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Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 1

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Matnot Aniyim - Chapter 1

Introduction to Hilchos Matnot Aniyim

They contain thirteen mitzvot: seven positive commandments and six negative commandments. They are:

1) To leave pe’ah;
2) Not to remove it completely;
3) To leave leket;
4) Not to gather the leket;
5) To leave the underdeveloped grape clusters in a vineyard;
6) Not to gather underdeveloped grape clusters;
7) To leave individual grapes that fall;
8) Not to collect individual grapes that fall;
9) To leave forgotten crops;
10) Not to return to collect the forgotten crops;
11) To set aside a tithe for the poor;
12) To give charity according to one’s capacity;
13) Not to restrain one’s heart [from giving] to the poor.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות מתנות עניים - הקדמה הלכות מתנות עניים יש בכללן שלש עשרה מצות שבע מצות עשה ושש מצות לא תעשה וזה הוא פרטן: (א) להניח פאה
(ב) שלא יכלה אותה
(ג) להניח לקט
(ד) שלא ילקט הלקט
(ה) לעזוב עוללות הכרם
(ו) שלא יעולל הכרם
(ז) לעזוב פרט הכרם
(ח) שלא ילקט פרט הכרם
(ט) להניח שכחה
(י) שלא ישוב לקחת השכחה
(יא) להפריש מעשר לעניים
(יב) ליתן צדקה כמסת יד
(יג) שלא יאמץ לבבו על העניים וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

When a person harvests his field, he should not harvest the entire field. Instead, he should leave a small portion1 of the standing grain2 at the end of his field,3 as [Leviticus 23:22] states: "Do not completely remove [the grain in] the corners of your field when reaping."4 [This prohibition applies] to one who reaps5and one who uproots.6 [The grain] left [standing] is referred to as pe'ah.

א

הַקּוֹצֵר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ לֹא יִקְצֹר אֶת כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה כֻּלָּהּ אֶלָּא יַנִּיחַ מְעַט קָמָה לָעֲנִיִּים בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג כב) "לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ בְּקֻצְרֶךָ" אֶחָד הַקּוֹצֵר וְאֶחָד הַתּוֹלֵשׁ. וְזֶה שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ הוּא הַנִּקְרָא פֵּאָה:

2

Just as one leaves [pe'ah] in his field, so too, [he must leave pe'ah] for trees. When he gathers his produce, he should leave some for the poor. If he transgressed and harvested the entire field or gathered all of the produce of the trees, he should take some of what was harvested or gathered and give it to the poor.7

Giving [this produce] fulfills a positive commandment,8 as it is stated [ibid.]: "Leave it for the poor and the stranger."9 Even if one ground the flour, kneaded it, and baked it into bread, he should give pe'ah from it for the poor.

ב

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ בַּשָּׂדֶה כָּךְ בָּאִילָנוֹת כְּשֶׁאוֹסֵף אֶת פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן מַנִּיחַ מְעַט לָעֲנִיִּים. עָבַר וְקָצַר אֶת כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה אוֹ אָסַף כָּל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן לוֹקֵחַ מְעַט מִמַּה שֶּׁקָּצַר אוֹ מִמַּה שֶּׁאָסַף וְנוֹתְנוֹ לָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁנְּתִינָתוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג כב) "לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם". וַאֲפִלּוּ טָחַן הַקָּמָה וְלָשׁוֹ וַאֲפָאוֹ פַּת הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן מִמֶּנּוּ פֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים:

3

If the entire harvest that was reaped10 was destroyed or consumed by fire before he gave pe'ah, he is liable for lashes.11 [The reason is that] he violated a negative commandment and he did not fulfill the positive commandment that could correct it.

ג

אָבַד כָּל הַקָּצִיר שֶׁקָּצַר אוֹ נִשְׂרַף קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּתַן הַפֵּאָה הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה. שֶׁהֲרֵי עָבַר עַל מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ שֶׁנִּתָּק לוֹ:

4

Similarly, with regard to leket:12 When one harvests13or binds sheaves, he should not gather the stalks that fall during the harvest. Instead, he should leave them for the poor, as it is stated [ibid.]: "You shall not gather the gleanings of your harvest."14 If he transgresses and gathers them - even if ground them [into flour] and baked [them], he must give it to the poor, as it states [ibid.]: "Leave it for the poor and the stranger."15 If [this produce] is lost or consumed by fire after he gathered it, but before he gave it to the poor, he is liable for lashes.16

ד

וְכֵן בְּלֶקֶט כְּשֶׁקּוֹצֵר וּמְאַלֵּם לֹא יְלַקֵּט הַשִּׁבֳּלִים הַנּוֹפְלוֹת בִּשְׁעַת הַקָּצִיר אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֵם לָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ט) (ויקרא כג כב) "וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט". עָבַר וּלְקָטָן אֲפִלּוּ טָחַן וְאָפָה נוֹתֵן לָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג כב) "לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם". אָבְדוּ אוֹ נִשְׂרְפוּ אַחַר שֶׁלְּקָטָן קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּתַן לָעֲנִיִּים לוֹקֶה:

5

Similar [laws apply to] individual grapes that fall during the grape harvest and to underdeveloped grape clusters, as it is stated [ibid. 19:10]: "Do not harvest underdeveloped grape clusters from your vineyard,17 nor gather individual grapes that fall in your vineyard.18 Leave it for the poor and the stranger."19

Similarly, if a person is binding sheaves of wheat into bundles and forgets one bundle, he may not go back and take it,20 as [Deuteronomy 24:19] states: "If you forget a sheave in the field, do not return to take it."21 If he transgressed and gathered it - even if he ground it [into flour] and baked [it], he must give it to the poor, as it states [ibid.]: "They shall be for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow." This is a positive commandment.22

Thus you have learned that they all are prohibitions that can be corrected by positive commandments. If one [transgresses and] does not fulfill the positive commandment involved, he is worthy of lashes.

ה

וְכֵן בְּפֶרֶט שֶׁנִּפְרַט מִן הָעֲנָבִים בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּצִירָה וְכֵן בְּעוֹלֵלוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט י) "וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל וּפֶרֶט כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם". וְכֵן הַמְעַמֵּר וְשָׁכַח אֲלֻמָּה אַחַת בַּשָּׂדֶה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִקָּחֶנָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ". עָבַר וּלְקָטוֹ אֲפִלּוּ טְחָנוֹ וַאֲפָאוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתְנוֹ לָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד יט) "לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה" זוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכֻּלָּן מִצְוֹת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה הַנִּתָּק לַעֲשֵׂה הֵן וְאִם לֹא קִיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהֶן לוֹקֶה:

6

Just as [the prohibition against taking] forgotten produce (shichichah) applies with regard to sheaves, so too, it applies to standing grain.23 If one forgot standing grain and did not harvest it, it should be [given] to the poor. Just as [the prohibition against taking] forgotten produce applies with regard to grain and the like, so too, it applies to all [fruit-bearing] trees, as it is stated [ibid.:20]: "When you beat your olive tree,24 do not go back and take its glory." This law also applies to [produce from] other trees.

ו

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַשִּׁכְחָה בָּעֳמָרִים כָּךְ הִיא בַּקָּמָה. אִם שָׁכַח מִקְצָת הַקָּמָה וְלֹא קְצָרָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ לָעֲנִיִּים. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַשִּׁכְחָה בַּתְּבוּאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ כָּךְ יֵשׁ שִׁכְחָה לָאִילָנוֹת כֻּלָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד כ) "כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפַאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ" וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר הָאִילָנוֹת:

7

Thus it can be concluded that there are four types of presents given to the poor in a vineyard: individual grapes that fall, underdeveloped grape clusters, pe'ah, and forgotten produce. There are three presents from a grain crop: leket, forgotten produce, and pe'ah, and two from trees: forgotten produce and pe'ah.

ז

נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁאַרְבַּע מַתָּנוֹת לָעֲנִיִּים בַּכֶּרֶם. הַפֶּרֶט וְהָעוֹלֵלוֹת וְהַפֵּאָה וְהַשִּׁכְחָה. וְשָׁלֹשׁ מַתָּנוֹת בַּתְּבוּאָה הַלֶּקֶט וְהַשִּׁכְחָה וְהַפֵּאָה. וּשְׁתַּיִם בָּאִילָנוֹת הַשִּׁכְחָה וְהַפֵּאָה:

8

The owners do not have the right to give these presents to the poor to the individual of their choice.25 Instead, the poor may come and take it against the owners' will.26 [These presents] are expropriated even from a poor Israelite.

ח

כָּל מַתְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים אֵלּוּ אֵין בָּהֶן טוֹבַת הֲנָיָה לַבְּעָלִים. אֶלָּא הָעֲנִיִּים בָּאִין וְנוֹטְלִין אוֹתָן עַל כָּרְחָן שֶׁל בְּעָלִים וַאֲפִלּוּ עָנִי שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָן מִיָּדוֹ:

9

Whenever the term "stranger" is used with regard to [these] presents to the poor, the intent is a convert to Judaism.27 [This is evident from the wording used by Deuteronomy 14:29] with regard to the tithe [given to the] poor:28 "And the Levite and the stranger will come." Just as the Levite is a member of the covenant, so too, the "stranger" is a member of the covenant. Nevertheless, we do not prevent gentiles from [taking] these presents. Instead, they [are allowed to] come together with the poor of Israel29 and take them as [an expression of the Torah's] ways of peace.

ט

כָּל גֵּר הָאָמוּר בְּמַתְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא גֵּר צֶדֶק. שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי (דברים יד כט) "וּבָא הַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר" מָה הַלֵּוִי בֶּן בְּרִית אַף הַגֵּר בֶּן בְּרִית. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מוֹנְעִין עֲנִיֵּי עַכּוּ''ם מִמַּתָּנוֹת אֵלּוּ. אֶלָּא בָּאִין בִּכְלַל עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנוֹטְלִין אוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם:

10

With regard to [these] presents for the poor, it is said: "Leave it for the poor and the stranger." [Implied is that the obligation exists only] when the poor demand them. If the poor cease seeking them and searching for them, the remainder is permitted for any person.30 For - in contrast to terumah - the physical substance [of the crops] does not become consecrated. Nor is he required to give their worth to [the poor], for it is not stated [that he should] give them to the poor, but that he should "leave it." He is not commanded to leave it for the beasts and the wild fowl, but for the poor, and there are no poor.

י

נֶאֱמַר בְּמַתְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים (ויקרא יט י) (ויקרא כג כב) "לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם", כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָעֲנִיִּים תּוֹבְעִין אוֹתָן. פָּסְקוּ הָעֲנִיִּים לְבַקֵּשׁ וּלְחַזֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם הֲרֵי הַנִּשְׁאָר מֵהֶן מֻתָּר לְכָל אָדָם. שֶׁאֵין גּוּפוֹ קָדוֹשׁ כִּתְרוּמוֹת. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב לִתֵּן לָהֶן דְּמֵיהֶן שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן וְנָתַן לָעֲנִיִּים אֶלָּא תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם. וְאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה לַעֲזֹב אוֹתָן לַחַיָּה וְלָעוֹפוֹת אֶלָּא לָעֲנִיִּים וַהֲרֵי אֵין עֲנִיִּים:

11

When is everyone allowed to collect the leket?31 When a second wave of gatherers gather after the first wave of gatherers and then depart.

When is everyone allowed to collect individual grapes that fall and underdeveloped grape clusters? When the poor walked through the vineyard and departed. What remains afterwards is permitted for every one.

When is everyone allowed to collect olives that were forgotten in Eretz Yisrael?32 If they were forgotten while on the tree, one is permitted to take them from Rosh Chodesh Kislev33 which is the time of the second rain34 in a late year.35 One is permitted, by contrast, [to take] masses of collected olives forgotten under a tree after the poor have ceased seeking them.

יא

מֵאֵימָתַי מֻתָּרִין כָּל אָדָם בְּלֶקֶט. מִשֶּׁיִּכָּנְסוּ הַמְלַקְּטִים שְׁנִיִּים וְיִלְקְטוּ אַחַר מְלַקְּטִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְיֵצְאוּ. מֵאֵימָתַי מֻתָּרִין כָּל אָדָם בְּפֶרֶט וּבְעוֹלֵלוֹת מִשֶּׁהָלְכוּ הָעֲנִיִּים בַּכֶּרֶם וְיָבוֹאוּ. הַנִּשְׁאָר אַחֲרֵי כֵן מֻתָּר לְכָל אָדָם. מֵאֵימָתַי מֻתָּרִין כָּל אָדָם בְּשִׁכְחָה שֶׁל זֵיתִים. בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם שָׁכַח אוֹתָהּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַזַּיִת הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בָּהּ מֵרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ כִּסְלֵו שֶׁהוּא זְמַן רְבִיעָה שְׁנִיָּה בְּשָׁנָה אֲפֵלָה. אֲבָל צִבּוּרֵי זֵיתִים שֶׁשְּׁכָחָן תַּחַת הָאִילָן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בָּהֶן מִשֶּׁיִּפְסְקוּ הָעֲנִיִּים מִלְּחַזֵּר אַחֲרֶיהָ:

12

As long as a poor person has the right to take olives left on the earth under the trees, he may take them,36 although people at large have already been granted license [to take] the forgotten produce on the tree itself.37 As long as one has the right to take forgotten produce from the tree itself, he may do so, even though he does not have the right to take forgotten produce from under the tree.38

יב

כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לֶעָנִי לִטּל שִׁכְחַת הַזֵּיתִים הַמֻּנָּחוֹת בָּאָרֶץ תַּחַת הָאִילָנוֹת נוֹטֵל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הֻתַּר כָּל אָדָם בַּשִּׁכְחָה שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָן. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לִטּל שִׁכְחָה שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָן נוֹטֵל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה תַּחְתָּיו:

13

Presents to the poor from [the crops in] the field with which the poor are not concerned39 belong to the owner,40 even though the poor have not ceased searching for their presents.

יג

מַתְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים שֶׁבַּשָּׂדֶה שֶׁאֵין הָעֲנִיִּים מַקְפִּידִים עֲלֵיהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא פָּסְקוּ הָעֲנִיִּים מִלַּחֲזֹר עַל מַתְּנוֹתֵיהֶם:

14

According to Scriptural Law, all of these presents for the poor must be given only in Eretz Yisrael41 like terumah and the tithes, as [indicated by Leviticus 19:9]: "When you reap the harvest of your land" and [Deuteronomy 24:19]: "When you reap your harvest in your field." 42 It has already been explained in the Talmud that [the mitzvah of] pe'ah must be observed in the Diaspora according to Rabbinic decree. It appears to me43 that this law applies to all the remainder of these presents to the poor. All of their [obligations] must be observed in the Diaspora according to Rabbinic decree.44

יד

כָּל מַתְּנוֹת הָעֲנִיִּים הָאֵלּוּ אֵינָן נוֹהֲגוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְרוּמוֹת וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת. הֲרֵי הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט ט) (ויקרא כג כב) "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם" (דברים כד יט) "כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ". וּכְבָר נִתְפָּרֵשׁ בַּגְּמָרָא שֶׁהַפֵּאָה נוֹהֶגֶת בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר מַתְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים אֵלּוּ שֶׁכֻּלָּן נוֹהֲגוֹת בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם:

15

What is the minimum obligation for pe'ah? According to Scriptural Law, there is no minimum measure. Even if one leaves only one grain stalk, he fulfills his obligation. According to Rabbinic law, however, one must leave one-sixtieth [of the crop], whether in Eretz Yisrael or in the Diaspora. And one should add to the measure of one-sixtieth based on the size of the field, the amount of poor people, and the blessing in his crop.

What is implied? When a field is very small and leaving one-sixtieth would not be of any advantage to the poor person,45 he should increase the measure. Similarly, if there are many poor people, he should increase [the measure]. And if he sowed only a small amount and reaped a lot, he has been granted blessing and he should increase according to the blessing. Whoever adds to the pe'ah will be given additional reward. There is no limit to this increase.46

טו

כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה. מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחַ שִׁבּלֶת אַחַת יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין פָּחוֹת מֵאֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים בֵּין בָּאָרֶץ בֵּין בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וּמוֹסִיף עַל הָאֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים לְפִי גֹּדֶל הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְפִי רֹב הָעֲנִיִּים וּלְפִי בִּרְכַּת הַזֶּרַע. כֵּיצַד. שָׂדֶה שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁאִם הִנִּיחַ מִמֶּנָּה אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לֶעָנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף עַל הַשִּׁעוּר. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ הָעֲנִיִּים מְרֻבִּין מוֹסִיף. וְאִם זָרַע מְעַט וְאָסַף הַרְבֵּה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְבָּרֵךְ מוֹסִיף לְפִי הַבְּרָכָה. וְכָל הַמּוֹסִיף עַל הַפֵּאָה מוֹסִיפִין לוֹ שָׂכָר. וְאֵין לְתוֹסֶפֶת זֹאת שִׁעוּר:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

As stated in Halachah 15, according to Scriptural Law, there is no minimal requirement for the amount of grain one must leave.

2.

I.e., ideally, the mitzvah of pe'ah is fulfilled by leaving a portion of one's field unharvested and allow the poor to harvest it. See Pe'ah 4:1.

3.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

4.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 210) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 217) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

5.

I.e., harvests by cutting off produce above its roots.

6.

I.e., harvests by pulling the plant up by its roots.

7.

I.e., he can compensate for his initial failure to fulfill the mitzvah, by giving some of the produce already harvested.

8.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 120) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 216) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

9.

As explained in Halachah 9, the term "stranger" refers to a convert to Judaism.

10.

If, however, his crops were destroyed before he harvested them, he is not liable.

11.

Otherwise, he should give the pe'ah. By doing so, he corrects the transgression he performed previously.

The wording used by the Rambam clarifies his approach with regard to a difference of opinion among our Sages (Makkot 16b). Rabbi Yochanan says that for a person to be liable for the transgression of a negative commandment that can be corrected by a positive commandment, he must personally perform an action that prevents the positive commandment from being fulfilled. Resh Lakish differs and maintains that as long as he no longer has the opportunity of fulfilling the mitzvah, he is liable for the transgression. From the wording here, it appears that the Rambam follows the second view.

12.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 1, for more details concerning leket.

13.

The Hebrew terms imply both harvesting with a sickle or reaping by hand.

14.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 211) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 219) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

15.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 121) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 218) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

16.

I.e., the negative commandment can be corrected by the positive commandment, as stated in the previous halachah.

17.

This term is more specifically defined in Chapter 4, Halachah 15.

18.

This term is more specifically defined in Chapter 4, Halachot 17-18.

19.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 212) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 221) include the prohibition against harvesting underdeveloped clusters of grapes among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 123) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 220) include the commandment to leave them for the poor in that grouping.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 213) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 223) include the prohibition against gathering individual grapes that fall among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 124) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 222) include the commandment to leave them for the poor in that grouping.

20.

More details concerning this mitzvah are found in Chapter 5, Halachah 1.

21.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 214) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 593) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

22.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 122) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 592) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

23.

The prooftext speaks about forgetting "a sheave in the field." Nevertheless, the Sifri interprets the word "field" as indicating that standing grain in a field is also included in the prohibition.

24.

One of the ways of harvesting olives is to beat the trees so that the olives fall.

25.

The above translates the halachic construct tovat hana'ah. The intent is that the owner cannot say: "I will give the produce to the poor, but let me choose the poor man to whom I desire to give it."

26.

For when commanding that these presents be given, the Torah does not use the word "give," but rather "leave." Implied is that all the owner can do is leave it; he cannot take it and give it to a person at will (see Chullin 131b).

27.

I.e., and not a non-Jew visiting Eretz Yisrael even if he accepts the Seven Universal Laws Commanded to Noach's Descendants (a ger toshav).

28.

Our translation is based on manuscript copies and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. There is a printing error in the standard published text.

29.

The Radbaz interprets the Rambam's wording as implying that if gentiles come alone, not in the company of Jews, they should be sent away. Rav Yosef Corcus adds that if there are no Jewish poor, these presents should not be left for the gentile poor.

30.

Even the owner of the field. See the notes to Halachah 134 regarding this issue.

31.

This halachah gives examples that illustrate the general principle stated in the previous halachah.

32.

For as stated in Halachah 14, according to Scriptural Law, this is the only place of consequence for these presents.

33.

From this time onward, the olive-picking season is completed.

34.

The early winter rain which follows the spring rain.

35.

I.e., the Jewish calendar follows the moon, while the secular calendar follows the sun. Although adjustments are made to keep the two in sync, there are years when the Jewish months come earlier in the solar year and others when they come later.

36.

And ordinary people may not.

37.

For the appropriate time has already passed.

38.

For the poor might still consider collecting it.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam's ruling, stating that it does not agree with the Rambam's source, Pe'ah 7:2. Indeed, in his own Commentary to the Mishnah, the Rambam offers a different interpretation than here. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the Rambam's ruling here is dependent on his understanding of the treatment of the subject by the Jerusalem Talmud.

39.

The Aruch HaShulchan interprets this as referring to produce that the poor have walked by several times without picking up.

40.

Since they are ownerless, he acquires them by virtue of their presence in his property.

41.

The boundaries of Eretz Yisrael are outlined in Hilchot Terumah, ch. 1.

42.

The emphasis of the terms "your land" and "your field" is land that has an inherent connection with the Jewish people.

43.

This phrase introduces a conclusion developed by the Rambam on the basis of deduction without an explicit source in previous Rabbinic literature.

44.

In this context, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 332:1) states: "If Jewish poor are not commonly found there, it is not necessary to leave [these presents]." (Significantly, the commentaries cite the Rambam, apparently Halachah 10, as the source.) The Rama continues stating that on this basis, it is no longer customary to leave these presents, because the likelihood is that they will be taken by gentiles. The statements of the Siftei Cohen 332:1 imply that this leniency is granted only in the Diaspora and not in Eretz Yisrael. There is, however, a difference of opinion concerning this issue and, in practice, even within the observant community, these mitzvot are not observed today even in Eretz Yisrael. For these reasons, the laws concerning these mitzvot are not included in the Shulchan Aruch.

45.

Because it is too small an amount to be significant.

46.

I.e., one can give as much as he desires. This is the intent of the mishnah recited each morning after the Blessings for Torah Study: "These are the matters for which there are no measure: pe'ah, bikkurim, appearing in the Temple, and Torah study," i.e., just like all the other subjects mentioned in that source, there is no upper limit to how much pe'ah one may leave.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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