosen by the other person.

If the person is notified before the commencement of the Sabbath,56 the eruv is acceptable even though he did not express his consent until after nightfall.57 If he was not notified of the eruv until after nightfall, he may not rely on it, for an eruv may not be established after nightfall.

יח

רַבִּים שֶׁרָצוּ לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בְּעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין מְקַבְּצִין כֻּלָּן עֵרוּבָן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד וּמַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ בִּכְלִי אֶחָד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצוּ. וְאִם עָשָׂה אֶחָד עֵרוּב עַל יְדֵי כֻּלָּן צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת לָהֶן עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר. וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעָם שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין לוֹ לָאָדָם עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא לְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְעָרֵב בְּאוֹתָהּ הָרוּחַ שֶׁרָצָה זֶה. וְאִם הוֹדִיעוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. וְאִם לֹא הוֹדִיעוֹ עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ:

19

All the individuals entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv chatzerot58 are also entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv t'chumin.

Conversely, all the individuals who are not entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv chatzerot are also not entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv t'chumin.

יט

כָּל הַזּוֹכֶה בְּעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת מְזַכִּין עַל יָדוֹ בְּעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין מְזַכִּין עַל יָדוֹ עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת אֵין מְזַכִּין עַל יָדוֹ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין:

20

A person may give a ma'ah to a homeowner with the intent that [the latter] buy a loaf of bread for him and establish an eruv t'chumin on his behalf.59 [And we assume that the eruv has been established.] If, however, he gives [money] to a storekeeper or a baker, and tells him: "[Have someone] acquire a share on my behalf," we [do not assume that] an eruv has been established.60

[Even with regard to a storekeeper,] if he tells him: "Establish an eruv for me with this ma'ah," [we assume that the storekeeper] will buy bread or other foodstuffs with the money and establish an eruv on his behalf.61 If the person gave [a storekeeper] a utensil, and told him: "Give me food in exchange for this and establish an eruv [with that food] on my behalf," [we assume that he] will purchase the food and establish the eruv on his behalf.62

כ

נוֹתֵן אָדָם מָעָה לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקַּח לוֹ פַּת וִיעָרֵב לוֹ בָּהּ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. אֲבָל אִם נָתַן לְחֶנְוָנִי אוֹ לְנַחְתּוֹם וְאָמַר לוֹ זְכֵה לִי בְּמָעָה זוֹ אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ עַרֵב עָלַי בְּמָעָה זוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵחַ בָּהּ פַּת אוֹ אֹכֶל מִן הָאֳכָלִין וּמְעָרֵב עָלָיו. וְאִם נָתַן לוֹ כְּלִי וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי בָּזֶה אֹכֶל וּזְכֵה לִי בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵחַ אֹכֶל וּמְעָרֵב עָלָיו בּוֹ:

21

A person may establish an eruv t'chumin on behalf of his sons and daughters who are below the age of majority63 and on behalf of his Canaanite servants and maidservants64 - with or without their knowledge.65 Therefore, if he has established an eruv for them and they have established an eruv on their own behalf, they should rely on [the eruv] established by their master.

A person may not, by contrast, establish an eruv for his sons and daughters who have passed majority, for his Hebrew servants and maidservants, or for his wife, without their consent.66 [This applies] even if they eat at his table.

If he established an eruv on their behalf, and they heard and remained silent without objecting, they may rely on the eruv that he established.67 If, however, he established an eruv for one of these people and [that person] established an eruv for himself, there can be no greater objection than this, and [that person] should rely on his own eruv.

A child of six years old or less may be taken out, relying on the eruv established for his mother.68 There is no need to set aside a separate amount of food equivalent to two meals for him.

כא

מְעָרֵב אָדָם עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים בֵּין מִדַּעְתָּן בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתָּן. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן וְעֵרְבוּ לְעַצְמָן יוֹצְאִין בְּשֶׁל רַבָּן. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב לֹא עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעְתָּן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן אוֹכְלִין אֶצְלוֹ עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ. וְאִם עֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן וְשָׁמְעוּ וְשָׁתְקוּ וְלֹא מִחוּ יוֹצְאִין בְּעֵרוּבוֹ. עֵרֵב עַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְעֵרְבוּ הֵן לְעַצְמָן אֵין לְךָ מְחָאָה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ וְיוֹצְאִין בְּעֵרוּב עַצְמָן. קָטָן בֵּן שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת יוֹצֵא בְּעֵרוּב אִמּוֹ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ:

22

A person has the option of sending his eruv with an agent [whom he has instructed to] deposit it in the location that he desires to define as his place for the Sabbath.69 He should not, however, send [the eruv] with a deaf-mute, a mentally incompetent individual, or a child,70 nor with a person who does not accept the mitzvah of eruv.71 If he sends the eruv with one of these individuals, it is not acceptable.

If, however, he sent [the eruv] with one of these individuals [with instructions for them] to bring it to a person who is acceptable [to act as an agent], so that the latter would take it and deposit it in the [desired] location, [the eruv] is acceptable. Indeed, even if he sent [the eruv] via a monkey or an elephant [it would be acceptable]. [There is, however, one stipulation: the person sending the eruv] must watch from afar until he sees the person who is unfit [to serve as an agent or the animal] reach the person who is fit [to serve as an agent], whom he has instructed to deposit the eruv.72

Similarly, many individuals who have joined together in an eruv t'chumin have the option of sending their eruv via an agent if they desire.

כב

הָרוֹצֶה לְשַׁלֵּחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִקְבֹּעַ שְׁבִיתָתוֹ שָׁם הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְשַׁלְּחוֹ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיַד חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן וְלֹא בְּיַד מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹדֶה בְּמִצְוַת עֵרוּב. וְאִם שָׁלַח אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וְאִם שְׁלָחוֹ בְּיַד אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ הַפְּסוּלִין לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְאָדָם כָּשֵׁר כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוֹלִיכוֹ הַכָּשֵׁר וְיַנִּיחוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הָעֵרוּב הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁלָחוֹ עַל הַקּוֹף אוֹ עַל הַפִּיל. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עוֹמֵד מֵרָחוֹק עַד שֶׁיִּרְאֶה זֶה הַפָּסוּל אוֹ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ אֵצֶל הַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ לְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת הָעֵרוּב. וְכֵן רַבִּים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין וְרָצוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ עֵרוּבָן בְּיַד אַחֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְשַׁלְּחִין:

23

When one person or a group of people tell another person, "Go out and make an eruv on our behalf," and the person does so, choosing the direction in which to make the eruv himself, the eruv is acceptable.73 They may rely on it,74 for they did not specify the direction [they desired].

When a person says, "Establish an eruv for me with dates," and [his agent] establishes with dried figs, or he mentions dried figs, and [the agent] uses dates, the eruv is not acceptable. Similarly, if the person asked that the eruv be placed in a closet and it was placed in a dovecote, or [he asked that it be placed] in a dovecote, and it was placed in a closet, or [he asked that it be placed] in a house, and it was placed in a loft, or [he asked that it be placed] in a loft, and it was placed in a house, the eruv is not acceptable.75

If, however, the person told [the agent], "Establish an eruv for me," without making any specifications, the eruv is acceptable regardless of whether he used dried figs or dates, or deposited it in a house or in a loft.

כג

אֶחָד אוֹ רַבִּים שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְאֶחָד צֵא וַעֲרֵב עָלֵינוּ וְעֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן בְּאֵי זֶה רוּחַ שֶׁרָצָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וְיוֹצְאִין בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא יִחֲדוּ לוֹ רוּחַ. הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ עָרֵב עָלַי בִּתְמָרִים וְעֵרֵב עָלָיו בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת. בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וְעֵרֵב עָלָיו בִּתְמָרִים. אָמַר לוֹ הַנִּיחַ עֵרוּבִי בְּמִגְדָּל וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּשׁוֹבָךְ. בְּשׁוֹבָךְ וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּמִגְדָּל. בַּבַּיִת וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּעֲלִיָּה בַּעֲלִיָּה וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּבַּיִת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ עָרֵב עָלַי סְתָם וְעֵרֵב עָלָיו בֵּין בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת בֵּין בִּתְמָרִים בֵּין בַּבַּיִת בֵּין בַּעֲלִיָּה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

24

Just as a blessing is recited [before] establishing an eruv in a courtyard or a shituf in a lane,76 so too, a blessing is recited [before establishing] an eruv t'chumin.77

[After reciting the blessing,] one should say:78 "With this eruv, it will be permissible for me to proceed two thousand cubits in every direction from this location."

If he is establishing the eruv on behalf of many individuals, he should say, "With this eruv, it will be possible for 'so and so'..." or "for the people of this community..." or "for the inhabitants of this city to proceed two thousand cubits in every direction from this location."

כד

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְשִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת כָּךְ מְבָרְכִין עַל עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. וְאוֹמֵר בְּזֶה הָעֵרוּב יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לִי לְהַלֵּךְ לְמָקוֹם זֶה אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְאִם הָיָה אֶחָד מְעָרֵב עַל יְדֵי רַבִּים אוֹמֵר בְּזֶה הָעֵרוּב יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לִפְלוֹנִי אוֹ לִבְנֵי מָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ לִבְנֵי עִיר זוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ מִמָּקוֹם זֶה אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ:

Footnotes
1.

Note Chapter 7, Halachah 1, which states that one may establish an eruv t'chumin by actually going on Friday afternoon to the location one desires to establish as one's place for the Sabbath. The possibility of depositing food was instituted by our Sages to expedite the process of establishing an eruv t'chumin, by allowing a person to have an agent deposit food for him.

2.

See Halachah 5 regarding both these factors.

3.

In his introduction to these halachot, the Maggid Mishneh questions why two seemingly separate concepts, eruv chatzerot and eruv t'chumin, are considered to be part of the same mitzvah and are described together. He explains that since both are Rabbinic ordinances that involve placing food in a specific place so that the place will be considered to be one's base for the Sabbath, they can be considered to be a single mitzvah.

4.

A cubit is 48 centimeters according to Shiurei Torah and 57.6 centimeters according to the Chazon Ish.

5.

A person is always allowed to proceed 2000 cubits in all directions from the place where he spends the Sabbath. (See Hilchot Shabbat 27:1.) Since the place where the person's eruv is located is considered his base for the Sabbath, his 2000 cubits are calculated from this place.

6.

The Rambam's statements here parallel his statements in Hilchot Shabbat 27:5, which explain that if a person's Sabbath limits end within a private domain, he is not entitled to proceed to the end of the domain. If, however, that domain is included within his 2000 cubits, it is considered to be only four cubits.

The Ramah (Orach Chayim 408:1) quotes the view of the Tur, the Hagahot Maimoniot, and other Ashkenazic authorities, who differ and maintain that one is allowed to proceed to the end of the private domain, even if it is further than 2000 cubits from one's eruv t'chumin. The Mishnah Berurah 408:12 mentions that many authorities support this ruling. See note 8.

7.

The Maggid Mishneh (in his gloss on this halachah and on Hilchot Shabbat 27:5) mentions the fact that when one establishes the Sabbath limits of a city, an imaginary square is constructed around the furthermost points in the city's area, and the Sabbath limits are calculated from that square. Thus, it is possible that land that is outside the city's urban limits may still be within the square from which its Sabbath limits are calculated.

Although a leniency is used in the calculation of the city's Sabbath limits, and these outlying areas are considered to be part of the city proper, this leniency is not turned into a stringency. If a person's 2000 cubits end beyond the city's urban area, but not beyond these outlying areas, the city is considered to be included within his Sabbath limits, and thus only four cubits in length. This concept is quoted by the Ramah (Orach Chayim 408:1).

8.

As mentioned above, the Tur and the Ramah (Orach Chayim 408:1) differ with the Rambam on this point and allow a person to walk throughout the entire city where his house is located, provided he sleeps in his home (Mishnah Berurah 408:11).

9.

The rationale for this decision can be explained as follows: As explained in Hilchot Shabbat 27:1, the prohibition against proceeding more than 2000 cubits from one's place of residence on the Sabbath is derived from the verse (Exodus 16:29): "No man should leave his place on the seventh day." The term "his place" refers to the private domain in which he is located, regardless if it be a house, a city, or any other location.

By making an eruv t'chumin, a person redefines the location of "his place" on the Sabbath. Even if he is not located at that place at the commencement of the Sabbath or shortly thereafter, the location where he deposits his eruv is considered to be "his place" for this Sabbath. Therefore, if that location is a private domain, that entire domain is considered to be "his place," and the calculation of his Sabbath limits begins from its boundaries.

10.

If his acts had been considered significant, he would have decreased his Sabbath limits, and not increased them. For without the eruv, he would be allowed to proceed two thousand cubits from the city limits. This follows the Rambam's conception, in contrast to that of the Tur mentioned above.

11.

In Hilchot Shabbat 27:5 (see also note 6), it is explained that the Sabbath limits of a city are calculated from an imaginary square that may include several uninhabited areas in the city's periphery. If the eruv is placed in these outlying areas, it is as if it were placed in the city proper.

12.

Since the eruv is beyond his Sabbath limits, i.e., over 2000 cubits from the city's periphery, he may not reach it during beyn hash'mashot, the time when the acquisition of the eruv takes effect (Mishnah Berurah 408:30). Therefore, the eruv is not valid. Instead, his Sabbath limits are defined from his home (Ramah, Orach Chayim 408:4).

13.

The Maggid Mishneh quotes the Rashba as saying that this applies only when one establishes one's eruv by using food. If, however, one actually walks to a place beyond a city's boundaries beyn hash'mashot, and in this manner establishes this location as one's place for the Sabbath, it is acceptable even if one's intent is not associated with a mitzvah. Although this view is not accepted by all authorities, the Mishnah Berurah 415:1 rules that in a pressing situation, one may rely on the more lenient view.

14.

The expression "a purpose associated with a mitzvah" is used in a very extended sense in this context. As an example, the Ramah (Orach Chayim 415:1) mentions a desire to take a stroll in a pleasant orchard.

15.

E.g., to proceed toward the end of one's Sabbath limits, so that one will be closer to a destination to which one desires to travel for business purposes after the Sabbath.

16.

Although this is a matter of disagreement among the Rabbis, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 415:1) follows the Rambam's view.

It must be emphasized that the "fear" mentioned by the Rambam refers to a situation when there is not an obvious danger to the person's life. Were that to be the case, he would be allowed to proceed beyond the 2000 cubits even if he had not established an eruv, for a threat to life takes precedence over the observance of all the Torah's laws with the exception of idol worship, sexual immorality, and murder.

17.

In contrast to an eruv chatzerot, for which bread alone may be used, all foods may used for an eruv t'chumin and a shituf, with the exception of water, salt, and mushrooms (Chapter 1, Halachah 8).

18.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 9. There is, however, a distinction. Regarding a shituf, even when there are thousands of inhabitants involved, it is necessary to provide two meals only for eighteen people. In contrast, regarding an eruv t'chumin, food must be set aside for every person who desires to use the eruv.

19.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 10.

20.

This does not mean the person's home, or the place where he is standing beyn hash'mashot, but rather the place where he would partake of his eruv. There are times when it is impossible for him to partake of the eruv in the domain in which it is located - to cite the example given by the Mishnah, Eruvin 3:3: the eruv was placed in a tree more than ten handbreadths above the ground. In such instances, since it is not permissible to carry the eruv from the place where it was deposited to the place where the person would partake of it, the eruv is not valid.

21.

This is the time when the Sabbath commences, and it is at this hour that the eruv must be established.

22.

See Hilchot Shabbat 24:10.

23.

And, as mentioned in Halachah 6, it is only in situations such as these that it is permissible to establish an eruv t'chumin.

24.

If, however, he must perform a labor forbidden by the Torah to obtain the eruv, it is not valid. (See Chapter 1, Halachah 22.)

25.

Although Rabbinic prohibitions are not normally enforced beyn hash'mashot when a mitzvah is involved, our Sages maintained their decree in this instance. For one might think that the reed has already been detached, and it is likely that one might break it (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Eruvin 3:3).

26.

Provided that they are not implanted in the public domain and there is not a basket, four handbreadths by four handbreadths, at their top (Mishnah Berurah 409:14).

27.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, noting that the matter is the subject of a difference of opinion between our Sages (Eruvin 45a): Rabbi Eliezer maintains that a person is considered to be located in the midst of the four cubits he is granted. Therefore, as the Rambam states here, he is granted only two cubits in either direction. Rabbi Yehudah differs and maintains that he is granted four cubits in either direction. It is Rabbi Yehudah's view that is accepted as halachah.

The Maggid Mishneh notes that in Hilchot Shabbat 12:15 and 27:11, the Rambam follows Rabbi Yehudah's view. There is, the Maggid Mishneh maintains, a difference between the ruling regarding the laws of carrying and the ruling regarding the Sabbath limits. His distinction is explained by the Radbaz (Vol. VI, Responsum 2237), who states that for an eruv t'chumin to be effective a person must be able to reach it while standing within the Sabbath limits. If the eruv is within two cubits of the Sabbath limits, the person can bend over and reach it. If it is further away, he would have to leave his Sabbath limits to reach it. Hence, it is not valid.

The Ra'avad's decision is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 409:5).

28.

Halachah 5.

29.

As explained in the previous halachah.

30.

Impure terumah may not be eaten.

31.

If it is valid at this time, what happens to it afterwards is of no consequence (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Eruvin 3:4).

32.

Since the eruv was acceptable when deposited, it is granted a chezkat kiyyum - i.e., we assume that the status quo remained the same and that it remained acceptable until immediately before the difficulty was discovered (ibid.).

(Although the Rambam mentions this concept in his Commentary on the Mishnah, his ruling in the following halachah implies that he does not accept this as a hard and fast rule.)

33.

They both empowered him to act as a shaliach (agent) and establish an eruv for them.

34.

This situation represents a paradox: If beyn hash'mashot is considered to be before the commencement of the Sabbath, the eruv that was eaten beyn hash'mashot is not valid. If beyn hash'mashot is considered to be after the commencement of the Sabbath, the eruv that was established beyn hash'mashot is not valid.

35.

If, however, the eruv that was established beyn hash'mashot was eaten beyn hash'mashot, it is not valid. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 393:3.)

36.

Beyn hash'mashot is the period between sunset and the appearance of three stars. There is a question if this period is considered to be part of the day or part of the night. See Hilchot Shabbat 5:4.

37.

This ruling (based on Shabbat 34a) reflects a difference of opinion among the Rabbis. As mentioned in the notes on the previous halachah, most authorities maintain that an eruv t'chumin (in contrast to an eruv chatzerot) is acceptable when there is a doubt involved, only because it possesses a chezkat kiyyum - i.e., we knew that it was acceptable beforehand, and we presume that its status remained the same until we know otherwise. (See also Halachah 15.)

Therefore, other authorities (Rabbenu Chanan'el, Rabbenu Tam, Rashba) interpret this law as referring to an eruv chatzerot. There a chezkat kiyyum is not necessary, for an eruv chatzerot is only a Rabbinic institution (in contrast to an eruv t'chumin, which involves a prohibition that has its source in the Torah itself).

Nevertheless, it is possible to justify the Rambam's decision, for the prohibition against going beyond two thousand cubits is Rabbinic in origin (Hilchot Shabbat 27:1). Accordingly, since we are sure that the food set aside for the eruv can be eaten before the commencement of the Sabbath, and the doubt is merely whether the eruv was made at the proper time, the question concerns a matter of Rabbinic law. Therefore, we follow the principle, "Whenever there is a doubt concerning a point of Rabbinic law, the more lenient opinion is followed."

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 415:3) quotes both views (although the Rambam's appears to be favored). The Mishnah Berurah 415:11 favors the other view.

38.

Although at the outset, an eruv chatzerot may be established beyn hash'mashot (see Chapter 1, Halachah 21), the laws regarding an eruv t'chumin are more severe (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Shabbat 2:6).

39.

Although the stones are muktzeh and removing them on the Sabbath would be forbidden, since a mitzvah is involved there is no prohibition against removing them beyn hash'mashot.

40.

For at the time the eruv was established it was valid, and what happens afterwards is of no consequence. (See also Chapter 1, Halachah 21.)

41.

As mentioned above, it is forbidden to partake of terumah if it is ritually impure. In this instance, however, there is a doubt and we do not know if, in fact, the terumah has contracted ritual impurity or not.

42.

With this phrase, the Rambam clarifies his position with regard to a question asked by many authorities based on the situation described in Halachah 13. As mentioned in the notes on that halachah, many authorities maintain that an eruv is considered acceptable when there is a doubt regarding its validity only when it possesses a chezkat kiyyum. As proof, they point to this law, which appears to indicate that the eruv is not considered acceptable because it was never known to be valid.

The Rambam explains that the reason why the eruv is not acceptable in this instance is not that it lacks a chezkat kiyyum, but because it may never be eaten. Because of the doubt involved, it is forbidden to partake of this loaf.

To summarize, in the instances mentioned in the previous halachot, the doubt revolves around the acceptability of the eruv. Therefore, we follow the principle, "when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable." In this halachah, the doubt is whether the terumah may be eaten. This is a question of Torah law, and we are required to rule stringently (Noda BiY'hudah, Yoreh De'ah, Vol. I, Responsum 65).

43.

Although there is a pure loaf there, since we do not know which loaf it is, the meal is not fit to be eaten.

44.

We are not certain that the sanctity with which it had been endowed has departed until nightfall. At that time, it is too late to establish an eruv.

45.

Food from which terumah and/or the other agricultural requirements were not separated. It is forbidden to be eaten until these separations are made.

46.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 22.

47.

This ruling is the subject of a debate among our Sages (Eruvin 26b). The Rambam follows the more stringent view. Although other authorities accept the more lenient ruling, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 409:1) cites the Rambam's decision. (See Be'ur Halachah.)

48.

The difficulty is not in the actual placement of the eruv beyn hash'mashot, for the placement of an eruv is a mitzvah and the mitzvot were not given for our personal benefit. The difficulty arises afterwards. Since the person desires that the eruv be maintained in the cemetery, he is deriving benefit from it. Hence, it is forbidden to establish an eruv in this manner (Eruvin 31a; Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Eruvin 3:1).

(See the gloss of Rabbi Akiva Eiger, who asks why the eruv is unacceptable. Although it is forbidden to derive benefit from the cemetery in this manner, the fact that a person violates this prohibition should not invalidate his eruv.)

49.

A field or yard that was plowed despite the fact that a grave was located there. Our Sages feared that some of the bones of the corpse became strewn throughout the field. Hence, they considered it to be impure ground (Hilchot Tum'at Meit 10:1).

50.

A compartment carried by other people or animals. Since there is a board below him, he does not contract ritual impurity when he passes above a grave or a corpse (tum'at ohel). (See the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, ibid..)

51.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (ibid.). Others explain that this refers to blowing away any chips of bone.

52.

In contrast to an eruv chatzerot, the equivalent of two meals is required for every participant in the eruv, regardless of the number of the participants. The rationale is that through depositing the eruv, the person establishes the place in which he has deposited it as his "place" for the Sabbath. This must be done for every person participating in the eruv (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Eruvin 8:1).

53.

Note the parallel to Chapter 1, Halachah 17.

54.

As in Chapter 1, Halachah 20.

55.

In contrast to an eruv chatzerot, which, in most circumstances, is considered to be a benefit to a person unless he explicitly objects, an eruv chatzerot is dependent on the person's consent. For by extending his Sabbath boundaries in one direction, it reduces them in the other direction.

56.

The Mishnah Berurah 413:6 cites opinions that state that it is acceptable if one received notification beyn hash'mashot.

57.

Eruvin 82a, explains that thisis dependent on the principle of b'reirah - i.e., when a person decides to rely on the eruv retroactively, it becomes clarified that this was his original intent.

58.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 20.

59.

In contrast to a storekeeper or a baker, we assume a private person will fulfill the request made of him.

Generally, our Sages ordained that even when a purchaser has already paid for the item he purchased, the transaction is not finalized until he draws the item he purchased after him [(meshichah), Hilchot Mechirah 3:1]. In this instance, they allowed leniency, accepting the Torah's ruling that a sale is finalized by the purchaser's payment of money.

60.

For it is possible that the storekeeper will forget and not have another person acquire a share in the eruv (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah). Note the Maggid Mishneh, who offers a different explanation.

See also the Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 369:1), who interpret these laws as referring to an eruv chatzerot and do not mention them within the context of an eruv t'chumin.

61.

Since the person makes an explicit statement, we assume that the storekeeper will remember to do so.

62.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that, in contrast to a transaction made with money, a transaction made by exchanging articles is completed at the moment of the exchange. (See Hilchot Mechirah 5:1.) Therefore, the bread belongs to the person and can be used for the eruv.

Based on the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah cited previously, Rav Kapach offers a different interpretation: that since he will have to appraise the utensil or sell it, the storekeeper will remember to establish the eruv.

63.

Children below the age of majority do not have an independent halachic status.

64.

Canaanite servants are obligated to fulfill all the negative commandments of the Torah (including the obligation to keep the Sabbath limits). They are not, however, granted any independent decision-making capacity, and instead are considered as their owner's property.

65.

The Shulchan Aruch 414:1 states that this ruling applies even if they do not depend on their father or master for their sustenance.

66.

All these individuals possess the halachic right to make their own decisions, and their relationship with their father, master, or husband is no different from that between two other individuals.

67.

Since there is a high probability that these individuals will desire to rely on this eruv, there is no need for them to express their consent. The failure to object is sufficient. The Mishnah Berurah 414:4 adds a further leniency. Even if they were not notified about the eruv until after nightfall, since it can be assumed that they will desire to rely on the eruv, it is acceptable.

68.

In other halachic contexts as well (see Hilchot Sukkah 6:1), a child is considered to be dependent on his mother until the age of six. (See the Mishnah Berurah 414:7, which cites other opinions that require a separate eruv to be established for a child below the age of six.)

69.

And having charged the agent with this mission, he can rely on the agent to have deposited the eruv. He need not check to see if he has, in fact, done so (Eruvin 32b).

70.

These individuals are not considered to be responsible for their actions and may not serve as agents. There is, however, a difference regarding an eruv chatzerot, for in that context, all that is necessary is that they collect the food.

71.

I.e., a Sadducee or a Samaritan (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Eruvin 3:2). Needless to say, a gentile may not serve in this capacity, for he can never serve as an agent.

72.

The only reason it is necessary for him to watch is so that he knows that the eruv has in fact reached his agent (Eruvin, ibid.).

73.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that since this is a question of Rabbinic law, the principle of b'reirah is employed. This means that retroactively, it is considered that the decision made by the agent expressed the intent of the person who charged him with establishing the eruv.

74.

Even if they did not know the direction in which the eruv was established until after nightfall (Maggid Mishneh, Mishnah Berurah 409:52).

75.

Because the agent did not carry out the instructions given to him. These rulings apply regardless of whether the agent establishes the eruv with food belonging to him or with food belonging to the person who sent him (Mishnah Berurah 409:53).

76.

Chapter 1, Halachah 16. The very same blessing is recited for an eruv t'chumin. See also the notes on that halachah, which explain why a blessing is recited before the performance of a Rabbinic commandment.

77.

Note the Ra'avad, who objects to the recitation of a blessing for this mitzvah, for in contrast to other Rabbinic mitzvot, the institution of an eruv t'chumin does not introduce any new practice. Even an eruv chatzerot makes one conscious of the prohibition against carrying in a public domain. An eruv t'chumin, by contrast, merely grants a person a leniency.

The Maggid Mishneh explains the rationale for the Rambam's ruling. In practice, as stated in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 415:4), the custom is to recite a blessing.

78.

Note the Mishnah Berurah 415:15, which states that if a person fails to make a statement of this nature, the eruv is not acceptable. As mentioned in the notes on the following chapter, this applies, however, only when one has deposited food for the eruv, and not when one has actually walked there oneself.

See also the Mishnah Berurah 415:16, which mentions that in his statement the person should specify that he is establishing the eruv for the following day, or for all the Sabbaths of the coming year.

Eruvin - Chapter Seven

1

When a person left his city on Friday and stood in a specific place within the Sabbath limits, or at the end of the Sabbath limits, and said,1 "This is my place for the Sabbath," although he returns to his city and spends the night there, on the following day he is permitted to walk two thousand cubits from that place in every direction.

This is the principal manner [of establishing] an eruv t'chumin - actually to go there by foot.2 [The Sages allowed] one to establish an eruv by depositing an amount of food sufficient for two meals in the place - although one did not actually go there and stand there - to expedite matters for a rich person, so that he will not have to travel by himself, and could instead send his eruv with an agent who will deposit it for him.

א

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת חוּץ לַמְּדִינָה וְעָמַד בְּמָקוֹם יָדוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם אוֹ בְּסוֹפוֹ וְאָמַר שְׁבִיתָתִי בְּמָקוֹם זֶה וְחָזַר לְעִירוֹ וְלָן שָׁם. יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ לְמָחָר מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְזֶה הוּא עִקַּר עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין לְעָרֵב בְּרַגְלָיו. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ לְעָרֵב בְּהַנָּחַת מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת בִּלְבַד בַּמָּקוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא וְלֹא עָמַד שָׁם אֶלָּא לְהָקֵל עַל הֶעָשִׁיר שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא אֶלָּא יִשְׁלַח עֵרוּבוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר וְיַנִּיחוּ לוֹ:

2

Similarly, when a person decides to establish his place for the Sabbath in a specific location - e.g., at a tree, a house, or a fence that he can identify, and at nightfall:



a) there are two thousand cubits or less between him and that place; and

b) he sets out to reach that place and establishes it to be his place for the Sabbath,



on the following day, he may proceed to that desired location and continue two thousand cubits in all directions. [Moreover, this law applies] even when he did not actually reach that place or stand there, but instead a friend had him turn back and spend the night at his home, or even if he himself decided to turn back, or was prevented [from going there by other factors].

[The rationale is that] since he made a resolve to establish [that location] as his place for the Sabbath, and set out for that purpose, it is considered as if he stood there or deposited his eruv there.

ב

וְכֵן אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִקְבֹּעַ שְׁבִיתָתוֹ בְּמָקוֹם יָדוּעַ אֶצְלוֹ כְּגוֹן אִילָן אוֹ בַּיִת אוֹ גָּדֵר שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר מְקוֹמוֹ וְיֵשׁ בֵּינוֹ וּבֵינוֹ כְּשֶׁחָשְׁכָה אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה אוֹ פָּחוֹת וְהֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהָלַךְ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וְיִקְנֶה בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ וְלֹא עָמַד שָׁם אֶלָּא הֶחְזִירוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ לָלוּן אֶצְלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁחָזַר מֵעַצְמוֹ לָלוּן אוֹ נִתְעַכֵּב. לְמָחָר יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹ וּמֵאוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ לִקְבֹּעַ שָׁם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ וְהֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ נַעֲשָׂה כְּמִי שֶׁעָמַד שָׁם אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ שָׁם:

3

When does the above apply? To a poor person, for we do not burden him [with the obligation of] depositing an eruv, or to a person who is in a distant place - e.g., a person on a journey who is afraid that soon night will fall. [This leniency is granted] provided there is enough time in the day for him to reach the designated place before nightfall - if he ran with all of his strength - and there are two thousand cubits or less between him and that place at nightfall.3

If, however, he was not far from the place in question,4 nor was he a poor man, or



there was not enough time in the day for him to reach the designated place before nightfall if he ran with all of his strength, or

there were more than two thousand cubits between him and that place at nightfall, or

he did not specify the location he intended as his place for the Sabbath,5



he is not able to designate a distant location as his place for the Sabbath. Instead, he is granted no more than two thousand cubits in all directions from the place at which he is standing at nightfall.6

ג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּעָנִי שֶׁאֵין מַטְרִיחִין אוֹתוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ עֵרוּב אוֹ בְּרָחוֹק כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁהָיָה בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהָיָה יָרֵא שֶׁמָּא תֶּחְשַׁךְ. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר מִן הַיּוֹם כְּדֵי לְהַגִּיעַ לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁקָּנָה בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ אִם רָץ בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ וְהָיָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה אוֹ פָּחוֹת. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה רָחוֹק וְלֹא עָנִי אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר מִן הַיּוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ אֲפִלּוּ רָץ בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בֵּין הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בּוֹ וּבֵין הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בּוֹ כְּשֶׁחָשְׁכָה יֶתֶר מֵאַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא כִּוֵּן הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁקָּנָה בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם וְאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בּוֹ כְּשֶׁחָשְׁכָה:

4

When a person stood in a private domain before the commencement of the Sabbath and designated it as his "place" for the Sabbath, or if he was traveling on a journey and had the intent of spending the Sabbath in a private domain that he knew and [thus] designated as his "place" for the Sabbath, he is entitled to walk throughout that domain and [continue] two thousand cubits in all directions.

If, however, this private domain was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation, or was a mound or a valley [different rules apply]: If it is the size of the area necessary to grow two se'ah [of grain] or less,7 one is entitled to walk throughout that domain and two thousand cubits in all directions.8 If it is larger than the size of the area necessary to grow two se'ah [of grain],9 [one's "place"] is considered to be only four cubits in that domain, [and one may proceed only] two thousand cubits from [this place] in all directions.

The same [law applies] when one places one's eruv in a domain that was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation.10

ד

מִי שֶׁעָמַד מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְקָנָה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הַיָּדוּעַ אֶצְלוֹ וְקָנָה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְאִם הָיְתָה רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד זוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה אוֹ תֵּל אוֹ בִּקְעָה אִם הָיָה בָּהּ בֵּית סָאתַיִם אוֹ פָּחוֹת מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְאִם הָיְתָה יוֹתֵר עַל בַּיִת סָאתַיִם אֵין לוֹ בָּהּ אֶלָּא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְחוּצָה מֵהֶן אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְכֵן אִם הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה:

5

When a person [desires to] establish a distant location as his "place" for the Sabbath, but does not specify its exact location, he is not considered to have established it as his "place."

What is implied? A person was traveling on a journey and declared, "I will spend the Sabbath in such and such a place," "...in such and such a field," "...in such and such a valley," or "...a thousand cubits..." or "...two thousand cubits away from my present place," he has not established the distant location as his place for the Sabbath. [Instead,] he is entitled to proceed only two thousand cubits in all directions from the place where he is standing at nightfall.11

ה

הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם וְלֹא סִיֵּם מְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ לֹא קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה שָׁם. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְאָמַר שְׁבִיתָתִי בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ בְּשָׂדֶה פְּלוֹנִית אוֹ בְּבִקְעָה פְּלוֹנִית אוֹ בְּרִחוּק אֶלֶף אַמָּה אוֹ אַלְפַּיִם מִמְּקוֹמִי זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בְּרָחוֹק וְאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בּוֹ כְּשֶׁחָשְׁכָה:

6

[The following rule applies] when a person says, "I will spend the Sabbath under this and this tree," or "...under this and this rock." If there are eight cubits or more under the tree or the rock, the person has not established [the location] as his "place" for the Sabbath, because he did not specify an exact location. For were he to spend the Sabbath in a particular four cubits, [he could be in error,] lest the other four cubits be the ones defined as his "Sabbath place."12

ו

אָמַר שְׁבִיתָתִי תַּחַת אִילָן פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ תַּחַת סֶלַע פְּלוֹנִי אִם יֵשׁ תַּחַת אוֹתוֹ אִילָן אוֹ אוֹתוֹ סֶלַע שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת אוֹ יָתֵר לֹא קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא כִּוֵּן מְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ. שֶׁאִם בָּא לִשְׁבֹּת בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁמָּא בְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת הָאֲחֵרוֹת הוּא שֶׁקָּנָה שְׁבִיתָה:

7

Therefore, it is necessary for a person to have the intent of establishing [a specific portion of the space - e.g.,] at [the tree's] base, its southern side, or its northern side, as his "Sabbath place."

If there are less than eight cubits under [the tree], and he intends to spend the Sabbath under it, he acquires it [as his "Sabbath place"]. [The rationale is that] there is no room [under the tree] for two places, and at least a portion of his [Sabbath] "place" has been defined.13

[This is the course of action to follow when] two people were coming on a journey, and one is familiar with a tree, fence, or other place that he desires to establish as his place, and the other is not familiar with the place. The person who is unfamiliar [with the place] should entrust the right to establish his "Sabbath place" to the one who is familiar with the place, and the latter should have the intent that he and his colleague should spend the Sabbath in the place with which he is familiar.

ז

לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בְּעִקָּרוֹ אוֹ בְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁבִּדְרוֹמוֹ אוֹ שֶׁבִּצְפוֹנוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה תַּחְתָּיו פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת תַּחְתָּיו קָנָה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שָׁם שִׁעוּר שְׁנֵי מְקוֹמוֹת וַהֲרֵי מִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹ מְסֻיָּם. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם בָּאִים בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֶחָד מֵהֶן מַכִּיר אִילָן אוֹ גָּדֵר אוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא קוֹבֵעַ בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה וְהַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ מַכִּיר. זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַכִּיר מוֹסֵר שְׁבִיתָתוֹ לַמַּכִּיר וְהַמַּכִּיר מִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת הוּא וַחֲבֵרוֹ בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר:

8

[The following rules apply when] the inhabitants of a city have sent a person to deposit their eruv in a specific place, he set out on his way, but a colleague had him return, and he did not deposit the eruv [on behalf of the inhabitants]: Since their eruv was not deposited in the desired location, [that location] is not established as their "Sabbath place," and they are not allowed to walk more than two thousand cubits in all directions from [the boundary of] their city.

[The person who went to deposit the eruv], by contrast, is considered to have established that location as his "place" for the Sabbath, because he had set out on the way to that location with the intent of establishing it as his "Sabbath place."14 Therefore, on the following day, he is permitted to proceed to the [desired] place and continue two thousand cubits from it in all directions.

ח

אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר שֶׁשָּׁלְחוּ אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְהוֹלִיךְ לָהֶן עֵרוּבָן לְמָקוֹם יָדוּעַ וְהֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהֶחְזִירוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא הוֹלִיךְ עֵרוּבָן. הֵן לֹא קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הֻנַּח שָׁם עֵרוּבָן וְאֵין לָהֶן לְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּדִינָתָן אֶלָּא אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְהוּא קָנָה שָׁם עֵרוּב שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת שָׁם וְהֶחֱזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ. לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם לְמָחָר וּלְהַלֵּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ:

9

The statement made previously,15 that a person who desires to establish a location as his Sabbath place from a distance need merely set out on the way, does not mean that he must depart and begin walking through the fields. Even if he merely descended from the loft with the intent of proceeding to [the desired] place, and before he left the entrance of his courtyard, a colleague prevailed on him to return, he is considered to have set out [on his way], and may establish his "Sabbath place" in that location.16

When a person establishes a location as his "Sabbath place" from a distance, he need not make an explicit statement, "This and this location is my 'Sabbath place.' It is sufficient for him to make a resolve within his heart and to set out on the way [to] establish that location as his "Sabbath place."17

Needless to say, a person who traveled by foot and actually stood at the location that [he desired to] establish as his "Sabbath place" need not make a statement. Making a resolve within his heart is sufficient to establish [the location as his "Sabbath place"].

ט

זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּחֲזִיק בַּדֶּרֶךְ. לֹא שֶׁיֵּצֵא וְיֵלֵךְ בַּשָּׂדֶה אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ יֵרֵד מִן הָעֲלִיָּה לֵילֵךְ לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִפֶּתַח הֶחָצֵר הֶחְזִירוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה הֶחֱזִיק וְקָנָה שְׁבִיתָה. וְכָל הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שְׁבִיתָתִי בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ וְהֶחֱזִיק בְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל שֶׁהוּא קָנָה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מִי שֶׁיָּצָא בְּרַגְלָיו וְעָמַד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁקּוֹנֶה בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כְּלוּם אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ קָנָה:

10

When students who sleep in the house of study, but go and eat their Sabbath meals [in the homes of] people who live in the fields and the vineyards who show hospitality to wayfarers passing through, [the house of study is considered their "Sabbath place"] and not the place where they eat.18

They may walk two thousand cubits from the house of study in all directions. [The rationale is] that were it possible for them to eat in the house of study, they would not go to the fields at all. They consider the house of study alone as their dwelling.

י

הַתַּלְמִידִים שֶׁהוֹלְכִין וְאוֹכְלִין בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת בַּשָּׂדוֹת וּבַכְּרָמִים אֵצֶל בַּעֲלֵי הַבָּתִּים שֶׁפִּתָּן מְצוּיָה לְעוֹבְרֵי דְּרָכִים הַבָּאִים שָׁם וּבָאִים וְלָנִים בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. מְהַלְּכִין אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִבֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ לֹא מִמְּקוֹם הָאֲכִילָה. שֶׁאִלּוּ מָצְאוּ סְעֻדָּתָן בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ לֹא הָיוּ יוֹצְאִין לַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵין דַּעְתָּן סוֹמֶכֶת לַדִּירָה אֶלָּא עַל בֵּית מִדְרָשָׁם:

Footnotes
1.

As mentioned in Halachah 9, there is no need to make an explicit statement. It is sufficient to make a mental resolve.

2.

This point is the subject of a difference of opinion among our Sages (Eruvin 4:9). Rabbi Meir maintains that the fundamental provision for establishing an eruv t'chumin involves depositing food. An allowance was made, however, for a poor person who could not afford to deposit food; he was permitted to establish an eruv by actually going to the desired place.

Rabbi Yehudah differs and states that the fundamental provision involves actually being at the place. Our Sages granted a leniency to a rich man, however, and allowed him to employ an agent to deposit food. As the Rambam states, the halachah follows Rabbi Yehudah.

3.

I.e., the person could not reach the intended place before nightfall if he continued at his present pace, but could reach it if he ran with all his might. We do not require him to make this effort, and allow him to establish the eruv by intent and continue walking at his normal pace (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 409:11).

4.

I.e., if at the outset he was at home, but was simply too lax about establishing an eruv. (See Shulchan Aruch, loc. cit.:13.)

5.

See Halachot 5-7.

6.

The Rambam's ruling implies that the person's intent is of no consequence whatsoever, and his "place" for the Sabbath is the place where he is standing at nightfall.

The Ra'avad differs regarding the instance when there are more than two thousand cubits between the person and the location he intended to be his "Sabbath place." The person's intent establishes that location as his "Sabbath place." Since there are more than two thousand cubits between the person and his "place," he is compared to one who has gone beyond his Sabbath limits and is entitled to walk only within a square of four cubits. (See Hilchot Shabbat 27:11.)

Although the Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.:11) mentions both views, it appears to favor that of the Ra'avad. The Be'ur Halachah notes that the Ra'avad's views are shared by the Rashba, Rabbenu Asher, and many others. Hence, he suggests that it be followed.

7.

I.e., 5000 square cubits.

8.

I.e., there is no difference between it and an ordinary private domain.

9.

Because of its size, and the fact that it was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation, our Sages feared that it might become confused with a private domain. Hence, they applied more stringent rules. (See Hilchot Shabbat, Chapter 16.)

10.

From the Rambam's wording in Hilchot Shabbat 27:4, the Maggid Mishneh infers that if the person stands within a large private domain that was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation on Friday and establishes it as his "Sabbath place," he may walk throughout its entire area and two thousand cubits in all directions. This opinion is not accepted by the Rashba and other authorities, and it is their view that is cited by the Shulchan Aruch 396:2.

11.

Based on their interpretation of Eruvin 49b, the Ra'avad, the Rashba, Rabbenu Asher, and others differ with the Rambam's ruling in this instance. Rather than totally ignore the person's intent, these authorities maintain that he is allowed to consider the distant location as his "Sabbath place." There is, however, a restriction. Since he did not specify his place, he is penalized according to the size of the location.

To cite the example mentioned in the following halachah: a person desires to establish a tree as his "Sabbath place." He does not specify his place and there are 20 cubits under the tree. According to the Rambam, his intent is ignored entirely, and his Sabbath limits are measured from the place where he is standing at nightfall. According to the other authorities, his "Sabbath place" is considered to be the tree, and it is from there that his Sabbath limits are measured. Nevertheless, because he did not specify his desired location, instead of being granted two thousand cubits in all directions, he is granted only 1980 cubits [i.e., 2000 minus 20 (the size of the area under the tree)].

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 409:11) mentions both views, but appears to favor that of the other authorities. The Eliyahu Rabba states that the view of the other authorities should be followed. The Be'ur Halachah, by contrast, states that consideration should also be given to the Rambam's view.

12.

We are not concerned with which of the eight cubits the person will use while under the tree, for all these eight cubits are within the person's Sabbath limits. The question is which four of these eight cubits will be considered to be one's "Sabbath place" regarding the determination of the Sabbath limits. For this, the precise determination of one's "Sabbath place" is the matter of focus (See the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Eruvin 4:7.)

13.

I.e., regardless of the side from which one measures the two thousand cubits of the Sabbath limits, a portion of the four cubits that a person is granted will be included in the four cubits from which the Sabbath limits are measured. This must be so, for there are less than eight cubits under the tree (ibid.).

14.

See Halachah 2. However, Rashi (Eruvin 52a), Rabbenu Yehonatan, the Rashba and many other authorities maintain that the leniency mentioned in Halachah 2 applies only when a person is on a journey, but not when the entire purpose for his setting out is to deposit an eruv. Their views are cited in the Mishnah Berurah 410:2.

15.

Halachah 2.

16.

Eruvin 52a relates that Rav Yehudah bar Ishtata brought Rav Natan bar Oshaya a basket of fruit for the Sabbath. Although it was late on Friday afternoon, Rav Yehudah turned to leave so that he could establish an eruv t'chumin to enable himself to return home on the following day. Rav Natan let him descend a single step and then told him to stay.

17.

Rashi (Eruvin 52a) and other authorities differ, and state that this leniency applies only when a person has two homes whose Sabbath limits are adjoining. In this instance, it is clear that even though a colleague prevailed upon him to return, his intent was to establish his "Sabbath place" at the desired location so that he could proceed to his other home.

When, however, a person does not own a home in the adjoining area, and a colleague is able to prevail upon him to return, he is not able to establish a "Sabbath place" in a distant location, unless he makes an explicit statement to that effect. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 410:2) quotes the Rambam's view, while the Mishnah Berurah 410:7 mentions the other opinions.

18.

This applies even if during beyn hash'mashot they are at the homes of their hosts (Mishnah Berurah 409:39).

Eruvin - Chapter Eight

1

One may not deposit two eruvin - one in the west and one in the east - so that one will be able to walk for a portion of the day [in the direction of] one of the eruvin, and to rely on the second eruv for the remainder of the day. [The rationale is that] one may not make two eruvin for a single day.1

If a person erred, and established two eruvin in two different directions, because he thought that this was permitted, or he told two people to establish an eruv for him, and one established an eruv to the north and one established an eruv to the south, he may walk only in the area common to both of them.

א

אֵין מַנִּיחִין שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין אֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח וְאֶחָד בַּמַּעֲרָב כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהַלֵּךְ בְּמִקְצָת הַיּוֹם עַל אֶחָד מִשְׁנִי הָעֵרוּבִין וּבִשְׁאָר הַיּוֹם עַל הָעֵרוּב הַשֵּׁנִי. שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין לְיוֹם אֶחָד. טָעָה וְעֵרֵב לִשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹת כִּמְדֻמֶּה הוּא שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין לִשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹת. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לִשְׁנַיִם צְאוּ וְעָרְבוּ עָלַי אֶחָד עֵרֵב עָלָיו לַצָּפוֹן וְאֶחָד עֵרֵב עָלָיו לַדָּרוֹם מְהַלֵּךְ כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם:

2

What is meant [by the expression], "he may walk only in the area common to both of them"? That he may walk only in the area that is within [the Sabbath limits] of both of these locations. [For example,] if one [of his agents] deposited an eruv 1000 cubits to the east [of his city's periphery] and the other deposited an eruv 500 cubits to the west, the person for whom the eruvin were deposited may walk only 1000 cubits to the west, as would be permitted [the agent] who established the eruv in the east, and 1500 cubits to the east, as would be permitted [the agent] who established the eruv in the west.

Therefore, if one established an eruv 2000 cubits to the east and the other established an eruv 2000 cubits to the west, the person may not move from his place.

ב

כֵּיצַד מְהַלֵּךְ כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם. שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִשְׁנֵיהֶם לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ. נָתַן הָאֶחָד עֵרוּב בְּרִחוּק אֶלֶף אַמָּה לְרוּחַ מִזְרָח וְהִנִּיחַ הַשֵּׁנִי מֵהֶן עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה לְרוּחַ מַעֲרָב. אֵין זֶה שֶׁעֵרְבוּ עָלָיו מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמַּעֲרָב אֶלָּא אֶלֶף אַמָּה כְּרַגְלֵי מִי שֶׁעֵרֵב עָלָיו בַּמִּזְרָח. וְלֹא יְהַלֵּךְ בַּמִּזְרָח אֶלָּא אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה כְּרַגְלֵי מִי שֶׁעֵרֵב עָלָיו בַּמַּעֲרָב. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עֵרֵב אוֹ עֵרְבוּ עָלָיו שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין אֵלּוּ אֶחָד בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לַמִּזְרָח וְאֶחָד בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לַמַּעֲרָב הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יָזוּז מִמְּקוֹמוֹ:

3

It is permissible for a person to establish two eruvin in two opposite directions and make the [following] stipulation: "If tomorrow there is a mitzvah or a necessity that arises and requires me to walk in this direction, then it is this eruv that I am relying upon, and the other eruv is of no consequence. If, by contrast, it is necessary that I go to the other direction, the eruv [in that direction] is the one on which I will rely, and the first eruv is of no significance.2

"If I am required to go in both directions, I may rely on whichever of the eruvin I desire, and thus go in whichever direction I desire. If nothing [out of the ordinary] arises, and I am not required to go in either direction, neither of the eruvin is of consequence, nor do I rely on them. Instead, my situation is the same as that of any other inhabitant of my city, and I may proceed two thousand cubits in all directions from the city's wall."

ג

מְעָרֵב אָדָם שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין בִּשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹת וּמַתְנֶה וְאוֹמֵר אִם אֵרַע לִי דְּבַר מִצְוָה אוֹ נִלְחַצְתִּי לְמָחָר וְנִצְרַכְתִּי לְרוּחַ זוֹ זֶה הָעֵרוּב הוּא שֶׁאֲנִי סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו וְהָעֵרוּב שֶׁבָּרוּחַ הַשֵּׁנִית אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם. וְאִם נִצְרַכְתִּי לְרוּחַ זוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית זֶה הָעֵרוּב הוּא שֶׁאֲנִי סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו וְשֶׁבָּרוּחַ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם. וְאִם נִצְרַכְתִּי לִשְׁתֵּי הָרוּחוֹת יֵשׁ לִי לִסְמֹךְ עַל אֵיזֶה עֵרוּב שֶׁאֶרְצֶה וּלְאֵיזֶה שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אֵלֵךְ. וְאִם לֹא אֵרַע לִי דָּבָר וְלֹא נִצְרַכְתִּי לְרוּחַ מֵהֶן אֵין שְׁנֵי הָעֵרוּבִין הָאֵלּוּ עֵרוּב וְאֵינִי סוֹמֵךְ עַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי כִּבְנֵי עִירִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִחוּץ לַחוֹמָה:

4

Just as it is forbidden to proceed beyond a city's [Sabbath] limits on the Sabbath, so too, it is forbidden to proceed beyond those limits on the holidays and on Yom Kippur.3

Just as a person who transfers an article from one domain to another on the Sabbath is liable, so too, a person who transfers an article from one domain to another on Yom Kippur is liable.4 On the holidays, by contrast, it is permitted to transfer articles from one domain to another.5

Therefore, eruvin should be established in courtyards and shitufim should be established in lanes for Yom Kippur, as they are established for the Sabbath.6 Similarly, eruvei t'chumin may be established for Yom Kippur and the holidays as they are established for the Sabbath.

ד

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לָצֵאת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּשַׁבָּת כָּךְ אָסוּר לָצֵאת בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב כָּךְ הַמּוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים חַיָּב. אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת. לְפִיכָךְ מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בַּמְּבוֹאוֹת לְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כְּשַׁבָּת. וּמְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין לְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וּלְיָמִים טוֹבִים כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין לְשַׁבָּת:

5

[The following rules apply to] a holiday that occurs next to the Sabbath - whether before it or after it - or to the two days of a holiday as observed in the diaspora: A person may establish two eruvin in two opposite directions and rely on either for the first day, and the other for the second day.7 Similarly, he may establish a single eruv in one direction and rely on it for one of the two days, and on the other day consider himself like the other inhabitants of the city8 - i.e., it is as if he did not made an eruv, and thus he is entitled to proceed two thousand cubits in all directions [from the city's periphery].

When does this apply? To the two days observed as holidays in the diaspora. Regarding the two days of Rosh HaShanah [different rules apply]. They are considered to be a single [extended] day,9 and one may establish an eruv in one direction alone for both these days.10

ה

יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת סָמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת בֵּין מִלְּפָנֶיהָ בֵּין מִלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ אוֹ שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ לְעָרֵב שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין לִשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹת וְסוֹמֵךְ עַל אֵי זֶה מֵהֶן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְעַל הָעֵרוּב שֶׁבָּרוּחַ הַשְּׁנִיָּה לַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי. אוֹ מְעָרֵב עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְרוּחַ אַחַת וְסוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לְאֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי יָמִים וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי יִהְיֶה כִּבְנֵי הָעִיר וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא עָשָׂה עֵרוּב וְיֵשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת אֲבָל בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּיוֹם אֶחָד וְאֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים אֶלָּא לְרוּחַ אַחַת:

6

Similarly, a person who [deposits] an eruv [t'chumin] may make [any of the following] stipulations: "On this Sabbath, my eruv shall be in effect, but not on another Sabbath," or "On another Sabbath [my eruv shall be in effect],11 but not on this Sabbath."

[Similarly, he may stipulate that the eruv shall be in effect] on the Sabbaths but not on holidays, or on holidays and not on Sabbaths.

ו

וְכֵן מַתְנֶה אָדָם עַל עֵרוּבוֹ וְאוֹמֵר עֵרוּבִי לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ אֲבָל לֹא לְשַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת. אוֹ לְשַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת אֲבָל לֹא לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ. לְשַׁבָּתוֹת וְלֹא לְיָמִים טוֹבִים לְיָמִים טוֹבִים וְלֹא לְשַׁבָּתוֹת:

7

When a person tells five others, "I am establishing an eruv on behalf of one of you, whom I will choose [later]. If I choose, that person will be able to go. If I do not choose, he will not be able to go." Even if this person chooses [a companion] after nightfall, he may go. For the principle of b'reirah applies12regarding a matter of Rabbinic law.13

Similarly, a person may establish an eruv for all the Sabbaths of the year and stipulate, "If I desire [to rely on the eruv], I may go, and if I do not desire [to rely on it], I may not go - and I will be [governed by the same rules] as the other inhabitants of my city." He may go on whichever Sabbaths he desires, even if he does not make the decision to go until after nightfall.

ז

אָמַר לַחֲמִשָּׁה הֲרֵינִי מְעָרֵב עַל אֵיזֶה מִכֶּם שֶׁאֶרְצֶה רָצִיתִי אֵלֵךְ לֹא רָצִיתִי לֹא אֵלֵךְ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָצָה מִשֶּׁחָשְׁכָה יֵלֵךְ. דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים יֵשׁ בּוֹ בְּרֵרָה. וְכֵן הַמְעָרֵב לְשַׁבָּתוֹת שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וְאָמַר רָצִיתִי אֵלֵךְ לֹא רָצִיתִי לֹא אֵלֵךְ אֶלָּא אֶהְיֶה כִּבְנֵי עִירִי כָּל שַׁבָּת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יֵלֵךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָצָה מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ:

8

[The following rule applies] when a person establishes an eruv for the two days of a holiday as observed in the diaspora or for a Sabbath and a holiday [that are celebrated consecutively]: Even when the person establishes a single eruv in one direction for both days, the eruv must be accessible14 in its [designated] location on both the first and second nights throughout [the period of] beyn hash'mashot.

What should he do? He should take [the eruv to the desired place] on the eve of the Sabbath or on the eve of the holiday, and wait until nightfall. He may then take it in his hand and carry it away, if it is a holiday.15 On the following day, he should take it16 to the same location,17 deposit it there until nightfall and eat it18 if it is Friday night, or take it with him if it is the night of a holiday.

[This is necessary, for] they are two different expressions of holiness, and are not considered to be a single [extended] day with regard to which it would be possible to say on the first night that one established the eruv for both days.19

ח

הַמְעָרֵב לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת אוֹ לְשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְרוּחַ אַחַת לִשְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָעֵרוּב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ מָצוּי בְּלַיִל הָרִאשׁוֹן וּבְלֵיל שֵׁנִי כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה. מוֹלִיכוֹ בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּמַחְשִׁיךְ עָלָיו וְנוֹטְלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וּבָא לוֹ אִם הָיָה לֵיל יוֹם טוֹב. וּלְמָחָר מוֹלִיכוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וּמַנִּיחוֹ שָׁם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ וְאוֹכְלוֹ אִם הָיָה לֵיל שַׁבָּת אוֹ מְבִיאוֹ אִם הָיָה לֵיל יוֹם טוֹב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן שְׁתֵּי קְדֻשּׁוֹת וְאֵינָן כְּיוֹם אֶחָד כְּדֵי שֶׁנֹּאמַר מִלֵּיל רִאשׁוֹן קָנָה הָעֵרוּב לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים:

9

[In the situation described in the previous halachah,] were the eruv to be eaten on the first day, it is effective for the first day, but the person [may not establish] an eruv [with food] for the second day.

If he established an eruv by walking [to the desired location] on the first day, he may establish an eruv for the second day only by walking to the same location20 and making the resolution21 that he is establishing this as his "place" for the day.

If he established an eruv with bread on the first day [he has two options]: If he desires to establish an eruv by walking [to the desired location] on the second day, the eruv is acceptable. If he desires to establish an eruv by depositing a loaf of bread, [he may,] provided he uses the same loaf of bread that he used the first day.22

ט

נֶאֱכַל הָעֵרוּב בָּרִאשׁוֹן קָנָה הָעֵרוּב לָרִאשׁוֹן וְאֵין לוֹ עֵרוּב לַשֵּׁנִי. עֵרֵב בְּרַגְלָיו בָּרִאשׁוֹן צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב בְּרַגְלָיו בַּשֵּׁנִי וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ וְיַעֲמֹד בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וְיַחֲשֹׁב בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁיִּקְנֶה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה. עֵרֵב בְּפַת בָּרִאשׁוֹן אִם רָצָה לְעָרֵב בְּרַגְלָיו בַּשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. וְאִם רָצָה לְעָרֵב בְּפַת צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב בְּאוֹתָהּ הַפַּת עַצְמָהּ שֶׁעֵרֵב בָּהּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן:

10

When Yom Kippur [would] fall on Friday or on Sunday during the era when the sanctification [of the moon] was dependent on its being sighted] by witnesses,23 it appears to me24 that [the two days] are considered to be one [extended] day25 and are considered to be one continuum of holiness.26

י

יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹ לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת בִּזְמַן שֶׁמְּקַדְּשִׁין עַל פִּי הָרְאִיָּה יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהֵן כְּיוֹם אֶחָד וּקְדֻשָּׁה אַחַת הֵם:

11

The statement made previously27 that a person may establish two different eruvin in two directions for two days applies only when it is possible for the person to reach both of the eruvin on the first day [without departing from his Sabbath limits]. If, however, it is impossible on the first day for him to reach the eruv for the second day, the eruv for the second day is invalid.28

[The rationale is that] the mitzvah of eruv [can be fulfilled only] with a meal that is fit to be eaten while it is still day. Since the person may not reach the eruv [intended for the second day] on the first day [because it is beyond his Sabbath limits], it is not considered to be a meal that is fit to be eaten while it is still day.

יא

זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לְעָרֵב שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין בִּשְׁתֵּי רוּחוֹת לִשְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַגִּיעַ לְכָל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי הָעֵרוּבִין בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אֲבָל אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַגִּיעַ לָעֵרוּב שֶׁל יוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵין עֵרוּב הַשֵּׁנִי עֵרוּב. שֶׁהָעֵרוּב מִצְוָתוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּסְּעֻדָּה הָרְאוּיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְזֶה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ לְזֶה הָעֵרוּב בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:

12

What is implied? If a person deposited an eruv two thousand cubits eastward of his home and relied on it for the first day [he is forbidden to walk westward at all].29 [Therefore,] if he deposited an eruv one cubit, one hundred cubits, or one thousand cubits to the west and relied on it for the second day, the second eruv is invalid.

[The rationale is that] the second eruv is not fit for him on the first day, for he may not reach it, since he is not able to proceed toward the west at all.

יב

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ לְרוּחַ מִזְרָח וְסָמַךְ עָלָיו לְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּב שֵׁנִי בְּרִחוּק אַמָּה אַחַת אוֹ מֵאָה אוֹ אֶלֶף בְּרוּחַ מַעֲרָב וְסָמַךְ עָלָיו לְיוֹם שֵׁנִי אֵין זֶה הַשֵּׁנִי עֵרוּב. שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵין זֶה הָעֵרוּב הַשֵּׁנִי רָאוּי לוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִשְׁאַר לוֹ בְּרוּחַ מַעֲרָב כְּלוּם:

13

If, however, he deposited his eruv one thousand five hundred cubits eastward of his home and relied on it for the first day, and deposited a second eruv within five hundred cubits to the west of his house and relied upon it for the second day, the eruv is valid. For it is possible for him to reach it on the first day.

יג

אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ בְּרוּחַ מִזְרָח וְסָמַךְ עָלָיו לְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּב שֵׁנִי רָחוֹק מִבֵּיתוֹ לְרוּחַ מַעֲרָב בְּתוֹךְ חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה וְסָמַךְ עָלָיו לְיוֹם שֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לוֹ בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן:

14

When a holiday falls on a Friday, it is forbidden to establish an eruv [for the Sabbath] on the holiday: neither an eruv chatzerot nor an eruv t'chumin.30 Instead, one should establish the eruv on Thursday, the day prior to the holiday.

If the two days celebrated as a holiday in the diaspora fall on a Thursday and a Friday, one should establish both an eruv chatzerot and an eruv t'chumin on Wednesday. If a person forgot, and did not establish an eruv beforehand, he may establish an eruv chatzerot in a conditional manner on Thursday and Friday.31 He may not, however, do this with regard to an eruv t'chumin.32

יד

יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה עֵרוּב בְּיוֹם טוֹב לֹא עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְלֹא עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא מְעָרֵב הוּא בְּיוֹם חֲמִישִׁי שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם חָלוּ שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי וְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מֵעֶרֶב מִיּוֹם רְבִיעִי עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין וְעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת. וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא עֵרֵב הֲרֵי זֶה מְעָרֵב עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי וּבְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּמַתְנֶה אֲבָל לֹא עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין:

15

What is implied? On Thursday, the person should make the following stipulation:33 "If today is a holiday, my statements are of no consequence. But if not, this should be [accepted as] an eruv."

On the following day, he should again establish the eruv34and say, "If today is a holiday, I have established my eruv yesterday, and my statements today are of no consequence. If, however, yesterday was the holiday, this should be [accepted as] an eruv."

When does the above apply? To the two days observed as holidays in the diaspora. The two days of Rosh HaShanah, by contrast, are considered to be one [extended] day. Therefore, with regard to them, it is possible to establish an eruv only on the day prior to the holiday.

(Blessed be God who grants assistance.)

טו

כֵּיצַד מַתְנֶה. אוֹמֵר בַּחֲמִישִׁי אִם הַיּוֹם יוֹם טוֹב אֵין בִּדְבָרַי כְּלוּם וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. וּלְמָחָר חוֹזֵר וּמְעָרֵב וְאוֹמֵר אִם הַיּוֹם יוֹם טוֹב כְּבָר עֵרַבְתִּי מֵאֶמֶשׁ וְאֵין בִּדְבָרַי הַיּוֹם כְּלוּם וְאִם אֶמֶשׁ הָיָה יוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת אֲבָל בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּיוֹם אֶחָד וְאֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב לָהֶן אֶלָּא מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב: סָלִיק הִלְכוֹת ערוּבִין

Footnotes
1.

This principle is based on the following concept: Since an eruv t'chumin establishes a particular location as a person's place for the Sabbath, only one such place can be established, and not two.

2.

As the Maggid Mishneh mentions, this halachah is dependent on the concept that in cases of Rabbinic law, the principle of b'reirah applies. Thus, retroactively it is considered that at the commencement of the Sabbath, the person had the intent of establishing an eruv in the direction that he was eventually required to proceed.

3.

See Tzafenat Paneach (in his gloss on Hilchot Shabbat 27:1), who states that the Rambam considers the limits on travel on the holidays and on Yom Kippur as Rabbinic in origin. In support, he cites the Rambam's statements in Hilchot Sanhedrin, Chapter 19, regarding the negative commandments punishable by lashing: "A person who goes beyond the [Sabbath] limits on the Sabbath, a person who performs a forbidden labor on a holiday."

4.

The liability incurred by the violator is somewhat different. A person who willfully performs any of the Sabbath labors is liable for execution, while one who violates a forbidden labor on Yom Kippur is liable only for karet. (See Hilchot Sh'vitat Asor 1:2.)

5.

See Hilchot Sh'vitat Yom Tov 1:4, which states that since the prohibition against the forbidden labor of transferring articles was lifted on the holidays regarding the preparation of food, it was lifted entirely.

6.

See Maggid Mishneh and the Mishnah Berurah 416:31, which mention opinions that see a benefit in the establishment of eruvin in courtyards on the holidays as well.

7.

Although for a single Sabbath one may not establish eruvin in two opposite directions, this rule does not apply when the Sabbath and a holiday follow one another. The Sabbath and the holidays represent two different expressions of holiness (Eruvin 38b). Therefore, the location defined as one's "place" - and thus an eruv established - for one does not necessarily apply regarding the other.

Similarly, regarding the two days of the holidays observed in the diaspora: in essence, the holidays were to be observed for only one day. The observance of a second day was instituted only because of uncertainty regarding the calendar. (See Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:4-5.) Therefore, the two days are also considered to be separate entities.

The Ra'avad suggests qualifying the Rambam's statements. The Rambam, however, appreciated the problem that he raised and clarified the issue in Halachah 12.

8.

This also involves a redefinition of one's place. Instead of its being considered to be the location of the eruv, it is considered to be one's home.

9.

Since these two days were observed as a holiday even in Eretz Yisrael when the moon was sanctified on the basis of the testimony of witnesses (Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:7), they are considered to be a single expression of holiness. Eruvin 39b refers to them as "one long day," and the halachic requirements that apply to one day apply also to the other.

10.

See the notes on Halachah 8 with regard to whether or not it is necessary for the eruv to remain in its place for both nights of the holiday.

11.

The food deposited for the eruv must exist at beyn hash'mashot and be fit to eat. This is particularly important in the summer months, when it is possible that the eruv has become stale or has been eaten by vermin (Mishnah Berurah 416:9).

12.

Ordinarily, a person must establish his eruv before nightfall. Nevertheless, since he made a stipulation beforehand, we rely on the principle of b'reirah, and we say that retroactively it is considered to be as if he decided to rely on the eruv before nightfall (Maggid Mishneh).

13.

For other examples of the Rambam's rulings concerning this matter, see Hilchot Sh'vitat Yom Tov 5:20, Hilchot Terumah 1:21, Hilchot Ma'aser 7:1, and Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 4:15.

14.

If the eruv is not accessible - even if it is present in its designated location - it is not acceptable, as stated in Chapter 6, Halachot 8 and 12.

15.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that the removal of the eruv is merely a suggestion offered, lest a person leave the eruv in its place, and it be destroyed by vermin or the like. In a place where the eruv will surely be preserved, there is no point in removing it. Needless to say, on the Sabbath, when it is forbidden to carry, and it is forbidden to remove the eruv, this suggestion does not apply.

If one leaves the eruv in the designated place and there is a possibility that it will be destroyed, one is required to go to that place on the following day to check that it still exists (Mishnah Berurah 416:14).

16.

The Be'ur Halachah 416 asks: Since it is possible to establish the eruv by walking to the designated location (as stated in the following halachah), of what value is it that the person carried the food with him? The Be'ur Halachah explains that in this instance, we are speaking about a person who has an agent establish the eruv for him. Therefore, it is necessary for him to use food.

17.

The eruv must be deposited in the same location; otherwise, this is forbidden. Were one to change either the location (or the food used for the eruv), one would have been considered as either preparing on the Sabbath for a holiday, or on a holiday for the Sabbath (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 416:2).

18.

There is no obligation to eat it. The Rambam's intent is merely that from this time onward, there is no obligation that the eruv remain intact (Mishneh Berurah 416:15).

19.

The Rambam's statement implies that on Rosh HaShanah, it is necessary to establish an eruv only on the first night of the holiday. Even if the eruv is consumed before the beginning of the second day, it is acceptable, just as it would be acceptable for the entire Sabbath, even if it had been consumed after beyn hash'mashot.

The Ra'avad objects to this ruling. He maintains that the distinction of the two days of Rosh HaShanah as a single "extended" day applies only as a stringency, but not as a leniency. Therefore, the eruv established before the first night must remain in its place on the second night as well.

The Maggid Mishneh justifies the Rambam's view, bringing supports that indicate that our Sages' definition of these two days as "one long day" brings about a leniency as well as a stringency. The Mishnah Berurah 416:11 follows the Rambam's ruling.

20.

He may not establish the eruv by depositing food, for this would involve the performance of an activity on either the Sabbath or the holiday for the benefit of the other. As mentioned, it is forbidden to prepare on the Sabbath for a holiday or on a holiday for the Sabbath (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 416:2).

21.

He may not make a verbal statement, for this would be considered to be preparation for the coming day (ibid.).

22.

Since he uses the same loaf, he is not considered to be performing a new activity; this location had already been established as his "place," and he is merely perpetuating the existing situation. If he brought a different loaf, it would be considered to be preparing for the coming day (ibid.).

23.

According to the fixed calendar we follow at present, it is impossible for Yom Kippur to fall on either Sunday or Friday. (See Rosh HaShanah 20a.)

24.

This expression implies a ruling for which the Rambam has no explicit source in the Talmud, but which he arrived at through a process of deduction.

25.

Rabbi Akiva Eiger explains that this also implies a leniency. As indicated by the conclusion of Halachah 8, there is no need to establish an eruv on the second day.

26.

The rationale is that all the prohibitions that apply on the Sabbath also apply on Yom Kippur (Maggid Mishneh).

27.

In Halachah 5.

28.

Note the gloss of the Sefer HaKovetz on Halachah 5, which discusses whether the law in this halachah applies only with regard to a holiday and a Sabbath that follow consecutively, or also with regard to the two days of a holiday that are observed in the diaspora. The Magen Avraham 416:3 rules that the restrictions apply with regard to the two days observed in the diaspora as well.

29.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 4.

30.

For it is forbidden to prepare for the Sabbath on a holiday. (See the Mishnah Berurah 393:1, which questions whether or not an eruv established on a holiday in error is acceptable.)

Note also the Or Sameach, which explains that, according to the Rambam, it is forbidden to establish an eruv t'chumin on the first day of a holiday for the second day. (This ruling runs contrary to a decision of the Noda BiY'hudah (Vol. II, Responsum 48).

31.

In Hilchot Sh'vitat Yom Tov 6:14-15, when discussing the establishment of an eruv tavshilin and other similar matters, the Rambam states that in the present era, we may not make such a conditional arrangement. This leniency was granted only in the era when the establishment of the calendar was dependent on the testimony of witnesses, and the second day of a holiday was observed because of a doubt concerning the day on which the holiday should be celebrated. At present, there is no such doubt, and the second day is celebrated because of a Rabbinic decree requiring us to preserve the previous custom. (See Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:5.)

Other authorities (see the gloss of the Ra'avad on Hilchot Sh'vitat Yom Tov) take issue with the Rambam on this point; it is their view that is accepted as halachah in the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 393:1).

32.

Beitzah 17a explains why a distinction is made between these two types of eruvin. By establishing an eruv t'chumin, a person designates a place as his home for the Sabbath, and our Sages would not permit this to be done on a holiday. In contrast, the establishment of an eruv chatzerot negates one's ownership. Therefore, greater leniency is shown.

33.

Note the Birkei Yosef (Orach Chayim 528), which states that a blessing should not be recited.

34.

The Mishnah Berurah 393:6 suggests using the same loaf of bread. Otherwise, it would be necessary to keep both loaves until the Sabbath.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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