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Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 2

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Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 2

1

Any food that grows from the earth,1 is guarded,2 is harvested at the same time, and is placed in storage3 is required that pe'ah [be separated from it], as [Leviticus 19:9 / Leviticus 23:22] states: "When you reap the harvest of your land."4

א

כָּל אֹכֶל שֶׁגִּדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ וְנִשְׁמָר וּלְקִיטָתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַחַת וּמַכְנִיסִין אוֹתוֹ לְקִיּוּם חַיָּב בְּפֵאָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ט) (ויקרא כג כב) "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם":

2

Anything that resembles a crop that is harvested by having these five qualities requires that pe'ah be separated from it, e.g., grain, legumes, carobs, nuts, almonds, pomegranates, grapes, olives, dates - whether dried or fresh - and any similar produce.

By contrast, indigo, rubia, and the like are exempt, because they are not food.5 Similarly, truffles and mushrooms are exempt, because they do not grow from the earth, like other produce of the earth.6 Similarly, ownerless produce is exempt, for there is no one to watch it, for it is free for anyone to take. Similarly, figs are exempt, because they are not harvested at one time. Instead, on the tree, there are some that will become ripe on one day and others that will not become ripe until after several days. Similarly, vegetables are exempt, for they are not placed in storage. Garlic and onions require that pe'ah [be separated], for they are dried out and placed in storage. Similarly, seed onions that are placed in the earth to produce seed require that pe'ah [be given from them]. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ב

כָּל הַדּוֹמֶה לַקָּצִיר בְּחָמֵשׁ דְּרָכִים אֵלּוּ הוּא שֶׁחַיָּב בְּפֵאָה. כְּגוֹן הַתְּבוּאָה וְהַקִּטְנִיּוֹת וְהֶחָרוּבִין וְהָאֱגוֹזִין וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים וְהָרִמּוֹנִים וְהָעֲנָבִים וְהַזֵּיתִים וְהַתְּמָרִים בֵּין יְבֵשִׁים בֵּין רַכִּים וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. אֲבָל אִסְטִיס וּפוּאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן אֹכֶל. וְכֵן כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלֵיהֶן מִן הָאָרֶץ כִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ. וְכֵן הַהֶפְקֵר פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מִי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְרֶנּוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מֻפְקָר לַכּל. וְכֵן הַתְּאֵנִים פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לְקִיטָתָן כְּאַחַת אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בְּאִילָן זֶה מַה שֶּׁיִּגָּמֵר הַיּוֹם וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מַה שֶּׁיִּגָּמֵר לְאַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים. וְכֵן יָרָק פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתוֹ לְקִיּוּם. הַשּׁוּמִים וְהַבְּצָלִים חַיָּבִין בְּפֵאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי מְיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָן וּמַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן לְקִיּוּם. וְכֵן הָאֲמָהוֹת שֶׁל בְּצָלִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתָן בָּאָרֶץ לִקַּח מֵהֶן הַזֶּרַע חַיָּבוֹת בְּפֵאָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

3

A portion of land of any size7 requires that pe'ah [be separated from its produce]. [This applies] even if it belongs to partners, for [the prooftext (ibid)] states "the harvest of your8 land," even if it belongs to many people.

ג

קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיֶּבֶת בְּפֵאָה וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה שֶׁל שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ט) (ויקרא כג כב) "קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם" אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל רַבִּים:

4

When gentiles harvested a field for their own sake,9 thieves harvested it, ants destroyed its produce, or the wind or an animal crushed it, it is exempt from pe'ah. For the obligation of pe'ah lies on the standing grain.10

ד

שָׂדֶה שֶׁקָּצְרוּ נָכְרִים לְעַצְמָן אוֹ שֶׁקְּצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים אוֹ קִרְסְמוּהָ נְמָלִּים אוֹ שְׁבָרְתָּהּ הָרוּחַ אוֹ בְּהֵמָה הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה מִן הַפֵּאָה. שֶׁחוֹבַת הַפֵּאָה בְּקָמָה:

5

If he harvested half of it and thieves harvested the remaining half, it is exempt, for the obligation was incumbent on the half that was harvested by the thieves.11 If, however, thieves harvested half of it and [the owner] harvested the remaining half, he should leave pe'ah according to the measure of what he harvested.12

If he harvested half and sold the [remaining] half, the purchaser must leave pe'ah for the entire field.13 If he harvested half and consecrated half, the person who redeems [the half] from the Temple treasury must leave pe'ah for the entire [field].14 If he harvested half [the field] and consecrated [what he harvested], he should leave pe'ah for the entire field from the remainder [of the crop].15

ה

קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצְרוּ הַלִּסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה. שֶׁהַחִיּוּב בַּחֵצִי שֶׁקָּצְרוּ הַלִּסְטִים. אֲבָל אִם קָצְרוּ הַלִּסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ וְחָזַר הוּא וְקָצַר הַשְּׁאָר נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה כְּשִׁעוּר מַה שֶּׁקָּצַר. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וּמָכַר חֶצְיָהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה (לַכּל). קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁ חֶצְיָהּ הַפּוֹדֶה מִיַּד הַגִּזְבָּר נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכּל. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁוֹ מַנִּיחַ מִן הַנִּשְׁאָר פֵּאָה הָרְאוּיָה לַכּל:

6

[The following rules apply when a person] harvested [some of] the grapes in his vineyard to sell in the market place, but had the intent to leave the remainder for the vat to press [for wine].16 If he would harvest for the marketplace from either side [of the vineyard], he should give pe'ah for [the grapes] that he harvests for the vat according to the amount that remain.17 If he would harvest for the marketplace from only one side, he should leave the amount of pe'ah appropriate for the entire field from the amount remaining. [The rationale is that] since he harvested from only one side, he is not considered as harvesting haphazardly in which instance, he would be exempt [from leaving pe'ah].18

Similarly, when a person harvests ears of grain bit by bit and brings them home, he is exempt from leket, shichachah, and pe'ah, even if he harvested his entire field in this manner.

ו

כֶּרֶם שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹצֵר מִמֶּנּוּ עֲנָבִים לִמְכֹּר בַּשּׁוּק וּבְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ הַשְּׁאָר לַגַּת לִדְרֹךְ אוֹתוֹ. אִם הָיָה בּוֹצֵר לַשּׁוּק מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לְמַה שֶּׁבּוֹצֵר לַגַּת כְּפִי הַנִּשְׁאָר. וְאִם הָיָה בּוֹצֵר לַשּׁוּק מֵרוּחַ אַחַת בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִן הַנִּשְׁאָר כְּפִי הָרָאוּי לְכָל הַכֶּרֶם הוֹאִיל וּבָצַר מֵרוּחַ אַחַת אֵינוֹ כְּבוֹצֵר עַרְאַי מְעַט מִכָּאן וּמְעַט מִכָּאן שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל הַקּוֹטֵף מְלִילוֹת מְעַט מְעַט וּמַכְנִיס לְבֵיתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ קָטַף כֵּן כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ פָּטוּר מִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה וּמִן הַפֵּאָה:

7

When a person harvests his entire field before it becomes completely ripe, before it reaches a third of its growth, he is exempt [from pe'ah].19 If it reached a third of its growth, he is obligated. Similarly, with regard to fruit from trees, if a third of their growth is completed, there is an obligation [to leave pe'ah].

ז

הַקּוֹצֵר כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁתֻּגְמַר וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה. וְאִם הִגִּיעָה לִשְׁלִישׁ חַיֶּבֶת. וְכֵן בְּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן אִם נִגְמְרוּ שְׁלִישׁ גְּמִירָתָן חַיָּבִין:

8

When a person consecrates his field while his grain is standing and redeems it while it is [still] standing, there is an obligation [to leave pe'ah]20 from it.21 If the Temple treasurer harvested it and then he redeemed it, it is exempt, for at the time when the obligation for pe'ah became relevant, [the field] was consecrated and thus there was no obligation [to leave pe'ah] from it.

ח

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ וְהִיא קָמָה חַיֶּבֶת בְּפֵאָה. קְצָרָהּ הַגִּזְבָּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ פְּדָאָהּ פְּטוּרָה. שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת חִיּוּב הַפֵּאָה הָיְתָה קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּפֵאָה:

9

When a gentile reaps his field and then converts, he is exempt from pe'ah, leket, and shichachah.22 [This applies] even though [Scripture mentions the obligation of] shichachah only with regard to the time when sheaves [are transferred].23

ט

נָכְרִי שֶׁקָּצַר שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַפֵּאָה וּמִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַשִּׁכְחָה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הָעִמּוּר:

10

One may not hire non-Jewish laborers to harvest, because they are not knowledgeable with regard to the laws of leket and pe'ah.24 If one hired them and they harvested the entire field, he is obligated [to leave] pe'ah.25

י

אֵין שׂוֹכְרִין פּוֹעֲלִים נָכְרִים לִקְצֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּקִיאִין בְּלֶקֶט וּפֵאָה. וְאִם שָׂכַר וְקָצְרוּ אֶת כֻּלּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ חַיֶּבֶת בְּפֵאָה:

11

When a landowner harvested his entire field and did not leave pe'ah, he should give some of the stalks of grain as pe'ah to the poor.26 He does not have to tithe [the grain he leaves as pe'ah].27 Even if he gives the majority of the harvest as pe'ah, he is exempt from tithes.28

Similarly, if he threshed the grain, but did not winnow it, he should give them pe'ah, before he tithes. If, however, he threshed and winnowed the grain with a pitchfork and a shovel and completed the task, he should tithe29 and give [the poor] tithed produce equivalent to the appropriate measure of pe'ah for that field.30 Similar [concepts apply] with regard to trees.

יא

בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁקָּצַר כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ פֵּאָה. הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן מִן הַשִּׁבֳּלִים פֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר. וְאִם נָתַן לָהֶם רֹב הַקָּצִיר מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. וְכֵן אִם דָּשׁ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא זָרָה נוֹתֵן לָהֶם הַפֵּאָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר. אֲבָל דָּשׁ וְזָרָה בְּרַחַת וּבְמִזְרֶה וְגָמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ מְעַשֵּׂר וְנוֹתֵן לָהֶם מִן הַפֵּרוֹת הַמְּעֻשָּׂרִין שִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה הָרְאוּיָה לְאוֹתָהּ שָׂדֶה. וְכֵן בְּאִילָנוֹת:

12

Pe'ah should be left only at the edge of the field, so that the poor will know where to come to collect it,31 so it will be obvious to passersby and they will not suspect [that the owner did not leave pe'ah], and so that deceivers will not intend to harvest their entire field and [will excuse themselves by] telling the observers: "I left it in the beginning of the field." Also, [leaving it there will prevent him from] waiting until a time when no one is present and leaving it for a poor person with whom he is close.

If a person transgressed and left pe'ah in the beginning or the middle of his field, it is considered as pe'ah, but he must leave an appropriate measure of pe'ah for the portion of the field that remained after he separated the initial [pe'ah].32

יב

אֵין מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַפֵּאָה אֶלָּא בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיִּים יוֹדְעִין מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ לוֹ וּכְדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נִכֶּרֶת לָעוֹבְרִים וְלַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא יֵחָשֵׁד. וּמִפְּנֵי הָרַמָּאִים שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לִקְצֹר הַכּל וְאוֹמֵר לְאֵלּוּ שֶׁרוֹאִים אוֹתוֹ קוֹצֵר סוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׂדֶה הִנַּחְתִּי. וְעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמֹר שָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אָדָם וְיַנִּיחֶנָּהּ וְיִתְּנֶנָּה לֶעָנִי הַקָּרוֹב לוֹ. עָבַר וְהִנִּיחַ הַפֵּאָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אוֹ בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ פֵּאָה. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה כְּשִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה הָרְאוּיָה לְמַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁאַר בַּשָּׂדֶה אַחַר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

13

When the owner of a field gave pe'ah to the poor33 and they told him: "Give us from the [other] side," and he gave them from the other side [as well], both of the gifts are considered as pe'ah. Similarly, if the owner of a field separated pe'ah and then said: "This is pe'ah and this also is" or "This is pe'ah and this,"34 they are both pe'ah.

יג

בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁנָּתַן פֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ תֵּן לָנוּ מִצַּד זֶה וְנָתַן לָהֶם מִצַּד אַחֵר זוֹ וְזוֹ פֵּאָה. וְכֵן בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ פֵּאָה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ פֵּאָה וְגַם זוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ פֵּאָה וְזוֹ הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן פֵּאָה:

14

It is forbidden for workers to harvest the entire field.35 Instead, they should leave the appropriate measure [of grain] for pe'ah at the end of the field. [Nevertheless,] the poor do not have a share in it until the owner willfully separates it. Therefore [although] a poor person sees pe'ah at the end of a field,36 he is forbidden to touch it lest it be considered as theft until he knows that it was left with the consent of the owner of the field.

יד

אָסוּר לַפּוֹעֲלִים לִקְצֹר אֶת כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה אֶלָּא מַנִּיחִין בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה כְּשִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה. וְאֵין לָעֲנִיִּים בָּהּ כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישֶׁנָּה בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִדַּעְתּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ עָנִי שֶׁרָאָה פֵּאָה בְּסוֹף שָׂדֶה אָסוּר לִגַּע בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם גֵּזֶל עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ שֶׁהִיא מִדַּעַת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת:

15

Pe'ah from grain, legumes, and other similar species of crops that are harvested and similarly, pe'ah left in vineyards and orchards37 should be given while it is [growing] from the earth. The poor should grab it by hand; they should not cut it with sickles, nor uproot it with hatchets lest one person [accidentally] strike a colleague.

If the poor desired to divide it [equally] among themselves,38 they may. If, however, ninety-nine say that they desire to divide it and one says that each should grab what he can, we listen to the latter, for his statement is in accord with Torah law.39

טו

הַפֵּאָה שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִזְּרָעִים הַנִּקְצָרִים וְכֵן פְּאַת הַכֶּרֶם וְהָאִילָנוֹת נִתֶּנֶת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע וְהָעֲנִיִּים בּוֹזְזִין אוֹתָהּ בְּיָדָם. וְאֵין קוֹצְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּמַגָּלוֹת וְאֵין עוֹקְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּקַרְדֻּמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכּוּ אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ. רָצוּ הָעֲנִיִּים לְחַלְּקָהּ בֵּינֵיהֶם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְחַלְּקִין. אֲפִלּוּ תִּשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִין לְחַלֵּק וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לָבֹז לְזֶה הָאֶחָד שׁוֹמְעִין שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה:

16

Pe'ah from a grape vine [draped over a high wall] and from a date palm that the poor cannot reach to grab except at great danger40 the owner of the land should bring it down41 and divide it among them. If they all desire that it be left to be grabbed, that option is followed. If, however, ninety-nine say that they desire that it be left to be grabbed and one says that it should be divided, we listen to the latter, for his statement is in accord with Torah law.42 We obligate the owner to bring it down and divide it among them.

טז

פֵּאָה שֶׁל דָּלִית וְשֶׁל דֶּקֶל שֶׁאֵין עֲנִיִּים מַגִּיעִין לָבֹז אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בְּסַכָּנָה גְּדוֹלָה. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מוֹרִיד אוֹתָהּ וּמְחַלֵּק אוֹתָהּ בֵּין הָעֲנִיִּים. וְאִם רָצוּ כֻּלָּן לָבֹז אוֹתָהּ לְעַצְמָן בּוֹזְזִין. אֲפִלּוּ תִּשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִים לָבֹז וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לְחַלֵּק שׁוֹמְעִין לָאֶחָד שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה וּמְחַיְּבִין בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהוֹרִיד וּלְחַלֵּק בֵּינֵיהֶן:

17

At three times during the day,43 pe'ah is divided among the poor or left for them to take: at daybreak, at noon, and at minchah.44 When a poor person does not come at these times, he is not allowed to take, so that there will be fixed times for the poor so that they will all gather together to take [pe'ah].

Why wasn't only one time a day established [for the poor to take]? Because there are poor nursing mothers that need to eat at the beginning of the day.45 And there are poor children who are not awake in the morning and will not reach the field until midday and there are elderly people who will not come until the late afternoon.46

יז

בְּשָׁלֹשׁ עִתּוֹת בַּיּוֹם מְחַלְּקִין אֶת הַפֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים בַּשָּׂדֶה אוֹ מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָם לָבֹז. בַּשַּׁחַר. וּבַחֲצִי הַיּוֹם. וּבַמִּנְחָה. וְעָנִי שֶׁבָּא שֶׁלֹּא בִּזְמַן זֶה אֵין מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ לִטּל. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עֵת קָבוּעַ לָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁיִּתְקַבְּצוּ בּוֹ כֻּלָּן לִטּל. וְלָמָּה לֹא קָבְעוּ לָהּ עֵת אַחַת בַּיּוֹם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם עֲנִיּוֹת מֵינִיקוֹת שֶׁצְּרִיכוֹת לֶאֱכל בִּתְחִלַּת הַיּוֹם. וְיֵשׁ שָׁם עֲנִיִּים קְטַנִּים שֶׁאֵין נֵעוֹרִין בַּבֹּקֶר וְלֹא יַגִּיעוּ לַשָּׂדֶה עַד חֲצִי הַיּוֹם. וְיֵשׁ שָׁם זְקֵנִים שֶׁאֵינָם מַגִּיעִין עַד הַמִּנְחָה:

18

When a poor person takes some of the pe'ah and throws it over the remainder, falls on it, or spreads his garment over it,47 we penalize him and make him relinquish it. Even what he took48 is removed from his possession and given to another poor person. [These laws] also apply with regard to leket and to a sheave that was forgotten.

יח

עָנִי שֶׁנָּטַל מִקְצָת הַפֵּאָה וְזָרַק עַל הַשְּׁאָר אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל עָלֶיהָ אוֹ שֶׁפֵּרֵשׂ טַלִּיתוֹ עָלֶיהָ קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ וּמַעֲבִירִין אוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ מַה שֶּׁנָּטַל לוֹקְחִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּדוֹ וְיִנָּתֵן לֶעָנִי אַחֵר [וְכֵן בְּלֶקֶט וְכֵן בְּעֹמֶר הַשִּׁכְחָה]:

19

[The following rules apply if a person] took pe'ah and said: "This is for the poor person, so-and-so." If the person who took possession of the pe'ah is also poor, [the acquisition is binding]. Since he has the right to acquire it himself, he may acquire it for the other person.49 If [the person who took possession] was rich, he does not acquire it for him.50 Instead, he should give it to the poor person he finds first.

יט

מִי שֶׁלָּקַח אֶת הַפֵּאָה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זֶה לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי הֶעָנִי. אִם עָנִי הוּא זֶה שֶׁלָּקַח מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁזּוֹכֶה בּוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ זָכָה בּוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ פְּלוֹנִי. וְאִם עָשִׁיר הוּא לֹא זָכָה לוֹ אֶלָּא יִתְּנֶנָּה לֶעָנִי שֶׁנִּמְצָא רִאשׁוֹן:

20

When the owner of a field leaves pe'ah for the poor people standing before him and a poor person comes from behind him and takes it, that person acquires it. For a person does not acquire leket, shichachah, and pe'ah, or a sela51 that was lost52 until it reaches his possession.53

כ

בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהִנִּיחַ פֵּאָה לַעֲנִיִּים אֵלּוּ הָעוֹמְדִים לְפָנָיו וּבָא עָנִי אַחֵר מֵאֲחוֹרָיו וּנְטָלָהּ זָכָה בָּהּ שֶׁאֵין אָדָם זוֹכֶה בְּלֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וְסֶלַע שֶׁל מְצִיאָה עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְיָדוֹ:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

In the following halachah, the Rambam explains how each of the five factors he mentions here is significant and excludes a different type of produce.

2.

I.e., protected against thieves.

3.

To keep over a long period of time.

4.

All these concepts are implied by the word "harvest"; see the Sifri to the prooftext cited.

5.

I.e., they are used for dye and the like.

6.

I.e., they don't have roots in the earth through which they derive nurture (ibid.).

7.

I.e., a field does not have to be of a given size.

8.

The prooftext uses a plural term.

9.

I.e., taking the produce for themselves. If, however, they harvested it for the sake of the Jews, pe'ah must be given, as stated in Halachah 10.

10.

Although pe'ah must be given even if the grain was harvested (Chapter 1, Halachah 2), that is only because the obligation was incurred at the time of harvest. In these instances, the field was destroyed and the Jew received no benefit from the harvest. Hence, there is no obligation to leave pe'ah.

11.

The pe'ah is included in the standing grain. Since that was stolen by the thieves, it is considered as if they stole the portion due the poor.

12.

He need not, however, leave pe'ah for the portion stolen by the thieves.

13.

For the pe'ah is in the remaining half. Since the purchaser was obviously aware that the first half of the field had been harvested, he implicitly accepted the responsibility to leave pe'ah for the part of the field that had been harvested previously. For the owner has no right to sell the portion of the crops belonging to the poor [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 2:8)].

14.

I.e., he purchases the field from the Temple treasury with the understanding that he must leave pe'ah for the entire field.

15.

Since he consecrated the crop after he harvested it, he was already obligated to leave pe'ah for it.

16.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 23, which mentions laws that are relevant to this situation.

17.

He does not have to leave pe'ah for the amount that he harvested previously. The rationale is that since he harvested it indiscriminately, his act is not considered as significant. It is as if he picked some grapes haphazardly. As the Rambam continues to state, pe'ah is not required for such a harvest. Hence, when he harvests the grapes for the vat, he must leave pe'ah only for the grapes he is harvesting at that time.

18.

As explained above, a person is obligated to leave pe'ah only when he "harvests" his field. If he just gathers his food in a haphazard sporadic manner, he is not considered to have harvested and hence, is not liable to leave pe'ah.

19.

Here, also, the same rationale applies. Since the produce did not ripen completely, reaping it is not considered as a "harvest" (Menachot 71b).

20.

Or any of the other "presents to the poor" [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 4:7)].

21.

For at the time he harvested it, it was his private property.

22.

Because at the time he harvested it, he was not obligated to observe these mitzvot.

23.

The Rambam's wording is perplexing, for he refers to two differing opinions in Pe'ah 4:6. To explain: That mishnah states: "When a gentile harvested his field and afterwards, converted, he is exempt from pe'ah, leket, and shichachah. Rabbi Yehudah obligates him in shichachah, because shichachah applies only when sheaves [are transferred]."

The first opinion in the mishnah maintains that we draw an equation between the obligation of shichachah that applies to standing grain and the obligation of shichachah that applies to sheaves. Since shichachah does not apply to one, it does not apply to the other. Rabbi Yehudah, by contrast, maintains that each obligation of shichachah should be considered independently. The Rambam subscribes to the first opinion, but borrows the wording used by Rabbi Yehudah.

24.

The Radbaz explains that we suspect that they will give either less than the required amount and thus disadvantage the poor or give more than the required amount and thus disadvantage the owner.

25.

The fact that the individuals who did the actual harvesting were not obligated to fulfill the mitzvah does not remove the responsibility from the owner of the field.

26.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 2.

27.

For the produce he leaves as pe'ah is not his, and hence, he is not obligated to tithe it. Nor are the poor, because they were not the owners at the time it was harvested. See Hilchot Terumot 2:9.

28.

I.e., one might think that he is liable, because such a large gift would be considered as a present (for which tithes must be given) and not as pe'ah. Hence it is necessary to state that this is not so (Radbaz).

29.

For he is already obligated to give tithes once he completes winnowing.

30.

Without subtracting the amount set aside as tithes from the pe'ah.

31.

The Tosefta (Pe'ah, ch. 1) states that this measure was instituted for the sake of the poor, so that their time would not be wasted waiting in limbo until the owner of the field designated a portion of the field as pe'ah. Instead, they could judge when he would complete his harvest and come at that time alone.

32.

He need not, however, leave pe'ah for the entire field. The pe'ah that he separated originally is effective in discharging the obligation for the crops harvested before it was separated.

33.

On one side of his field. Our translation is based on the gloss of the Radbaz.

34.

Although the owner did not explicitly say "And also this," we interpret that as his intent. Since this question is left unresolved by Nedarim 6b, the Rambam rules stringently (Kessef Mishneh).

35.

For they are acting on the owner's behalf.

36.

If, however, a poor person sees the owner separating pe'ah, he may take it, for he can assume that the owner consciously separated it.

37.

In contrast to the following halachah, here the Rambam is speaking about orchards with low trees which are not dangerous for the poor to climb.

38.

Instead of each person grabbing whatever he could.

39.

For the Torah instructs us to "leave" the pe'ah for the poor, implying that each one takes what he can get (Radbaz).

40.

Obviously, people vying with each other at heights for food could be severely dangerous.

41.

As he harvests the remainder of his crop.

42.

Because of the danger involved.

43.

Neither less, nor more.

44.

I.e., minchah ketanah, an hour and fifteen minutes before sunset.

45.

So it was established that pe'ah would be divided in the morning so that they would receive a portion at that time.

46.

Thus a time was established to enable every type of poor person to gather the pe'ah at an appropriate time.

47.

I.e., he is attempting to take possession of it, but is not employing accepted kinyanim, formal means of acquisition and hence, he is not entitled to that grain.

48.

And would rightfully belong to him.

49.

See Hilchot Gezeilah ViAveidah 17:3, Hilchot Mechirah 4:15, which quote this principle is a binding construct in Jewish business law.

50.

For he has no right to acquire it himself.

51.

A coin of the Talmudic period.

52.

And therefore able to be acquired by the finder.

53.

And he acquires it through a formal kinyan.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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