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Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Kilaayim - Chapter 8

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Kilaayim - Chapter 8

1

When vines grow in their natural manner with their branches and their clusters lying on the earth, [the place where they grow] is called a vineyard (kerem). When, however, a person creates something like a bed or a platform raised above the earth so that the clusters and the branches will be extended over it and he lifted up the foliage of the vines from the ground unto that trellis and draped them over it, it is called an aris. The branches and the like from which the trellis or platform was made and upon which the foliage of the vine is draped are called apiperot. Different laws apply to an aris.

א

הַגְּפָנִּים שֶׁגָּדְלוּ כִּבְרִיָּתָן וַהֲרֵי הַשָּׂרִיגִים וְהָאֶשְׁכּוֹלוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן מֻשְׁלָכִין בָּאָרֶץ הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין כֶּרֶם. אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּמוֹ מִטָּה אוֹ כְּמוֹ שְׂבָכָה גְּבוֹהָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הָאֶשְׁכּוֹלוֹת וְהַשָּׂרִיגִים נִמְשָׁכִין עָלֶיהָ וְהִגְבִּיהַּ נוֹף הַגְּפָנִים מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ עַל אוֹתָהּ הַמִּטָּה וְהִדְלָה אוֹתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא עָרִיס. וְאוֹתָם הַקָּנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁעָשָׂה מֵהֶן מִטָּה אוֹ שְׂבָכָה וְהִדְלָה עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת נוֹף הַגֶּפֶן הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִים אַפִּיפְיָרוֹת. וְדִינִים אֲחֵרִים יֵשׁ בְּעָרִיס:

2

When a person plants one row of five or more vines and drapes them over a wall that is ten handbreadths high or the like, or he planted them on the side of a trench1 that is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide, they are [also] classified as an aris. It is necessary to separate from an aris four cubits [before] sowing [other produce], similar to the separation [required in] a vineyard.2

ב

הַנּוֹטֵעַ שׁוּרָה אַחַת שֶׁל חָמֵשׁ גְּפָנִים אוֹ יֶתֶר וְעִרְסָן עַל גַּבֵּי כֹּתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנְּטָעָן בְּצַד חָרִיץ עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב אַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִקְרָאִין עָרִיס. וְצָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מִן הֶעָרִיס אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִזְרַע. כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּרְחִיק מִן הַכֶּרֶם:

3

From where do we measure? From the base of the fence over which he draped them. What is implied? He made a separation of a cubit between the row of vines and the wall. Thus the aris is made from the vines and the wall, he should measure four cubits from the wall and sow.3 Thus there are five cubits between [the crops] sown and the base of the vines. If he seeks to sow on the side of the vines, he should separate four cubits from the base of the vines. Thus he is five cubits away from the wall. This is the pattern followed when dealing with any aris.

ג

וּמֵהֵיכָן מוֹדְדִין. מֵעִקַּר הַגָּדֵר שֶׁעֵרְסָן עָלָיו. כֵּיצַד. הִרְחִיק אֶת הַשּׁוּרָה שֶׁל גְּפָנִים מִן הַכֹּתֶל אַמָּה וְנִמְצָא הֶעָרִיס מִן הַגְּפָנִים וְלַכֹּתֶל מוֹדֵד מִן הַכֹּתֶל אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְזוֹרֵעַ. וְנִמְצָא בֵּין הַזֶּרַע וּבֵין עִקְּרֵי הַגְּפָנִים חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת. וְאִם בָּא לִזְרֹעַ מִצַּד הַגְּפָנִים מַרְחִיק מֵעִקְּרֵי הַגְּפָנִים אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצָא רָחוֹק מִן הַכֹּתֶל חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת. וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זוֹ דָּנִין בְּכָל עָרִיס:

4

Whether one built the fence and then planted the vines or planted the vines and then built the fence, since he draped [the vines on the fence], it is considered as an aris. If the fence was destroyed4 or the trench filled, the aris ceases to exist and the entire row is considered as individual vines.5

ד

אֶחָד הַבּוֹנֶה אֶת הַגָּדֵר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָטַע אוֹ שֶׁנָּטַע וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָשָׂה הַגָּדֵר הוֹאִיל וְעֵרְסָן הֲרֵי זֶה עָרִיס. נֶהֱרַס הַגָּדֵר אוֹ נִסְתַּם הֶחָרִיץ אֵין כָּאן עָרִיס אֶלָּא הֲרֵי כָּל הַשּׁוּרָה כִּגְפָנִים יְחִידִים:

5

When an aris is destroyed6 in the middle and there remain five vines on one side of the fence and five vines on the other side of the fence opposite it,7 it is called "separate portions of an aris." If there are eight cubits and one sixtieth of a cubit between them,8 one must separate [only] six handbreadths between each row before sowing, provided he does not sow beneath the trellises as explained.9

ה

עָרִיס שֶׁחָרַב אֶמְצָעוֹ וְנִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ בּוֹ חָמֵשׁ גְּפָנִים בְּצַד הַגָּדֵר מִכָּאן וְחָמֵשׁ גְּפָנִים בְּצַד הַגָּדֵר הָאַחֵר מִכְּנֶגְדָּן זֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא פִּסְקֵי עָרִיס. אִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת וְאֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים בָּאַמָּה הֲרֵי זֶה מַרְחִיק מִכָּל שׁוּרָה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְזוֹרֵעַ. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִזְרַע תַּחַת הָאַפִּיפְיָרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

6

If there is exactly eight cubits between them, one should not bring seed there. If he did sow [other crops] there, since he separated six handbreadths [from each of the rows of vines], the produce is not hallowed. If there is no fence there,10 [all that is necessary is to] separate six handbreadths from each row and sow it. For there is no aris, nor the separated portions of an aris. If he went back and rebuilt the fence,11 the aris is considered to have been renewed or the separated portions of an aris to have been renewed.

ו

הָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן שְׁמוֹנֶה אַמּוֹת בְּצִמְצוּם הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִזְרַע לְשָׁם. וְאִם זְרָעָן הוֹאִיל וְהִרְחִיק מִכָּל שׁוּרָה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קִדֵּשׁ. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם גָּדֵר מַרְחִיק מִכָּל שׁוּרָה שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְזוֹרֵעַ שֶׁאֵין כָּאן לֹא עָרִיס וְלֹא פִּסְקֵי עָרִיס. חָזַר וּבָנָה הַגָּדֵר חָזַר עָרִיס לִמְקוֹמוֹ וְחָזְרוּ פִּסְקֵי עָרִיס לִמְקוֹמָן:

7

[The following laws apply when there is] a small garden that is surrounded by a fence and one draped the vines12 [growing] around it on the outside on all of its walls.13 If [the garden] contains the space for a reaper and his basket to stand on one side14 and the space for a reaper and his basket to stand on the other side, one may sow vegetables in it,15 because it is surrounded with a fence. If it is not that large, one may not sow in it, because the entire area appears as one aris with vegetables in it.16

ז

גִּנָּה קְטַנָּה שֶׁהִיא מֻקֶּפֶת גָּדֵר וְעִרֵס אֶת הַגְּפָנִים סָבִיב לָהּ מִבַּחוּץ עַל כָּל כְּתָלֶיהָ. אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ מְלֹא בּוֹצֵר וְסַלּוֹ מִכָּאן וּמְלֹא בּוֹצֵר וְסַלּוֹ מִכָּאן. הוֹאִיל וְהִיא מֻקֶּפֶת גָּדֵר זוֹרְעִין בְּתוֹכָהּ יְרָקוֹת. וְאִם אֵין [בָּהּ] כַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה אֵין זוֹרְעִים בְּתוֹכָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה הַכּל כְּעָרִיס אֶחָד וְיָרָק בְּתוֹכוֹ:

8

[The following laws apply when] vines were planted on a terrace and their trellis17 extends and gives shade over a field. If one can stand on the earth and harvest the entire vine,18 we consider the entire area under the vine as if it was the base of the vines and forbid a radius of four cubits in the field on every side of the edge of the trellis. If he cannot reap [the grapes] unless he steps on a step or a ladder, it is forbidden only to sow under the trellis itself.19

ח

גְּפָנִים שֶׁהָיוּ זְרוּעִים בְּמַדְרֵגָה גְּבוֹהָה וְהֶעָרִיס שֶׁלָּהֶן יוֹצֵא וּמְסַכֵּךְ עַל הַשָּׂדֶה. אִם עוֹמֵד בָּאָרֶץ וּבוֹצֵר אֶת כֻּלּוֹ רוֹאִין כָּל הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁתַּחַת הֶעָרִיס כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מְקוֹם עִקְּרֵי הַגְּפָנִים וְאוֹסֵר אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בַּשָּׂדֶה לְכָל רוּחַ מִשְּׂפַת הֶעָרִיס. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִבְצֹר עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה בַּמַּדְרֵגָה אוֹ בַּסֻּלָּם אֵין אָסוּר לִזְרֹעַ אֶלָּא תַּחַת הֶעָרִיס בִּלְבַד:

9

When there are two walls perpendicular to each other and vines are planted in the corner between them, the trellis extends outward from the corner and ends [in the midst of the area],20 one may separate the [required] measure21 from the base of the vines and sow in the place where the trellis ends and there is no aris. Although [the crops] were sowed between two walls between which there is an aris, since he separated the required measure, he may sow [other crops] between the walls.

ט

שְׁנֵי כְּתָלִים הַסְּמוּכִין זֶה לָזֶה וְהַגְּפָנִים נְטוּעִים בְּזָוִיּוֹת בֵּינֵיהֶם וְהֶעָרִיס יוֹצֵא עִם הַכְּתָלִים מִתּוֹךְ הַקֶּרֶן וְכָלֶּה. מַרְחִיק מֵעִקְּרֵי הַגְּפָנִים כַּשִּׁעוּר וְזוֹרֵעַ בְּמָקוֹם הַכָּלֶּה שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו עָרִיס. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַזֶּרַע מְכֻוָּן בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּתָלִים שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן הֶעָרִיס הוֹאִיל וְהִרְחִיק כַּשִּׁעוּר הֲרֵי זֶה זוֹרֵעַ בֵּין הַכְּתָלִים:

10

[The following rule applies when] the trunk of a vine ascended above the ground, then became bent and extended along the earth, and then ascended like a knee. When we measure between the vine and other [crops] six handbreadths or four cubits, we measure only from the end of the portion that rises up and not from the base of the first vine.22

י

גֶּפֶן שֶׁעָלָה הָעֵץ שֶׁלָּהּ מִן הָאָרֶץ מְעַט וְאַחַר כָּךְ נֶעֱקַם וְנִמְשָׁךְ עַל הָאָרֶץ וְחָזַר וְעָלָה כְּמוֹ אַרְכֻּבָּה. כְּשֶׁמּוֹדְדִין בֵּין הַגֶּפֶן וּבֵין הַזֶּרַע שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים אוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אֵין מוֹדְדִין אֶלָּא מִסּוֹף הָאַרְכֻּבָּה לֹא מֵעִקַּר הַגֶּפֶן הָרִאשׁוֹן:

11

We have already explained23 that although one makes the required separation between the [other crops] sown and the vine, it is necessary to be careful that the vine will not provide shade for the vegetables, nor may the vegetables provide shade for the vine. If one sowed vegetables or grain and they grew and afterwards draped a vine over them, the straw [of the crops] are permitted,24 but the grain must be burnt. If the roots of the vine emerged in the four cubits between the vineyard and grain, they must be uprooted. If the roots of the grain emerge within these four cubits, it is permitted.

יא

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּרְחִיק בֵּין הַזֶּרַע וּבֵין הַגֶּפֶן כַּשִּׁעוּר. צָרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תְּסַכֵּךְ הַגֶּפֶן עַל הַיָּרָק אוֹ יְסַכֵּךְ הַיָּרָק עַל הַגֶּפֶן. זָרַע יָרָק אוֹ תְּבוּאָה וְצִמְחָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ סִכֵּךְ עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַגֶּפֶן הַקַּשִּׁין מֻתָּרִין וְהַדָּגָן יִדְלַק. הָיוּ שָׁרְשֵׁי הַגֶּפֶן יוֹצְאִין לְתוֹךְ הָאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁבֵּין הַכֶּרֶם וְהַתְּבוּאָה יַעֲקֹר. הָיוּ שָׁרְשֵׁי הַתְּבוּאָה יוֹצְאִין לְתוֹךְ הָאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת מֻתָּר:

12

All of the separations and required measures that are mentioned with regard to kilayim are measured in cubits that are six ample handbreadths.25 One should not be constricted in measuring [the forbidden] areas with regard to kilayim. For one should only constrict measurements when being stringent.26

יב

כָּל הַהַרְחָקוֹת וְהַשִּׁעוּרִין הָאֲמוּרִין בְּכִלְאַיִם בְּאַמָּה בַּת שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים שׂוֹחֲקוֹת. וְלֹא יְצַמְצֵם בְּמִדּוֹת הַכִּלְאַיִם שֶׁאֵין מְצַמְצְמִים אֶלָּא לְהַחֲמִיר:

13

All of the measures in which separations are made between vines and grain or vegetables apply only in Eretz Yisrael27 or in Syria.28 But in the Diaspora, it is permitted to sow [other crops] at the side of vines29 in a vineyard at the outset. In the Diaspora, it was forbidden only to sow two types of vegetables or grain and grape seeds in one handful.

If one tells a gentile child30 to sow [such a mixture] for him in the Diaspora, it is permitted.31 One should not, however, make such a statement to an adult, lest one also do so with a Jew.

יג

כָּל הַשִּׁעוּרִין הָאֵלּוּ שֶׁמַּרְחִיקִין בֵּין הַגְּפָנִים וְהַתְּבוּאָה אוֹ הַיָּרָק אֵינָן אֶלָּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ בְּסוּרְיָא. אֲבָל בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מֻתָּר לִזְרֹעַ בְּצַד הַגְּפָנִים בְּתוֹךְ הַכֶּרֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא לִזְרֹעַ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי יָרָק אוֹ תְּבוּאָה עִם הַחַרְצָן בְּמַפּלֶת יָד. וְאִם אָמַר לְתִינוֹק נָכְרִי לִזְרֹעַ לוֹ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מֻתָּר. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי גָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַלֵּף בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:

14

Although it is permitted to sow vegetables at the side of a vineyard in the Diaspora, the vegetable that is sown there is forbidden to be eaten, even in the Diaspora.32 [This applies] provided one sees the owner harvest it and sell it. If, however, one is in doubt whether [the produce comes from there], it is permitted,33 as we explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.34

יד

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִזְרֹעַ הַיָּרָק בְּצַד הַכֶּרֶם בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי אוֹתוֹ הַיָּרָק הַזָּרוּעַ שָׁם אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּרְאֶה אוֹתוֹ לוֹקֵט וּמוֹכֵר. אֲבָל סְפֵקוֹ מֻתָּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

And lowered the branches and the clusters into the trench.

2.

Thus the laws governing an aris are more severe than those governing a vineyard. For in a vineyard, it is not necessary to separate more than six handbreadths, because one row is not considered as a vineyard (Chapter 7, Halachah 1).

3.

Generally, a fence creates a distinction and it is not necessary to make a separation on its outside (Chapter 7, Halachah 14). In this instance, however, since the vines are draped over the fence itself, it is considered as part of the aris and a separation is required (Kessef Mishneh).

The Ra'avad differs and maintains that a fence always creates a distinction and there is no need to separate on its outer side. The source for the Rambam's ruling is Kilayim 6:1. Significantly, in his Commentary to the Mishnah, the Rambam follows the Ra'avad's approach and maintains that one measures only on the inside of the fence. There he explains that the School of Hillel, whose view is accepted as halachah, maintains that one measures four cubits from the fence. Thus the other crops need only be separated three cubits from the base of the vine.

Rav Kappach notes that in a manuscript copy of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Rav Avraham, the Rambam's son, corrected his father's text, based on the ruling here. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh note that the Rambam's change of mind is dependent on his understanding of the treatment of the mishnah in the Jerusalem Talmud.

4.

The Radbaz mentions that the fence does not have to be destroyed entirely. As long as its height is reduced below ten handbreadths, the laws of an aris no longer apply.

5.

As stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 1.

6.

The Radbaz mentions that the fence does not have to be destroyed entirely. As long as its height is reduced below ten handbreadths, the laws of an aris no longer apply.

7.

There were two rows of vines separated by a wall over which they were both draped. Thus the wall causes them to be considered as a single entity. The Ra'avad offers a different interpretation of this situation.

8.

As long as there are slightly more than eight cubits between the two rows, they are considered as separate entities and not as a single vineyard, as stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 2. As the Mishnah states (Kilayim 6:6), this is the only instance where an extra amount beyond whole numbers is required.

9.

Chapter 6, Halachah 12.

10.

I.e., it was destroyed entirely or partially.

11.

Either partially or to a height of ten handbreadths.

12.

I.e., at least five vines.

13.

This follows the Rambam's approach (explained in Halachah 3), that a fence over which vines are draped does not act as a separation for them even if they are located outside it. The Ra'avad differs in his gloss to that halachah and differs in this instance as well. [Significantly, in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Ediot 2:4), the Rambam resembles the Ra'avad's interpretation here.]

14.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 6:1) interprets this as being two cubits: one for the reaper and one for his basket.

15.

He must, however, separate six handbreadths [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:2)].

16.

Since the space between the two fences is very small, the entire area is considered as a single unit.

17.

I.e., a trellis ten handbreadths high.

18.

I.e., they extend low enough that he can reach them without standing on any support.

19.

As would be the law if there was only one vine.

20.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:7), the Rambam depicts this situation as illustrated. Rabbenu Shimshon and the Ra'avad do not accept his interpretation.

21.

Six handbreadths [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:7)].

22.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:1), the Rambam adds: "If [the original stem] was apparent and obvious that it is the base of the vine that became bent, we measure from the original base."

23.

Chapter 6, Halachah 11.

24.

For they were produced before the vines were introduced (Radbaz; see Chapter 5, Halachah 13).

25.

I.e., that one's fingers are not tightly pressed together, but held in a manner that allows air to pass between them [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Eruvin 1:1)]. See also Hilchot Shabbat 17:36.

26.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 2.

27.

Where the prohibitions against mixed species apply according to Scriptural Law.

28.

Which in certain contexts is considered as Eretz Yisrael (see Hilchot Terumot 1:3-4) and where they apply according to Rabbinic Law.

29.

Among the vines themselves, however, it is forbidden to sow, even in the Diaspora (Kessef Mishneh).

30.

One may not, however, ask a Jewish child to perform such an activity, lest he become habituated to transgression (Shabbat 139a).

31.

The Turei Zahav 296:21 rules that even at the outset, it is permitted to ask a gentile child to do this.

32.

The Kessef Mishneh quotes Rabbenu Asher as differing with this ruling and permitting the vegetables to be eaten. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 296:69) follows the Rambam's ruling, while the Rama follows that of Rabbenu Asher.

33.

The conclusion of the tractate Orlah relates that if vegetables are being sold outside a vineyard in the Diaspora, one may purchase them provided one does not see them being harvested.

34.

Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:6-8.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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