ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Maaser Sheini - Chapter 7

Classes on 1 Chapter Rambam
View more classes
Show content in:

Maaser Sheini - Chapter 7

1

Produce that was purchased with money from the second tithe1 should not be redeemed outside Jerusalem unless they contracted ritual impurity from a primary source of ritual impurity. Instead, they should be brought to Jerusalem and eaten there.

א

פֵּרוֹת הַנִּלְקָחוֹת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אֵינָן נִפְדִּין בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִטְמְאוּ בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה אֶלָּא יַעֲלוּ הֵן עַצְמָן וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם:

2

This is the stringency of produce purchased with money from the second tithe over the produce of the second tithe itself. If, however, it contracted ritual impurity from a secondary source of ritual impurity,2 it should be redeemed and eaten in Jerusalem.3

ב

זֶה חֹמֶר בְּלָקוּחַ בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מִפֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר עַצְמָן. וְאִם נִטְמָא בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם יִפָּדוּ וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם:

3

Money from the second tithe should be used only to purchase food for humans4 that grows from the earth or grows from the products of the earth, e.g., those entities explicitly mentioned in the Torah [Deuteronomy 14:26]: "Cattle, sheep,5 wine, and strong drink."

ג

אֵין נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר אֶלָּא מַאֲכַל אָדָם שֶׁגִּדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ. אוֹ גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ. כְּגוֹן הַפְּרָט הַמְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים יד כו) "בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר":

4

For this reason, we do not purchase water, salt,6 truffles, and mushrooms7 with money from the second tithes, because they are not products of the earth. Similarly, one should not purchase produce that is attached to the earth or produce that cannot be brought to Jerusalem,8 because this does not resemble cattle and sheep.9

ד

לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹקְחִין בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מַיִם וּמֶלַח כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת לְפִי שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלֵיהֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ. וְלֹא פֵּרוֹת מְחֻבָּרִין לַקַּרְקַע. וְלֹא פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לְהַגִּיעַ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹמִין לְבָקָר וָצֹאן:

5

Honey, eggs, and milk are considered like cattle and sheep. Even though they are not products of the earth, they are the products of its products.10

ה

הַדְּבַשׁ וְהַבֵּיצִים וְהֶחָלָב הֲרֵי הֵן כְּבָקָר וָצֹאן שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן גִּדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע הֲרֵי הֵן גִּדּוּלֵי גִּדּוּלֶיהָ:

6

A mixture of water and grapes11 that has not turned to vinegar should not be purchased with money from the second tithe, because it is like water. Once it turns to vinegar, it can be purchased [with these funds] like wine or strong drink.12 If one purchased it before it fermented and then it fermented, it is acquired by the second tithe.13

ו

הַתֶּמֶד עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחְמִיץ אֵינוֹ נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמַיִם. וּמִשֶּׁהֶחְמִיץ נִלְקָח כַּיַּיִן וּכְשֵׁכָר. לְקָחוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחְמִיץ וְהֶחֱמִיץ קָנָה מַעֲשֵׂר:

7

When does the above14 apply? When one mixed three units of water and received less than a fourth unit of the mixture. If, however, one mixed three units and received four,15 the mixture is considered as diluted wine and may be purchased with money from the second tithe.

ז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּנָתַן שְׁלֹשָׁה מַיִם וּמָצָא פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבָּעָה. אֲבָל אִם נָתַן שְׁלֹשָׁה וְהוֹצִיא אַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי זֶה כְּיַיִן מָזוּג וְנִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר:

8

Buds from branches16 and carob trees17 before they become sweet may not be purchased [with money from the second tithe].18 After they become sweet, they may be purchased [with those funds]. But luf,19 mustard, vetch, and other produce that is pickled may be purchased [with these funds], whether they have already become sweet or not.20 Date hearts21 may be purchased with money from the second tithe.

ח

לוּלְבֵי זְרָדִין וְהֶחָרוּבִין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּיקוּ אֵין נִלְקָחִין. אַחַר שֶׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ נִלְקָחִין. אֲבָל הַלּוּף וְהַחַרְדָּל וְהַתֻּרְמוּסִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּכְבָּשִׁים בֵּין מִשֶּׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ בֵּין עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִמְתִּיקוּ נִלְקָחִין. וְהַקּוֹר נִלְקָח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר:

9

Safron may not be purchased [with these funds], for it serves only as a coloring. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations involving herbs that provide an aroma, color, or taste. Since these herbs are not [included] in foods to be eaten for their substance, only for their flavor, they should not be purchased with money from the second tithe. Therefore spices,22 pepper, costus, chiltit,23 safflower, and the like may not be purchased with money from the second tithes.

ט

הַכַּרְכּוֹם אֵינוֹ נִלְקָח שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְמַרְאֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִנּוֹתְנֵי רֵיחַ וּמַרְאֶה וְטַעַם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן לַאֲכִילַת גּוּפָן אֶלָּא לְטַעַם שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אֵינָן נִלְקָחִין בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. לְפִיכָךְ רָאשֵׁי בְּשָׂמִים וְהַפִּלְפְּלִין וְהַקֹּשְׁטְ וְהַחִלְתִּית וְחַלּוֹת חֲרִיעַ וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ אֵינָן נִלְקָחִין בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר:

10

Anise, when used to flavor a cooked dish, should not be purchased with money from the second tithe. If it is used for a dip24 or the like, in which instance, it is part of the food itself, it can be purchased with money from the second tithe.25 If one mixed water and salt and put oil into it, it is considered as brine and may be purchased with money from the second tithe. The cost of the water and the salt should be included in the cost of the oil.26

י

הַשֶּׁבֶת אִם לִתֵּן טַעַם בִּקְדֵרָה אֵינָהּ נִלְקַחַת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאִם לִכְמַךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל גּוּפָהּ נִלְקַחַת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. עֵרֵב מַיִם וּמֶלַח אִם נָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ שֶׁמֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמֻרְיָס וְלוֹקֵחַ מֵהֶן בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. וּמַבְלִיעַ דְּמֵי הַמַּיִם וְהַמֶּלַח בִּדְמֵי הַשֶּׁמֶן:

11

One may not use money of Maaser Sheni to purchase produce that is terumah,27 because by doing so, one limits the consumption of both [the terumah] and [the second tithe]. For terumah may only be eaten by priests on the evening [after they immersed themselves].28 It is permitted to those in the acute state of onein mourning and can be eaten in any place.29 The second tithe, by contrast, is permitted to non-priests and those who immersed themselves that day.30 It is forbidden to one in the acute state of onein mourning and must be eaten in Jerusalem. Thus, [by purchasing terumah with such funds,] one restricts the consumption of the second tithe and the consumption of terumah.31

יא

אֵין לוֹקְחִין תְּרוּמוֹת בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְמַעֵט אֲכִילָתוֹ וַאֲכִילָתָהּ. שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא כֹּהֲנִים מְעֹרְבֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְאוֹנֵן וְנֶאֱכֶלֶת בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר מֻתָּר לְזָרִים וְלִטְבוּל יוֹם וְאָסוּר לְאוֹנֵן וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. נִמְצָא מְמַעֵט אֲכִילַת מַעֲשֵׂר וַאֲכִילַת הַתְּרוּמָה:

12

A domesticated animal to be offered as a peace offering may be purchased32 from the money of the second tithes,33 since peace offerings may be eaten by non-priests. At the outset, [pilgrims] would purchase animals with the money of the second tithe to partake of them as ordinary meat so that they would not be offered on the altar.34 [Hence,] the court decreed that one could not use these funds to purchase a domesticated animal unless it was brought as a peace offering. One may, however, use these funds to purchase non-domesticated animals35 or fowl, for these are unfit for peace offerings.

יב

לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמָה לְזִבְחֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים מִכֶּסֶף הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁהַשְּׁלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִים לְזָרִים. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמוֹת לְאָכְלָן חֻלִּין מִכֶּסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי כְּדֵי לְהַבְרִיחָם מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. גָּזְרוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁאֵין לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמָה מִמְּעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר אֶלָּא לִשְׁלָמִים. אֲבָל חַיָּה וְעוֹף לוֹקְחִין שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִשְׁלָמִים:

13

The produce of the Sabbatical year may not be purchased with money from the second tithes, because there is an obligation to destroy it, as will be explained.36

יג

אֵין לוֹקְחִין פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. לְפִי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֵר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

14

When a person purchases salt, produce that is still attached [to the ground], or produce that cannot be brought to Jerusalem,37 they are not acquired by the second tithe38 even though the money is now considered as ordinary funds.39

יד

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מַיִם וּמֶלַח אוֹ פֵּרוֹת מְחֻבָּרִין אוֹ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהַגִּיעַ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לֹא קָנָה הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצְאוּ הַמָּעוֹת לְחֻלִּין:

15

When a person inadvertently purchases produce outside of Jerusalem with money from the second tithe,40 the seller is compelled to return the money to the owner41 and it is considered as the second tithe as it was originally.42 If he makes the purchase intentionally,43 the produce he purchased must be taken to Jerusalem and eaten there.44 [In the age when] the Temple no longer exists,45 they should be put aside until they rot.46

טו

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר. בְּשׁוֹגֵג כּוֹפִין אֶת הַמּוֹכֵר לְהַחֲזִיר הַדָּמִים לַבְּעָלִים וְהֵן מַעֲשֵׂר כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ. בְּמֵזִיד יַעֲלוּ הַפֵּרוֹת וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם אֵין מִקְדָּשׁ יַנִּיחֵם עַד שֶׁיֵּרָקְבוּ:

16

Similarly, a domesticated animal47 should not be purchased with money from the second tithe outside of Jerusalem. If one purchased it unknowingly, the money should be returned to its [owner]. If it was done intentionally, it should be brought to Jerusalem and eaten there. [In the age when] the Temple no longer exists, [the animal] and its hide should be buried.48

טז

וְכֵן אֵין לוֹקְחִין בְּהֵמָה בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר חוּץ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם לָקַח בְּשׁוֹגֵג יַחְזְרוּ הַדָּמִים לִמְקוֹמָן. בְּמֵזִיד תַּעֲלֶה וְתֵאָכֵל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם אֵין מִקְדָּשׁ תִּקָּבֵר הִיא וְעוֹרָהּ:

17

[The following laws apply when] one purchases servants, land, or an unkosher animal, whether intentionally or unintentionally,49 [with money from the second tithe]. If the seller fled,50 [the purchaser] should [purchase food] with the amount of money he spent and eat it in Jerusalem under the restrictions applying to the second tithe. This is the general principle: If the seller fled or died, whenever one spent the money of the second tithe on matters other than food, drink, and daubs, he must partake of an equivalent [value of food in Jerusalem]. If the seller was present, the money should be returned to [the original owner].51 Similarly, if a person brought burnt offerings, sin offerings, or guilt offerings from the money of the second tithe,52 he must partake of an equivalent [value of food in Jerusalem].53

יז

לָקַח עֲבָדִים וְקַרְקָעוֹת וּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג אִם בָּרַח הַמּוֹכֵר הֲרֵי זֶה יֵאָכֵל כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתָן הַמָּעוֹת בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּתוֹרַת מַעֲשֵׂר. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁהוֹצִיא חוּץ לַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה וְסִיכָה מִדְּמֵי מַעֲשֵׂר וּבָרַח הַמּוֹכֵר אוֹ מֵת יֵאָכֵל כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הַמּוֹכֵר קַיָּם יַחְזְרוּ הַדָּמִים לִמְקוֹמָן. וְכֵן אִם הֵבִיא עוֹלוֹת וְחַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת מִדְּמֵי מַעֲשֵׂר יֹאכַל כְּנֶגְדָּן:

18

When a person [used money from the second tithe to] purchase a non-domesticated animal for a peace offering54 or a domesticated animal to be eaten as ordinary meat,55 it is as if he [used it to] purchase an ox for plowing and the animal is not designated as a peace offering.56 If he purchased a domesticated animal to be offered as a peace offering and it became blemished, the holiness of the second tithe leaves it. It should be redeemed57 and the funds are not considered as money from the second tithe. Nevertheless, if he redeems it himself,58 he must add a fifth of its value.59

יח

לָקַח חַיָּה לְזִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. וּבְהֵמָה לִבְשַׂר תַּאֲוָה. הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁקָּנָה שׁוֹר לַחֲרִישָׁה וְלֹא קָנָה שְׁלָמִים. לָקַח בְּהֵמָה לִשְׁלָמִים וְנָפַל בָּהּ מוּם פָּקְעָה מִמֶּנָּה קְדֻשַּׁת מַעֲשֵׂר וּפוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ. וְאֵין הַדָּמִים מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִם פְּדָאָהּ לְעַצְמוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:

19

When one consecrates money from the second tithe for [the purpose of purchasing] a peace offering, the consecration is not effective,60 for the sanctity of the peace offering does not encompass [an entity already] sanctified to the second tithe. For the second tithe is the property of the Most High.61 Needless to say, this applies if he consecrates the produce of the second tithe itself for the purpose of purchasing] a peace offering, the consecration is not effective.

יט

הַמַּתְפִּיס מְעוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר לִשְׁלָמִים לֹא קָנוּ שְׁלָמִים. שֶׁקְּדֻשַּׁת שְׁלָמִים אֵינָהּ חָלָה עַל קְדֻשַּׁת מַעֲשֵׂר. שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֵׂר מָמוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ הוּא. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הִתְפִּיס הַמַּעֲשֵׂר עַצְמָן לִשְׁלָמִים שֶׁלֹּא קָנוּ שְׁלָמִים:

20

[The following laws apply when a person] partakes of entities consecrated to the second tithe as ordinary produce [outside of Jerusalem], even intentionally. If he partook of the produce from the second tithe itself, he should cry out to heaven.62 If he [used] money from the second tithe [to purchase other food that] he ate, the money should be returned to its [owner]63 and he should bring them to Jerusalem and partake of them there. Alternatively, if the money cannot be returned, he should [purchase food] with the amount of money he spent and eat it in Jerusalem.

כ

הָאוֹכֵל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּתוֹרַת חֻלִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד אִם פֵּרוֹת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר עַצְמָן אָכַל יָצָא יְדֵי שָׁמַיִם. וְאִם כֶּסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר אָכַל יַחְזְרוּ דָּמִים לִמְקוֹמָם וְיַעֲלוּ וְיֵאָכְלוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. אוֹ יֹאכַל כְּנֶגְדָּן בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם אִם אֵין יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת הַדָּמִים:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

The rationale is that since the produce was redeemed once, it should not be redeemed a second time.

2.

Our translation follows authoritative manuscripts and early printings. The standard printed text of the Mishneh Torah adds the phrase "because of Rabbinic decree."

3.

The rules governing this produce have a double dimension of severity. Since according to Scriptural Law, this produce is ritually pure, our Sages were stringent and required it to be brought to Jerusalem and eaten there. Nevertheless, to support their decree of ritual impurity, they also required that it be redeemed (Kessef Mishneh).

4.

I.e., and not animal fodder.

5.

I.e., these types of livestock do not grow from the earth, but they derive their nature by pasturing on the earth's products.

6.

Moreover, even if water and salt are mixed together with produce, that produce should not be purchased with money from the second tithes (Radbaz). See Halachah 14 with regard to such purchases.

7.

Truffles and mushrooms do not have roots and do not derive nurture from the earth.

8.

I.e., it will spoil in the course of the journey.

9.

Which are detached entities that can make the journey to Jerusalem without being spoiled.

10.

Eggs and milk are animal products and the animals receive their nurture from the earth and honey is actually the sap of flowers.

11.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 1:3), the Rambam explains that timed is made by mixing grape dregs with water and leaving it to turn into vinegar.

12.

For the water originally included in it is not considered significant.

13.

The Radbaz explains that when the transaction was first made, it was invalid. Hence, the money remained holy. Afterwards, when the mixture turns into vinegar, the transaction is completed and the holiness of the money is transferred. Rashi (Chulin 25b) offers a different explanation.

14.

I.e., the restriction against purchasing a mixture of grape dregs and water with money from the second tithe.

15.

And thus the water drew out a significant amount of grape juice from the dregs.

16.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Shvi'it 7:5; Uktzin 3:4), the Rambam explains that branches of shrubs that grow in vineyards are pickled in brine while they are still soft and then eaten. They are, nevertheless, not eaten by all people and the money from the second tithe may only be used to purchase food.

17.

This refers to branches of the carob tree, because the carobs themselves are considered as food, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 3.

18.

Because in this state, they are not fit to be eaten.

The commentaries have noted that the Rambam's ruling in Hilchot Shabbat 18:6 implies the direct opposite: that before they become sweet, they are considered as food for humans and after they become sweet, they are considered as food for animals. This issue is discussed by the later commentaries.

19.

A sub-species of the onion family.

20.

Since these species are more commonly eaten, they are considered as food even though they are not yet fit to be to eaten.

21.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Uktzin 3:4), the Rambam defines this term as referring to the tip of the date palm which is like dried cheese and is eaten by people.

22.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.:5), the Rambam gives cinnamon, nutmeg, spikenard, and other similar species as examples.

23.

A sharp and pungent herb.

24.

This refers to a mixture of milk and bread crumbs referred to in the Talmud as kutach.

25.

See Hilchot Tuma'at Ochalin 1:7 which makes similar statements with regard to anise.

26.

For in truth, only the oil can be purchased with the money of the second tithe. Nevertheless, the water and the salt are considered as subordinate to the oil and hence, can be included in its price.

27.

The Rambam uses a plural term for terumah, for he includes both the great terumah and terumat ma'aser in this prohibition.

28.

See Hilchot Terumah 7:2. Needless to say, it may also be eaten by priests who were ritually impure and who did not need to immerse themselves, but the Rambam is mentioning the aspect of the laws in which it differs from the second tithe, as he proceeds to state.

29.

As indicated by the following clause, the second tithe differs from terumah in all these matters.

30.

The second tithe must also be eaten in a state of ritual purity. Nevertheless, in contrast to terumah, it may be eaten directly after one immerses oneself in a mikveh. He need not wait until the evening.

31.

And it is forbidden to restriction the consumption of sacred foods. See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashin 6:12 and Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 10:10.

32.

In Jerusalem. See Halachah 16 and Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

33.

See the Commentary of Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura to Ma'aser Sheni 1:2 which states that the fundamental mitzvah is to use the money from the second tithe to purchase peace offerings.

34.

For by offering them on the altar, they would have to give certain portions of the meat to the priests.

35.

E.g., deer. Our Sages did not include the purchase of these animals in their decree.

36.

See Hilchot Shemitah VeYoval 7:1 which explains that after the Sabbatical year, the produce that remains must be destroyed. Thus by purchasing this produce with funds from the second tithe, one would be reducing its use.

37.

All of these should not be purchased with money from the second tithe as stated in Halachah 4.

38.

The holiness of the money of the second tithe is not transferred to them.

39.

The Ra'avad challenges the Rambam's ruling, maintaining that the holiness of the second tithe remains associated with the money and the seller must return it to the purchaser. The Radbaz explains that the Rambam derives his ruling from the wording of the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 1:5). There the Mishnah has two clauses: one quoted in this halachah which states that that the items are not acquired and one quoted in the following halachah which states that the money should be returned. The variance in wording indicates that there is a difference in law. The Radbaz states, however, that the Rambam would agree that the holiness of the funds of the second tithe is not nullified entirely. Instead, the purchaser must eat an equivalent amount of food in Jerusalem keeping all the restrictions applying to the produce of the second tithe. See Halachah 17.

40.

I.e., he purchased produce with money from the second tithe without knowing that he used such funds.

41.

The produce purchased does not receive the holiness of the second tithe, but instead, must be returned to the seller [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 1:5)].

42.

Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura explains that since he made the purchase inadvertently, it is as if the transaction was conducted in error and hence it is nullified.

43.

I.e., knowing that he was using money from the second tithe.

44.

The transaction is binding and the purchaser is compelled to treat the produce he purchased as produce of the second tithe.

45.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 1.

46.

Since the transaction is binding, the produce receives that holiness and hence, may not be used for any other purpose.

47.

We are speaking about a kosher animal that does not have a blemish and hence is fit to be offered as a sacrifice.

48.

When it dies. It is not killed before its time. Burying it prevents one from benefiting from it [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 1:6)]. See also Chapter 8, Halachah 6; Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 19:11.

49.

The equation between transgressing intentionally and unintentionally represents a change of approach on the part of the Rambam. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 1:7), the Rambam states that if the transgression was intentional, in all instances, the purchaser should use an equivalent amount of money to buy food in Jerusalem. The sale is nullified only when the sale is made unintentionally. The Rambam's ruling here is based on Kiddushin 56b.

50.

So that the money could not be returned and the sale nullified.

51.

And the sale nullified.

52.

This is forbidden, because the animal - partially or entirely - is offered on the altar and/or eaten by the priests. Thus the money from the second tithe is not being used for its designated purpose.

53.

For once the offerings were brought, the transaction cannot be nullified.

54.

This is unacceptable, because peace offerings may be brought only from domesticated animals.

55.

This is also unacceptable, because as stated in Halachah 12, our Sages forbade using money from the second tithe for such a purpose [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 1:4)].

56.

Instead, the sale is nullified. If the animal was already slaughtered, the hide is considered as consecrated with the holiness of the second tithe and the proceeds from its sale must be used as the money of the second tithe.

57.

As is required when an animal designated as a peace offering becomes blemished in a manner that prevents it from being sacrificed.

58.

If, however, one redeems a sacrifice for someone else, a fifth need not be added, as stated in Hilchot Arachin 7:4.

59.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's wording, for he considers it obvious that a fifth must be added. The Radbaz explains that one might think a fifth is unnecessary based on the following reasoning: Since the animal is a peace offering, from the standpoint of the second tithe, it does not belong to him, because it is not his private property, but instead is consecrated. From the standpoint of the peace offering, it can be said that it does not belong to him, because it is the second tithe which is "the property of the Most High."

Alternatively, the explanation of the Rambam's wording depends on a concept explained in Hilchot Arachin, loc. cit.: "[One is] obligated to add a fifth [when redeeming the article that was] consecrated originally, but one [need] not add a fifth [when redeeming an article] whose consecration was a derivative." A derivative means that it was consecrated in the process of redeeming another article (see ibid.:5).

To apply those concepts to the question at hand: Since the consecration of the animal as a peace offering comes as part of the redemption of the money from the second tithe, one might think that there is no need to add a fifth. For that reason, the Rambam [based on the Jerusalem Talmud (Ma'aser Sheni 3:2)] emphasizes that in this instance, the additional fifth is necessary, because since the holiness of the second tithe was removed from it, it is as if it was consecrated initially and it is not considered as a derivative (Rambam LeAm)

60.

As mentioned in Halachah 12, one can - and according to many opinions, it is desirable - to purchase an animal to be sacrificed as a peace offering with money from the second tithe. Here, however, we are speaking about a situation where the person designates the money to be used for that purpose, but does not make the purpose as of yet. The Rambam is clarifying that the designation is not effective and the money may be used to purchase any other types of food.

61.

Chapter 3, Halachah 17. I.e., when a person consecrates his own money for a peace offering, the consecration is effective, because the money belongs to him and he has the authority to consecrate it. Money from the second tithe, by contrast, does not belong to him. Hence, it cannot be consecrated as a peace offering.

62.

I.e., he should cry out to G‑d in repentance. He, however, has no other way of atoning for his conduct, because he has eaten the produce upon which the holiness of the second tithe rested.

Our text follows manuscript versions of the Mishneh Torah and the versions suggested by the Ra'avad, the Radbaz, and the Kessef Mishneh. The standard printed text follows a different version.

63.

Since the money exists, the holiness from the second tithe has not departed from it. Hence, if it is returned to the owner or its holiness transferred by the owner purchasing other food with its value, the owner fulfills his obligation.

Published and copyright by Moznaim Publications, all rights reserved.
To purchase this book or the entire series, please click here.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah