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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Avel - Chapter 9, Avel - Chapter 10, Avel - Chapter 11

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Avel - Chapter 9

1

Whenever a person rends his garments after the loss of a relative other than a parent, he may sew the tear after the seven days of mourning and mend it after thirty days. For one's father and mother, he may sew the tear after thirty days, but may never mend it. A woman should rend her garments and sew them immediately, even when she lost a father or mother, as an expression of modesty.

א

כָּל הַקְּרָעִים שֶׁקּוֹרֵעַ אָדָם עַל שְׁאָר קְרוֹבָיו. שׁוֹלֵל הַקֶּרַע לְאַחַר שִׁבְעָה וּמְאַחֶה לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים. עַל אָבִיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ שׁוֹלֵל לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים וְאֵינוֹ מְאַחֶה לְעוֹלָם. וְהָאִשָּׁה קוֹרַעַת וְשׁוֹלֶלֶת מִיָּד אֲפִלּוּ עַל אָבִיהָ וְעַל אִמָּהּ מִפְּנֵי הַצְּנִיעוּת:

2

Just as a person must rend his garments for the loss of his father and mother; so, too, he is obligated to rend his garments for the loss of a teacher who instructed him in the Torah, a nasi, the av beit din, the majority of the community who were slain, the cursing of God's name, the burning of a Torah scroll, when seeing the cities of Judah, Jerusalem, and the Temple in their destruction.

ב

כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹרֵעַ אָדָם עַל אָבִיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ כָּךְ חַיָּב לִקְרֹעַ עַל רַבּוֹ שֶׁלִּמְּדוֹ תּוֹרָה. וְעַל הַנָּשִׂיא וְעַל אַב בֵּית דִּין. וְעַל רֹב הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁנֶּהֱרַג. וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם. וְעַל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף. וְעַל עָרֵי יְהוּדָה וְעַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם. וְעַל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:

3

All of these tears should be rent to the extent that one reveals his heart and they should never be mended. Although they should never be mended, they may be sewed irregularly, sewn after the sides are wound or twisted together, or sewn like ladders. All that was forbidden was Alexandrian mending.

Whenever a person tears a garment in a place where it was sewn irregularly or sewn after the sides were wound and twisted together, his act is of no consequence. If, however, he rips a garment where it has been mended in an Alexandrian manner, it is of consequence.

Even one turns a rent garment upside down and makes its collar its hem, he should not mend it.

ג

כָּל אֵלּוּ הַקְּרָעִים קוֹרֵעַ עַד שֶׁמְּגַלֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְאַחֶה לְעוֹלָם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מִתְאַחִין מֻתָּר לְשׁוֹלְלָן לְמָלְלָן וּלְלַקְּטָן וְלַעֲשׂוֹתָם כְּמִין סֻלָּמוֹת. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא בְּאִחוּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי בִּלְבַד. וְכָל הַקּוֹרֵעַ מִתּוֹךְ הַשָּׁלָל אוֹ הַמֶּלֶל אוֹ הַלִּקּוּט לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם אֲבָל קוֹרֵעַ מִתּוֹךְ הָאִחוּי הָאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי בִּלְבַד. אֲפִלּוּ הָפַךְ הַכְּלִי וְנַעֲשָׂה שְׂפָתוֹ לְמַטָּה לֹא יְאַחֶה:

4

Just as the seller may not mend it; so, too, the purchaser may not. Therefore the seller must notify the purchaser that this tear may not be mended.

ד

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר אָסוּר לְאַחוֹתוֹ כָּךְ הַלּוֹקֵחַ. לְפִיכָךְ הַמּוֹכֵר צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁקֶּרַע זֶה אֵינוֹ מִתְאַחֶה:

5

What is the source that teaches that one is obligated to rend his garments at his teacher's death just as he rends his garments for his father? II Kings 2:12 states: "He was calling out: 'My father, my father, the chariot of Israel and its horsemen.' And then he no longer saw him. And he took hold of his garments and tore them into two halves." This teaches that one must rip apart the collar.

ה

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹרֵעַ עַל רַבּוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹרֵעַ עַל אָבִיו. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב ב יב) "וְהוּא מְצַעֵק אָבִי אָבִי רֶכֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרָשָׁיו וְלֹא רָאָהוּ עוֹד וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם לִשְׁנַיִם קְרָעִים". מִכָּאן שֶׁחַיָּב לְהַבְדִּיל הַשָּׂפָה:

6

What is the source that teaches that one is obligated to rend his garments at the death of the nasi, the av beit din, and a report that the majority of the community have been slain? II Samuel 1:11-12 relates: "David took hold of his garments and rent them as did all the people who were with him. They mourned, they cried, and they fasted until the evening for Saul - the nasi - for his son Jonathan - the av beit din - and for the people of God and the House of Israel for they fell by the sword" - this is an unfavorable report.

ו

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹרְעִין עַל הַנָּשִׂיא וְעַל אַב בֵּית דִּין וְעַל שְׁמוּעָה שֶׁבָּאָה שֶׁנֶּהֱרַג רֹב צִבּוּר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב א יא) "וַיַּחֲזֵק דָּוִד בִּבְגָדָו וַיִּקְרָעֵם וְגַם כָּל הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ" (שמואל ב א יב) "וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד הָעָרֶב". (שמואל ב א יב) "עַל שָׁאוּל" זֶה נָשִׂיא. (שמואל ב א יב) "וְעַל יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ" זֶה אַב בֵּית דִּין. (שמואל ב א יב) "וְעַל עַם ה' וְעַל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב" זוֹ שְׁמוּעָה רָעָה:

7

What is the source which teaches that one is obligated to rend his garments when hearing the blasphemy of God's name? II Kings 18:37 states: "And Elyakim ben Chilkiyah who oversaw the palace, Shevna the scribe, and Yoach ben Asaf the secretary, came to Chizkiyahu with rent garments." Just as one who hears the blasphemy itself must rend his garments; so, too, one who hears the report of the blasphemy from the listeners must rend his garments.

ז

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹרְעִין עַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יח לז) "וַיָּבֹא אֶלְיָקִים בֶּן חִלְקִיָּהוּ אֲשֶׁר עַל הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁבְנָא הַסֹּפֵר וְיוֹאָח בֶּן אָסָף הַמַּזְכִּיר אֶל חִזְקִיָּהוּ קְרוּעֵי בְגָדִים". אֶחָד הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ וְאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי שׁוֹמֵעַ חַיָּבִין לִקְרֹעַ:

8

The witnesses are not obligated to rend their garments when they testify in court, for they already tore them when they heard the blasphemy.

ח

וְהָעֵדִים אֵין חַיָּבִין לִקְרֹעַ כְּשֶׁיָּעִידוּ בְּבֵית דִּין. שֶׁכְּבָר קָרְעוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ:

9

What is the source which teaches that one is obligated to rend his garments for a Torah scroll that is burnt? Jeremiah 36:23-24 states: "And it came to pass that when Yehudi would read three or four columns... until the entire scroll was consumed by the fire in the hearth. And neither the king nor his servants became fearful, nor did they rend their garments." Implied is that one is obligated to rend one's garments.

One is obligated to rend one's garments only because of a Torah scroll that was burnt arrogantly as in the incident cited. One is obligated to rend one's garments twice: once for the parchment and once for the writing, as ibid.:27 states: "After the king burnt the scroll and the words."

ט

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹרְעִין עַל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה לו כג) "וַיְהִי כִּקְרוֹא יְהוּדִי שָׁלֹשׁ דְּלָתוֹת וְאַרְבָּעָה" וְגוֹ' (ירמיה לו כג) "עַד תֹּם כָּל הַמְּגִלָּה עַל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאָח" (ירמיה לו כד) "וְלֹא פָחֲדוּ וְלֹא קָרְעוּ אֶת בִּגְדֵיהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל עֲבָדָיו". מִכְלַל שֶׁחַיָּבִין לִקְרֹעַ. וְאֵין חַיָּבִין לִקְרֹעַ אֶלָּא עַל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף בִּזְרוֹעַ כְּמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיָה. וְחַיָּב לִקְרֹעַ שְׁתֵּי קְרִיעוֹת אַחַת עַל הַגְּוִיל וְאַחַת עַל הַכְּתָב. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה לו כז) "אַחֲרֵי שְׂרֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת הַמְּגִלָּה וְאֶת הַדְּבָרִים":

10

What is the source which teaches that one is obligated to rend his garments when seeing the cities of Judah, Jerusalem, and the Temple in their destruction? Jeremiah 41:5 relates: "Men came from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, eighty men with their beards shaven and their garments rent."

י

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹרְעִין עַל עָרֵי יְהוּדָה וְעַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁחָרְבוּ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה מא ה) "וַיָּבֹאוּ אֲנָשִׁים מִשְּׁכֶם וּמִשִּׁילֹה וּמִשֹּׁמְרוֹן שְׁמֹנִים אִישׁ מְגֻלְּחֵי זָקָן וּקְרֻעֵי בְגָדִים":

11

Whoever is present with a dying person at the time his soul expires is obligated to rend his garments even if he is not his relative. Similarly, when a virtuous person dies, everyone is obligated to rend his garments because of him, even though he is not a sage. They tear them a handbreadth as other mourners do. When, however, a sage dies, everyone is considered as his relative. They rend their garments for him until they reveal their hearts and uncover their right arms. The house of study of that sage should be discontinued for all seven days of mourning.

Torah scholars have universally accepted the custom of rending their garments for a handbreadth in respect for each other even though they are equal in stature and neither of them teaches the other.

יא

כָּל מִי שֶׁעָמַד עִם הַמֵּת בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאַת נִשְׁמָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קְרוֹבוֹ חַיָּב לִקְרֹעַ וְכֵן אָדָם כָּשֵׁר שֶׁמֵּת הַכּל חַיָּבִין לִקְרֹעַ עָלָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָכָם. וְקוֹרְעִין טֶפַח כִּשְׁאָר הָאֲבֵלִים. אֲבָל חָכָם שֶׁמֵּת הַכּל קְרוֹבָיו וְהַכּל קוֹרְעִין עָלָיו עַד שֶׁמְּגַלִּין אֶת לִבָּם וְחוֹלְצִין מִיָּמִין. וּבֵית מִדְרָשׁוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ חָכָם בָּטֵל כָּל שִׁבְעָה. וּכְבָר נָהֲגוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם לִקְרֹעַ זֶה עַל זֶה טֶפַח. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן שָׁוִין וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם מְלַמֵּד אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ:

12

Whenever a person rends his garments because of a sage who dies, as soon as he turns away from the bier, he may sew it irregularly. It appears to me that when a person rends his garments for a sage, he may mend them on the following day. For even when his teacher dies, one should mourn for him for only one day, either the day of his death or the day he hears the report of his death.

Similarly, it appears to me that a person who rends his garments because of the death of the nasi or the like may sew them irregularly on the following day even though he may never mend them.

יב

כָּל הַקּוֹרְעִים עַל הֶחָכָם שֶׁמֵּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחְזִירוּ פְּנֵיהֶן מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּטָּה שׁוֹלְלִין. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהַקּוֹרֵעַ עַל הֶחָכָם מְאַחֶה לְמָחָר שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ רַבּוֹ שֶׁמֵּת אֵין מִתְאַבֵּל עָלָיו אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד אוֹ יוֹם מִיתָה אוֹ יוֹם שְׁמוּעָה. כֵּן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהַקּוֹרֵעַ עַל הַנָּשִׂיא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שׁוֹלֵל לְמָחָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְאַחֶה עֲלֵיהֶם לְעוֹלָם:

13

When a report comes that a sage has died, we rend our garments only at the time he is eulogized. This is the honor granted to him. One may sew the garment that day and mend it on the following day.

יג

חָכָם שֶׁבָּאָה שְׁמוּעָתוֹ שֶׁמֵּת אֵין קוֹרְעִין עָלָיו אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הֶסְפֵּדוֹ וְזֶהוּ כְּבוֹדוֹ. וְשׁוֹלֵל בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם וּמְאַחֶה לְמָחָר:

14

When the Av Beit Din dies, everyone rends their garments because of him and uncovers their left arm. All of the houses of study in the city are discontinued. The members of the synagogue enter the synagogue and change their places. Those who sit at the south should sit at the north and those who sit at the north should sit at the south.

יד

אַב בֵּית דִּין שֶׁמֵּת הַכּל קוֹרְעִין עָלָיו וְחוֹלְצִין מִשְּׂמֹאל וְכָל בָּתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת שֶׁבְּעִירוֹ בְּטֵלִין. וּבְנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. וּמְשַׁנִּין אֶת מְקוֹמָן. הַיּוֹשְׁבִין בַּדָּרוֹם יֵשְׁבוּ בַּצָּפוֹן. וְהַיּוֹשְׁבִים בַּצָּפוֹן יֵשְׁבוּ בַּדָּרוֹם:

15

When a nasi dies, everyone rends their garments because of him and uncovers both arms. All of the houses of study are discontinued. The members of the synagogue enter the synagogue on the Sabbath, call seven men to the Torah reading and depart. They should not stroll in the market place, but instead should sit together in families mourning the entire day.

טו

נָשִׂיא שֶׁמֵּת הַכּל קוֹרְעִין עָלָיו. וְחוֹלְצִין שְׁתֵּי הַיָּדַיִם מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן. וּבְכָל בָּתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת בְּטֵלִים. וּבְנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת נִכְנָסִין בְּשַׁבָּת לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְקוֹרְאִין שִׁבְעָה. וְלֹא יְטַיְּלוּ בַּשּׁוּק אֶלָּא יוֹשְׁבִין מִשְׁפָּחוֹת מִשְׁפָּחוֹת דָּוִים כָּל הַיּוֹם:

Avel - Chapter 10

1

The Sabbath is counted as one of the days of mourning. Nevertheless, the laws of mourning are not observed on the Sabbath with the exception of private matters, e.g., veiling one's head, marital relations, and washing with hot water. With regard to matters which are obvious, however, the mourning laws are not observed. Instead, one may wear shoes, position his bed upright, and greet everyone.

If the mourner has another garment, he should change it. He should not wear a torn garment on the Sabbath even because of his father and mother. If he does not have a garment to change, he should turn the tear to the other side.

א

הַשַּׁבָּת עוֹלָה לְמִנְיַן אֲבֵלוּת. וְאֵין אֲבֵלוּת בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁבְּצִנְעָה. כְּגוֹן עֲטִיפַת הָרֹאשׁ וְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה וּרְחִיצָה בְּחַמִּין. אֲבָל דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּגָלוּי אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בָּהֶן אֲבֵלוּת. אֶלָּא לוֹבֵשׁ מִנְעָלָיו וְזוֹקֵף אֶת הַמִּטָּה. וְנוֹתֵן שָׁלוֹם לְכָל אָדָם. וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בֶּגֶד מַחְלִיף. וְלֹא יִלְבַּשׁ בֶּגֶד קָרוּעַ בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲפִלּוּ עַל אָבִיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ לְהַחְלִיף מַחְזִיר אֶת הַקֶּרַע לְאַחֲרָיו:

2

When may one position his bed upright on Friday? From the afternoon onward. Nevertheless, one should not sit on the upright bed until nightfall. Even when there remains only one day for the seven days of mourning, one should overturn the beds again on Saturday night.

ב

מֵאֵימָתַי זוֹקְפִים אֶת הַמִּטּוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יֵשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּיֵּר לוֹ אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד חוֹזֵר וְכוֹפֶה אוֹתָן בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:

3

On the festivals and similarly, Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, we do not observe any of the mourning rites at all. Moreover, whenever anyone buries his dead even a small amount of time before a festival or before Rosh HaShanah or Yom Kippur, the decree requiring him to observe seven days of mourning is nullified.

Thus after Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, a mourner counts 23 days. After Pesach, he counts16 days - for the seven days of mourning are nullified and the seven days of the festival are equal to 14. Similarly, if the deceased was buried before Shavuos, the mourner counts 16 days afterwards. For even though the holiday is only one day, since it is a festival, it is counted as seven days.

ג

הָרְגָלִים וְכֵן רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אֵין דָּבָר מִדִּבְרֵי אֲבֵלוּת נוֹהֵג בָּהֶן. וְכָל הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שָׁעָה אַחַת קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל אוֹ קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בָּטְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ גְּזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה. נִמְצָא מוֹנֶה לְאַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם וּלְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם. שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּטְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ גְּזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר. וְכֵן אִם קָבַר קֹדֶם עֲצֶרֶת מוֹנֶה אַחֲרֶיהָ שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי הִיא רֶגֶל וְעוֹלָה לְשִׁבְעָה יָמִים:

4

When a person buries his dead before Sukkos, he should count only nine days after the festival. For Shemini Atzeret is a holiday in its own right. Thus the first day concludes the seven days, then come the seven days of the holiday, and the eighth day is considered as a festival. Thus there are 21 days.

ד

קָבַר אֶת מֵתוֹ קֹדֶם חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת מוֹנֶה אַחַר הֶחָג תִּשְׁעָה יָמִים בִּלְבַד. שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת רֶגֶל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְנִמְצָא יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן מַפְסִיק שִׁבְעָה. וְשִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג. וּשְׁמִינִי שֶׁל חַג רֶגֶל אֶחָד הֲרֵי אֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם:

5

When a person buries his dead seven days before any one of the festivals or seven days before Rosh HaShanah or Yom Kippur, the decree requiring him to observe the 30 days of mourning is nullified. He is permitted to cut his hair and launder his garments on the day preceding the festival or Yom Kippur. The rationale is that a portion of the day is considered as the entire day. After the holiday, he does not count any other days of mourning.

If, however, he is mourning for his father or mother - even if they died more than 30 days before the festival - he may not cut his hair until it grows uncontrolled or until his friends rebuke him. The festivals do not nullify this measure.

ה

הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים קֹדֶם רֶגֶל מִן הָרְגָלִים אוֹ קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בָּטְלָה גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים. וּמֻתָּר לְסַפֵּר וּלְכַבֵּס בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁמִּקְצָת הַיּוֹם כְּכֻלּוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ מוֹנֶה לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם כְּלוּם. וְאִם עַל אָבִיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ הוּא מִתְאַבֵּל אֲפִלּוּ מֵתוּ קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁלַח פֶּרַע. אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּגְעֲרוּ בּוֹ חֲבֵרָיו. וְאֵין הָרְגָלִים מַפְסִיקִין דָּבָר זֶה:

6

When the sixth day of mourning falls on the day before the festival - needless to say, this law applies if the fifth or the third day falls on that day - he may not cut his hair. The festival nullifies only the decree requiring him to mourn for seven days. He is not permitted to wash, anoint himself, or perform any other practice forbidden during the days of mourning until the onset of the festival. The festival concludes the seven days of mourning. After the festival, he concludes all 30 days from the day of the death. During them, he is forbidden to perform any of the five practices mentioned in Chapter 6.

ו

חָל שִׁשִּׁי שֶׁלּוֹ בְּעֶרֶב הָרֶגֶל וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר חֲמִישִׁי אוֹ שְׁלִישִׁי. אֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ וְלֹא בָּטְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא גְּזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה בִּלְבַד. וְאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר לִרְחֹץ וְלָסוּךְ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר עַד שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס יוֹם טוֹב. וְיוֹם טוֹב מַפְסִיק שְׁאָר הַשִּׁבְעָה. וּלְאַחַר יוֹם טוֹב מַשְׁלִים כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם מִיּוֹם הַמִּיתָה וְאָסוּר בָּהֶן בְּכָל חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים:

7

The following rules apply when the seventh day of mourning falls on the day before a festival and that day is the Sabbath. The decree requiring him to observe the 30 days of mourning is nullified and he may cut his hair in the midst of the holiday. For he was held back by forces beyond his control since he cannot cut his hair on the Sabbath. Similarly, one may cut one's hair after Shavuot or after Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, for the decree requiring him to observe the 30 days of mourning has been nullified and he may cut his hair whenever he desires.

ז

חָל שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁלּוֹ לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב הָרֶגֶל וַהֲרֵי הוּא שַׁבָּת בָּטְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמֻתָּר לְגַלֵּחַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמּוֹעֵד שֶׁהֲרֵי אָנוּס הָיָה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְגַלֵּחַ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן מְגַלֵּחַ אַחַר עֲצֶרֶת אוֹ אַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּטְלָה גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְגַלֵּחַ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:

8

When a person buries his dead in the midst of a festival, the laws of mourning do not apply to him. He does not observe the mourning rites in the midst of the festival. Instead, after the festival he begins to count the seven days of mourning and observes all of the mourning rites at that time. He counts the 30 days of Sheloshim from the day of the burial. In the days that remain from these 30 days, he observes all the restrictions required.

ח

הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הָרֶגֶל לֹא חָלָה עָלָיו אֲבֵלוּת כְּלָל. וְאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֲבֵלוּת בָּרֶגֶל אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הָרֶגֶל מַתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת שִׁבְעָה וְנוֹהֵג בָּהֶן כָּל דִּבְרֵי אֲבֵלוּת. וּמוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשִׁים מִיּוֹם הַקְּבוּרָה וְנוֹהֵג בִּשְׁאָר הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים בְּכָל גְּזֵרוֹת שְׁלֹשִׁים:

9

In the above situation, in places where the holidays are observed for two days, one should count seven days from the second day of the final days of the festival. Since its observance is a Rabbinic institution, it is included in the reckoning and he need count only six days afterwards. He counts the 30 days of Sheloshim from the day of the burial as stated above.

ט

הַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים מוֹנֶה הַשִּׁבְעָה מִיּוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי הָאַחֲרוֹן. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֲבֵלוּת. הוֹאִיל וּמִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הוּא עוֹלֶה לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן. וּמוֹנֶה אַחֲרָיו שִׁשָּׁה יָמִים בִּלְבַד וּמוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם מִיּוֹם הַקְּבוּרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ:

10

When a person buries his dead on the second day of a holiday which is the final day of a festival or on the second day of Shavuot, he should observe mourning rites, for the observance of the second day of a festival is a Rabbinic institution and the observance of mourning rites on the first day is a Scriptural obligation. Hence the observance of a positive Rabbinic commandment is superseded by the observance of a positive Scriptural commandment.

If, however, one buries his dead on the second day of Rosh HaShanah, he should not observe the mourning rites. For the two days of Rosh HaShanah are considered as one long day, because of the rationale explained in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh.

י

הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן. אוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל עֲצֶרֶת. נוֹהֵג בּוֹ אֲבֵלוּת. הוֹאִיל וְיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם וַאֲבֵלוּת יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל תּוֹרָה יִדָּחֶה עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. אֲבָל אִם קָבַר בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ אֲבֵלוּת. שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן כְּיוֹם אָרֹךְ הֵן מִטַּעַם שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת קִדּוּשׁ הַחֹדֶשׁ:

Avel - Chapter 11

1

Although the mourning rites are not observed at all during the festival, one should rend his garments because of his dead on a festival and uncover his shoulder. Similarly, we bring the mourners bread of comfort during a festival. All of the above applies during Chol HaMoed. On a festival, even the second day of a festival, one should not rend his garments, uncover a shoulder, or bring bread of comfort.

א

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אֲבֵלוּת בַּמּוֹעֵד קוֹרֵעַ עַל מֵתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד וְחוֹלֵץ כְּתֵפוֹ. וּמַבְרִין אֶת הָאֲבֵלִים לֶחֶם בַּמּוֹעֵד. כָּל אֵלּוּ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי אֵין קוֹרְעִין וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין וְלֹא מַבְרִין:

2

We rend our garments and uncover our shoulders during a festival only for the relatives for whom we are obligated to mourn, for a sage, an upright person, or for a person when one was present at the time his soul expired.

Everyone brings the meal of comfort to his colleague for a sage during a festival in the main street of the city in the way the meal of comfort is brought for mourners. For everyone is a mourner because of him.

ב

אֵין קוֹרְעִין בַּמּוֹעֵד וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין אֶלָּא הַקְּרוֹבִים שֶׁחַיָּבִין בָּאֵבֶל. אוֹ הַקּוֹרֵעַ וְהַחוֹלֵץ עַל הֶחָכָם אוֹ עַל אָדָם כָּשֵׁר. אוֹ מִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאַת נְשָׁמָה. וּמַבְרִין הַכּל עַל הֶחָכָם בַּמּוֹעֵד לְתוֹךְ הָרְחָבָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּבְרִין אֶת הָאֲבֵלִים. שֶׁהַכּל אֲבֵלִים עָלָיו:

3

When we bring mourners the meal of comfort during a festival, we serve them while they are sitting on upright couches. We do not recite the mourning blessing during a festival. We do however stand in a line, comfort the mourners, and take leave of them.

We do not leave the bier in the public thoroughfare lest that encourage the delivery of a eulogy. For it is forbidden to deliver eulogies and to fast during a festival. Similarly, one should not gather the bones of one's father and mother during a festival for this evokes mourning for the person. Needless to say, this applies with regard to one's other relatives.

Similarly, we do not eulogize the dead on Chanukah, Purim, or Rosh Chodesh. We do, however, observe all the rites of mourning on those days. It is permitted to deliver eulogies on the days which precede and which follow Chanukah and Purim.

ג

כְּשֶׁמַּבְרִין אֶת הָאֲבֵלִים בַּמּוֹעֵד אֵין מַבְרִין אֶלָּא עַל מִטּוֹת זְקוּפוֹת. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים בַּמּוֹעֵד. אֲבָל עוֹמְדִין בְּשׁוּרָה וּמְנַחֲמִין וּפוֹטְרִין. וְאֵין מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמִּטָּה בָּרְחוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לְהַרְגִּיל אֶת הַהֶסְפֵּד. שֶׁהַמּוֹעֵד אָסוּר בְּהֶסְפֵּד וּבְתַעֲנִית. וְכֵן אֵין מְלַקְּטִים עַצְמוֹת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד שֶׁאֵבֶל הוּא לוֹ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שְׁאָר קְרוֹבִים. וְכֵן אֵין מַסְפִּידִין אֶת הַמֵּת בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים וְלֹא בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים אֲבָל נוֹהֲגִין בָּהֶן כָּל דִּבְרֵי אֲבֵלוּת. וּמֻתָּר לִסְפֹּד לִפְנֵי חֲנֻכָּה וּפוּרִים וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶן:

4

During a festival, the woman may lament, but they do not pound their hands together in grief. On Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah, and Purim, they may both lament and pound their hands together in grief; they may not, however, recite dirges on any of these days. Once the dead has been buried, they should neither lament, nor pound their hands together.

ד

הַנָּשִׁים בַּמּוֹעֵד מְעַנּוֹת אֲבָל לֹא מְטַפְּחוֹת. וּבְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּבַחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים מְעַנּוֹת וּמְטַפְּחוֹת אֲבָל אֵין מְקוֹנְנוֹת לֹא בָּזֶה וְלֹא בָּזֶה. נִקְבַּר הַמֵּת לֹא מְעַנּוֹת וְלֹא מְטַפְּחוֹת:

5

What is meant by lamenting? That all raise their voices in mourning together. By reciting dirges? That one recites a dirge and all respond in lament, as implied by Jeremiah 9:19: "to teach your daughters mourning and a woman, her friends, a dirge."

When do all the above restrictions apply? When ordinary people die. When, however, a Torah scholar dies, he is eulogized during a festival. Needless to say, this applies on Chanukah, Purim, and Rosh Chodesh. This does not apply on the second day of a holiday.

On the days when a eulogy is permitted, it is permitted only in the deceased's presence. Once he is buried, a eulogy is forbidden. On the day when one hears a report of his death, it is as if one is in his presence and he may be eulogized even if it is a distant report.

ה

אֵי זֶהוּ עִנּוּי שֶׁכֻּלָּן עוֹנוֹת כְּאַחַת. קִינָה שֶׁאַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת וְכֻלָּן עוֹנוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ט יט) "וְלַמֵּדְנָה בְנוֹתֵיכֶם נֶהִי וְאִשָּׁה רְעוּתָהּ קִינָה". בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁאָר הָעָם שֶׁמֵּתוּ. אֲבָל תַּלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁמֵּת סוֹפְדִים אוֹתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים וְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים אֲבָל לֹא בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי. וְאֵין סוֹפְדִין אוֹתוֹ בְּיָמִים אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא בְּפָנָיו. נִקְבַּר אֲסוּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד. וְיוֹם שְׁמוּעָתוֹ כִּבְפָנָיו הוּא וְסוֹפְדִין אוֹתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא רְחוֹקָה:

6

A woman should not have a eulogy recited for a deceased person within 30 days so that the festival will not arrive when they are grieving. For a deceased person will not be forgotten in less than 30 days. When does the above apply? With regard to a person who died previously. If, however, a person died within 30 days of a festival, a eulogy may be recited.

ו

לֹא תְּעוֹרֵר אִשָּׁה עַל מֵת שֶׁלָּהּ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם קֹדֶם לֶחָג. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹא הֶחָג וְהֵם דָּוִים. שֶׁאֵין הַמֵּת מִשְׁתַּכֵּחַ מִן הַלֵּב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמֵת יָשָׁן. אֲבָל אִם מֵת בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם סָמוּךְ לֶחָג מְעוֹרֶרֶת:

7

The seven days of the wedding celebrations are comparable to a festival. Thus if a close relative of a person - even his father or mother - dies in the middle of these days of celebration, he should complete the seven days of celebration and then observe the seven days of mourning. He also counts the 30 days of mourning from the conclusion of the days of celebration.

ז

שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַחַתְנוּת הֲרֵי הֵן כְּרֶגֶל וּמִי שֶׁמֵּת לוֹ מֵת בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲפִלּוּ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מַשְׁלִים שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַשִּׂמְחָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹהֵג שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי אֲבֵלוּת. וּמוֹנֶה הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים מֵאַחַר יְמֵי הַשִּׂמְחָה:

8

The following rules apply when one prepared all the necessities for the wedding feast, baked his bread, slaughtered his animals to enter the celebration, and then one of his close relatives died before he began the celebration. If he did not place the meat in water, he should sell the meat and the bread, observe the seven days of mourning, and then observe the seven days of the wedding celebrations.

If he already placed the meat in water - in which instance, it cannot be resold - the corpse is placed inside a room and the groom and the bride are taken to the wedding canopy. Afterwards, he should engage in the marital relations which are a mitzvah, and then separate from his wife. He should observe the seven days of celebration and then the seven days of mourning.

Throughout the seven days of celebration, he must observe the private aspects of the laws of mourning as is required on the Sabbath. Therefore he should sleep together with other men and his wife should sleep with other women so that they do not engage in relations. For these 30 days, the bride should not be prevented from wearing jewelry.

In a place where it is possible to sell the meat even though it was placed in water, it should be sold and the mourning period observed first. In a place where it is impossible to sell the meat even though it was not placed in water, the wedding celebrations should be observed first.

When does the above apply? When the father of the groom or the mother of the bride die. For if this feast is spoiled, they have no one to work to prepare another for them. If, however, the father of the bride, the mother of the groom, or other relatives die, one should observe the mourning period first. Only afterwards, should he enter the marriage canopy and observe the seven days of wedding celebrations.

ח

הֵכִין כָּל צָרְכֵי הַסְּעוּדָה וְאָפָה פִּתּוֹ וְטָבַח טִבְחוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ לַשִּׂמְחָה וּמֵת לוֹ מֵת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ לַשִּׂמְחָה. אִם לֹא נָתַן מַיִם עַל גַּבֵּי בָּשָׂר מוֹכֵר הַבָּשָׂר וְהַפַּת וְנוֹהֵג שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי אֲבֵלוּת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹהֵג שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה. וְאִם נָתַן מַיִם עַל גַּבֵּי בָּשָׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְמָכְרוֹ. מַכְנִיסִין אֶת הַמֵּת לְחֶדֶר וְאֶת הֶחָתָן וְאֶת הַכַּלָּה לַחֻפָּה. וּבוֹעֵל בְּעִילַת מִצְוָה וּפוֹרֵשׁ וְנוֹהֵג שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹהֵג שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי אֲבֵלוּת. וְכָל אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים נוֹהֵג בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁבְּצִנְעָה כְּשַׁבָּת. לְפִיכָךְ הוּא יָשֵׁן בֵּין הָאֲנָשִׁים וְאִשְׁתּוֹ יְשֵׁנָה בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ. וְאֵין מוֹנְעִין תַּכְשִׁיטִין מִן הַכַּלָּה כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. הָיוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִמְכֹּר הַבָּשָׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן עָלָיו מַיִם מוֹכֵר וְנוֹהֵג אֲבֵלוּת תְּחִלָּה. הָיוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְכֹּר הַבָּשָׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם נוֹהֵג שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה תְּחִלָּה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁמֵּת אָבִיו שֶׁל חָתָן אוֹ אִמָּהּ שֶׁל כַּלָּה. שֶׁאִם יַפְסִידוּ סְעוּדָה זוֹ אֵין לָהֶם מִי שֶׁיִּטְרַח לָהֶם. אֲבָל אִם מֵת אָבִיהָ שֶׁל כַּלָּה אוֹ אִמּוֹ שֶׁל חָתָן אוֹ שְׁאָר קְרוֹבֵיהֶם נוֹהֲגִין שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הָאֵבֶל תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּכָּנֵס לַחֻפָּה וְיִנְהֲגוּ שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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